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are even ideal. Thus the Personatae are found to be only alterations from the type of Solaneae.

We have thus exposed very briefly the principles which determine the comparative importance of organs, and the method whereby we may graduate the degree of importance, presented by the different points of view, under which each organ may be studied. It is also requisite to show how these two modes of reasoning may be combined, or in other words, how we are to arrive at a proper appreciation of characters; for a character, in fact, is one manner of considering organs generally, applied to one in particular. As a general rule, the value of characters is in a ratio composed of the importance of the organ, and of the point of view under which we may consider it; so that characters, drawn from a particular organ, will have a value proportioned to that of the modification, and when drawn from the modification, it will be proportioned to the importance of the organs. Though the organs have different degrees of relative importance, yet the value of characters drawn from them will depend on the importance of the modification, for a very trivial one in a very important organ may furnish a character of less consequence, than a greater in a far less important organ. The results of the combination of these two elements will be equal or unequal. They will be equal, first, when the same modification is common to two organs of the same physiological rank; secondly, when two modifications of the same rank exist in one or two organs of the same rank; thirdly, when the importance of the organ is counterbalanced by that of the modification. Thus, if we compare the sensible qualities of the embryo, the highest of all the organs in the scale of importance, with the existence of the nectary; or in other words, if we compare the least important modification of the most important organ with the most important point of view under which the least important organ can be considered, we shall have two analogous' results, as theory and observation both testify.

Here we must close our notice of the Théorie Elémentaire. Though many points have been left untouched, and though we are sensible that general principles must lose much of their force and clearness when presented without the proper illustrations and discussions, yet we trust that a worthier idea of philosophical botany has been conveyed, than is generally obtained

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from the common books on this science. The want of a work, in which the principles of the natural system should be made accessible to the English student, and which is capable of a practical application in the examination of plants, has long been painfully felt by those, whose attainments, though limited, are still sufficient to make them aware of the deficiencies of the Linnaean school, but who bave no means of becoming acquainted with more enlarged and philosophical views. All our Floras and similar works, to which the botanical student is referred for the description of plants, are arranged according to the sexual method, and not a word perhaps meets his eye concerning their natural relations. In our schools and academies, the science, we believe, is taught in a similar spirit. The organs of fructification are pointed out in such a manner that they may be recognised under the most ordinary conditions, while the structure of the seed, and its changes during growth and germination, and especially the laws of the variation of the organs, are about as little regarded as if they never existed.

An attempt was made a few years since to supply the deficiency in question, by Sir James Edward Smith, in a work whose title we have quoted at the head of this article ; but which does not, in our opinion, merit the reputation it has acquired in this country and abroad.

From this, we turn with satisfaction to the Introduction' of Professor Lindley, which, though it may not have accomplished quite all that we could have wished, will prove an invaluable work for the young student, for which he can never feel too thankful. A vast amount of information relative to the natural orders is here brought together from a multitude of sources, systematically arranged, and agreeably disposed. The plan adopted,' to use the author's own words, is this: To every collection of orders, whether called class, division, subdivision, tribe, section, or otherwise, such remarks upon the value of the characters assigned to it are prefixed, as the personal experience of the author, or that of others, shows them to deserve. To every order the Name is given which is most generally adopted, or which appears most unexceptionable, with its Synonymes, a citation of a few authorities connected with each, and their date: so that, from these quotations, the reader will learn at what period the order was first noticed, and also in what works he is to look

for further information upon it. To this succeeds the Diagnosis, which comprehends the distinctive characters of the order, reduced to their briefest form, and its most remarkable features, without reference to exceptions. The latter are adverted to in what are called Anomalies. Then follow the Essential Characters ; a brief description of the order, in all its most important particulars. This is succeeded by a paragraph styled Affinities, in which are discussed the relations which the order bears to others, and the most remarkable circumstances connected with its structure, in case it exhibits any particular instance of anomalous organization. Geography points out the distribution of the genera and species over the surface of the globe: and the head Properties comprehends all that is certainly known of the use of the species in medicine, the arts, domestic or rural economy, &c. A few genera are finally named, as Examples of each order.' We have no fault whatever to find with this plan, but it certainly appears to us, that the account of the Properties is disproportionately long; especially in a work like this, to most of the readers of which it must necessarily prove the least interesting portion of the work. Medical Botany is too important a branch of knowledge, to be treated of at great length in a work which has a far different design in view. We could have wished, that much of the room occupied by this head had been given to that of Affinities; for the valuable extracts from Decandolle, Brown, and some others, with which the latter is enriched, have made us regret that they were not even more numerous. The writings of botanists who have illustrated the affinities of plants are so scattered over periodical journals, transactions of societies, and other works, that they are almost inaccessible to the young student, particularly in this country, where these works are rarely seen.

