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THE WRITINGS OF THE OLD TESTAMENT IN THE ORDER OF THEIR COMPOSITION

WITH AUTHORS AND APPROXIMATE DATES

In case a book is ascribed to a period rather than a year, the date of the terminus ad quem determines its position in this table. In the main Driver's Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament has been followed. By reference to the chronological table on pages xi.-xiii. the reader may see under what circumstances the various writings were composed.

DATE, B. C.

WRITINGS.

AUTHORS (OR EDITORS).

1250

1000

940 940-882

874-800

900-750

760-746 746-734 740-701

700

“Book of the Covenant” (virtually Moses.

as in Exod. xx.-xxiii.) and prob-
ably other traditional portions of

the Hexateuch.
Earlier psalms, probably:

David (?)
Earlier proverbs, probably.

Solomon (?)
Song of Songs, though by some con- Anonymous.

sidered as late as 247-221, in the

Greek period.
Proverbs x.-xxii. 16.

“ Wise Men."
Jehovistic narrative

documents of

“J” (a Judaic writer).

the PentaElohistic narrative

“E” (an Ephraimitic teuch.

writer). (Much uncertainty as to which is

earlier.)
Amos.

Amos.
Hosea.

Hosea.
Isaiah i.-xxxix.

Isaiah.
I. and II. Samuel, though in part Anonymous.

nearly contemporary with the

events narrated.
Ruth, though by some considered as Anonymous.

late as 445.
Micah.

Micah.
Deuteronomy.

Anonymous.
Zephaniah.

Zephaniah.
Nahum.

Nahum.
Judges.

Anonymous.
Habakkuk.

Habakkuk.
I. and II. Kings.

Anonymous.
Jeremiah.

Jeremiah.
Lamentations.

Jeremiah or contempo

raries. Obadiah, though possibly later. Obadiah. Code of Holiness (Lev. xvii.-xxvi.). “H."

700 circa

722-685 690-640 circa

626 circa 667-604

600 seg.

608-597

586 586 586

686 seq.

600-570

The Writings of the Old Testament - continued.

DATE, B. o.

WRITINGS.

AUTHORS (OR EDITORS).

593-570

549 circa

549 circa 593-537

570-530 570-530 520-518

464 circa 431

410

Ezekiel.

Ezekiel.
Isaiah xl.-Ixvi. (Second Isaiah). Unknown prophet or

prophets.
Job.

Anonymous.
Many psalms.

Various anonymous

authors. Priestly narrative.

“P." Leviticus.

“P."
Haggai.

Haggai.
Zechariah i.-viii.

Zechariah.
“ Malachi” (i.e.“My Messenger"). Anonymous.
Pentateuch virtually completed. Anonymous.

(Joshua not included in the canon

until later.)
Joel. (It is maintained by some, Joel.

however, that Joel is as early as

836.)
I. and II. Chronicles.

A Levite.
Ezra

based on authentic me- A Levite, perhaps
Nehemiah}
moirs.

"the Chronicler.' Esther.

Anonymous.
The Book of Jonah.

Anonymous.
Book of Proverbs compiled.

Anonymous.
Zechariah ix.-xiv.

Anonymous.
Ecclesiastes, - though possibly as Pseudonymous.

early as 333.
Many psalms. The Psalter prac- Anonymous.

tically as at present compiled.
Daniel.

Anonymous. Probably some later psalms, during Various anonymous the Maccabean period.

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authors.

165 seg.

CHRONOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT

THE Chronology of the Old Testament is to a certain extent hypothetical ; prior to the Exodus it is wholly so. In preparing this table, use has been made of The Religion of Israel, by Karl Budde, and the Commentaries on Isaiah and on The Twelve Prophets, by George Adam Smith. The latter has been accepted and followed without question in the period of which he treats, – that is, from the disruption of the kingdom, B. C. 940.

DATES
B. 0.

PROPHETS.

