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LONDON IN 1720 — COVENT GARDEN AND WESTWARD TOWARD

HYDE PARK.

TH maps show the position of streets, coffee-houses, and other localities referred to in the Sir Roger de Coverley Papers. In the larger map are Drury Lane, Change Alley, and other streets; the Inns of Court; Jonathan's, Garraway's, and Lloyd's Coffee-Houses near the Royal Exchange; Child's near St. Paul's; the Grecian near the Temple; and Squire's by Gray's Inn. In the smaller map are Will's and Button's Coffee-Houses in Covent Garden, the St. James and others near St. James' Palace. The Monument, Guild Hall, Bread street where Milton was born, Friday street where the Mermaid Tavern was situated, and many other places of historic interest mentioned in The Spectator and contemporary writings are also included.

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LONDON IN 1720 — COVENT GARDEN AND EASTWARD TO LONDON BRIDGE.

NOTES.

Page 1. 1710-11. Before 1752 it had long been customary to give two numbers for the year for dates between January i and March 25; the legal year beginning with the latter, popular reckoning with the former date. An act, passed in 1751, settled the difficulty by introducing the Gregorian Calendar. P. 1, 11. 2, 3.

a black or a fair man. So named from the color of his hair or complexion. Cf. note to p. 23, 1. 18.

P. 3, l. 15. voyage to Grand Cairo. This has the double effect of showing the whimsical humour of the Spectator, and of ridiculing a half-century's controversy over the exact measurement of the Great Pyramid. The Spectator, in No. 8, proposed to wear at the next masquerade the suit he used at Grand Cairo. Imagery from Alcairo or Memphis, near by, occurs frequently in literature, several times in Paradise Lost, i. and ii.

P. 3, 1. 25—p. 4, 1. 7. Will's, Child's, etc. Coffee-houses were places of such general resort that commonly the earliest news was distributed, and the most instructive popular discussions heard, there. Beside the loungers who happened in, certain houses became noted for a particular class of frequenters; politics, however, being a common topic of discussion among them all.

Will's was on the west side of Bow street, at the corner of Russell street, and took its name from William Urwin, the landlord. Dryden had a chair reserved for him near the fireplace in winter, which was carried into the balcony for him in summer.

“In Covent-Garden tonight going to fetch home my wife I stopped at the great coffee-house there, where I never was before; where Dryden, the poet, I knew at Cambridge, and all the wits of the town.” — Pepys' Diary, b. 3, 1663-4.

In The Tatler Steele dated his literary news from Will's coffeehouse.

Child's was in St. Paul's Churchyard; and being near the Cathedral, the College of Physicians, and the Royal Society, it became especially a resort for clergymen and scientists.

St. James's, the headquarters of The Spectator, was a Whig resort. Steele dated his foreign and domestic news from St. James coffee-house, and it was frequented by the most distinguished company. Of a domestic occasion there Swift says: “This evening I christened our coffee-man Elliot's child: where the rogue had a most noble supper, and Steele and I sat among some scurvy company over a bowl of punch.” Journal to Stella, Nov. 19, 1710.

The Grecian was the first coffee-house in London, and the last survivor. It was in Devereux Court, opened by a Greek in 1652, and, either by its excellent coffee or its proximity to the Temple, drew a learned company; whence Steele, in The T'atler, dated from the Grecian his essays on learned subjects.

The Cocoa-tree was a Tory rival to the St. James. “A Whig," wrote Defoe, “would no more go to the Cocoa-tree or Ozinda's than a Tory would be seen at St. James.”

Jonathan's, in Change Alley, was the original of the present Stock Exchange.

Coffee-houses were frequented by loungers and idlers of all classes, as well as by the busy and intelligent. “ Pray, sir,” says Aimwell to Gibbet, in Farquhar's Beaux' Stratagem, ha'nt I seen your face at Will's coffee-house?” The robber's reply is, “ Yes, sir; and at White's too.” They represented popular feeling so well that Addison and Steele found much of their best material by frequenting them.

Note whatever is mentioned to show the uses of coffee-houses, habits of their frequenters, etc.

P. 4, ll. 20, 21. Whigs and Tories. The Tories represented the landed, the Whigs the moneyed interest. The Whigs wished to prosecute a vigorous foreign war, and inclined to a parliamentary or republican form of government. The Tories wished to emphasize and develop the landed interests, and adhered to a belief in the

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