The introduction, besides some remarks on the comparative merits of the different systems of classification, contains a short exposition of the organs of plants, as they are understood at the present day; but as this is insufficient for the proper understanding of the work, the American editor has very judiciously prefixed an excellent treatise published by Professor Lindley not long since, entitled, An Outline of the First Principles of Botany. It may be considered an epitome of vegetable organography, divested of all theoretical considerations, and expressing only such views as are well established by observation. In conclusion, we cordially thank Dr. Torrey for his agency in the re-publication of this work, for we trust it will give an impulse and direction to the study of botany which it has yet to receive on this side of the Atlantic.

ART. III.—Story's Constitutional Law.
Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States ;

with a Preliminary Review of the Constitutional His-
tory of the Colonies and States, before the Adoption
of the Constitution. By JOSEPH STORY, LL. D.,
Dane Professor of Law in Harvard University. In
three volumes. 8vo. Boston. 1833.

It would be impossible to write any thing which could properly be called a Review of this work, in much less compass than that of the work itself. It is in fact a Review of the Constitution, preceded by a sketch of the Constitutional History of the States, before the Revolution. This introduction contains, in outline, the civil and political history of each of the American Colonies and Provinces, with indications of the peculiarities and varieties of their legislation. This is succeeded by the history of the Revolution, the formation, decline and fall of the Confederation, and the adoption, and general character of the Constitution. On this follows what properly forms the substantial portion of the work ;-viz. a complete Commentary on the entire Constitution of the United States, in all its parts. It is obvious, that it embraces a vast number of separate topics ; a great amount of historical facts; and a long succession of the most important discussions. The work, properly used, with a diligent and faithful resort to the authorities cited, amounts to a digested course of reading on constitutional law; and the student, well possessed of its contents, would need nothing farther in this great department, than that which the active and discriminating mind must elaborate itself, in order to make any study profitable.

It is a question that unavoidably presents itself, now we have the book, How we did without it?-It is evidently such

a course on constitutional law, as is indispensable to the enlightened politician, to the accomplished lawyer, to the student of our history, and even the well informed American citizen. It would seem that no one, in either of these classes, could afford to be destitute of the information, or a stranger to the discussions, contained in this work; and yet how few of any profession possess the ability, the opportunity, and the materials for conducting their private studies to such a result, that they would find themselves the masters of the treasures contained in these volumes ?-It would seem that the appearance, from time to time, of works like these is absolutely necessary, to enable the mass of men to keep along with the increasing demands of the professions. If the study of the professions were not occasionally facilitated by the preparation of a treatise like that of Blackstone, or the one before us, men would break down, under the rapidly accumulating mass of materials in all departments. It is not that the study of Blackstone can ever supersede the study of Coke ; but it greatly facilitates it :-It furnishes general results, by a very compendious process, and leaves for maturer years and the urgency of specific occasions the laborious study of difficult points, in the sources. No man will be insensible to the importance of these treatises, who will consider how much form, and manner, and occasion have to do, in the imparting of knowledge. So inconsiderable a thing as the mere character, in which a book is written, is not indifferent. A person used to our common type is a little bewildered with black letter; and few individuals understand a thing in manuscript, as perfectly as in print. A child learns to speak a language correctly by the ear, long before it is capable of comprehending a rule of grammar. It is the province of a work like Mr. Justice Story's, -and by him most successfully administered, -to place the entire learning relative to the subject treated, in precisely that form which makes it most intelligible and most attractive to the student; giving him not all that the books contain, but all that the magnetism of a good mind takes up from them, as possessing the quality in request.

Such books are written from time to time; and they must be. For although when successfully executed they attain a permanent reputation and possess a permanent value, and consequently form a part of the standard literature of a profession, yet, after

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