EVENTS.

3000

to 1250 1250

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1000

Scene of Job and

Patriarchal Age.
Genesis stories.
Book of Covenant. Exodus from Egypt; giving of the law on Mt.

Sinai ; foundation of Mosaism.
Earlier Psalms David becomes king.

written.
Wisdom literature Solomon.

begins. Scene of
Song of Songs
and Ecclesiastes. Division of the kingdom.

960

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940

Rehoboam.

Jeroboam I.
Establishment of calf worship

in Northern Israel.

Abijam.
A88.

923 920 918 915 891 888 876 874 854 853 852 849

Nadab.
Baasha.
Elah.
Zimri, Omri.
Ahab.

Jehosaphat.

Elijah.

Elisha.

844 842 836

Ahaziah, son of Ahab.

Joram or Jehoram, son of
Jehoram, son of Ahab.

Jehosaphat.
Ahaziah
Athaliah.
Joash, son of Jehu.
Ahaziah.

Jehoahaz.
Joash, son of Jehoabaz.

814 798

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797

783 778 775765 763 759– 745 743 740

Amaziah.
Jonah (2 Kings xiv.

Jeroboam II.
25).
Uzziah (Azariah).

Jeroboam reconquers Moab,

Gilead, etc.

Total eclipse of the sun
Amos.

(Amos viii. 9).

Zechariah, Shallum, Menahem.
Death of King Uz-

ziah. Jotham sole
Hosea.
ruler.

Pekahiah.
Ahaz.

Pekah.

Hoshea.
Hezekiah.
Isaiah
i.-xxxix.

Siege of Samaria.
Fall of Samaria.
Captivity of Israel.
Samaria colonized by Assyr-

ians.

737 736 735 730 727 725

722

or 721 715

Micah,

701

Invasion of Judah.
Deliverance of Jerusalem.

Manasseh.

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Manasseh tributary to Assyria.
Amon.
Josiah.
Jeremiah appears.
Book of the law (Deuteronomy) discovered.
Josiah's reforms begin.
Passover (2 Kings xxii., xxiii.).
Necho II. defeats and slays Josiah at Megiddo;

Judah Egyptian vassal.
Jehoahaz.
Jehoiakim.
Judah vassal of Babylon.

Jehoiachin.
Temple plundered; Zedekiah vassal to Babylon.
First Great Exile to Babylon.
Jewish revolt against Babylon ; opposed by Jere-

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593

miah. Jerusalem taken by Nebuchadnezzar; Second Great

Exile to Babylon.

Ezekiel.

587586

Obadiah (?)

Chronology of the Old Testament - continued.

EVENTS.

DATES
B. C.

PROPHETS.

JUDAH.

549

537

}

The “ Second Isa- Release assured to the Jews by the appearance of

iah,” also called Cyrus against Babylonia.
the “Great Un-
known.” (Isaiah
xl.-lxvi.)

The Jews return to Jerusalem from Babylon under

Zerubabbel and Joshua.

Restoration of altar and sacrifice.
Haggai.
Zechariah i.-

620 516

464 458 445 444

Building of the temple by Zerubabbel and Joshua.

Completion of the temple.
viii.
“Malachi."

Ezra arrives at Jerusalem.
Nehemiah arrives at Jerusalem.
Establishment of the law.
Rebuilding of walls.
Nehemiah's return to Jerusalem.

Pentateuch virtually completed.
Joel.

Insurrection in Judah. Much bloodshed there

(Jos. Ant. B. xin ch. 7, $ 1).
Jews subdued by Holofernes (Book of Judith).

Many Jews taken to Hyrcania.
Zechariah ix.-

ix.-)
xiv.

Ptolemy takes Jerusalem (?).
Book of Jonah. S

Egypt's wars for Palestine.
Probable close of About this time Greek translation of the Penta

prophetic canon. teuch.

432 431 410 350345

332 320 306 264 260 160

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