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so numerous, that, when we take a survey of them, they seem the productions of a life of twice that length : for to the thirty-fix plays in this collection, we must add seven, (one of which is in two parts, perhaps written over again ;' seven others that were publish'd some of them in his life-time, and all with his name; and another seven, that are upon good grounds imputed to him; making in all, fifty-eight plays; besides the part that he may reasonably be thought to have had in other men's labours, being himself a player and a manager of theatres : what his prose productions were, we know not : but it can hardly be suppos'd, that he, who had so considerable a share in the confidence of the Earls of Ellex and Southampton, could be a mute spectator only of controversies in which, they were so much interested ; and his other poetical' works, that are known, will fill a volume the fize of these that we have here. When the number and bulk of these pieces, the shortness of his life, and the other busy employments of it are reflected upon duly, can it be a wonder that he should be so loose a transcriber of them? or why should we refuse to give credit to what his companions tell us, of the state of those transcriptions, and of the facility with which they were per'd ? Let it then be granted, that these quarto's are the poet's own copies, however they were come by; haftily written at first, and issuing from presses most of them as corrupt and licentious as can any where be produc'd, and not overseen by himself, nor by any of his friends : and there can be no stronger reason for subscribing to any opinion, than may be drawn in favour of this from the condition of
* Vide, this Introduction, p. 327.
all the other plays that were first printed in the folio ; for, in method of publication, they have the greatest likeness possible to those which preceded them, and carry all the fame marks of haste and negligence; yet the genuineness of the latter is attested by those who publish'd them, and no proof brought to invalidate their testimony. If it be still ask'd, what then becomes of the accusation brought against the quarto's by the player editors, the answer is not so far off as may perhaps be expected : it may be true that they were “ ftoln;" but stoln from the author's copies, by transcribers who found means to get at them :3 and “ maim'd" they must needs be, in respect of their many alterations after the first performance : and who knows, if the difference that is between them, in some of the plays that are common to them both, has not been studioufly heighten'd by the player editors, who had the means in their power, being masters of all the alterations--to give at once a greater currency to their own lame edition, and support the charge which they bring against the quarto's ? this, at least, is a probable opinion, and no bad way of accounting for those differences.3
? But see a note at p. 330, which seems to infer that they were fairly come by: which is, in truth, the editor's opinion, at least of some of them ; though, in way of argument, and for the fake of clearners, he has here admitted the charge in that full extent in which they bring it.
Some of these alterations are in the quarto's themselves ; (apother proof this, of their being authentick,) as in Richard II: where a large scene, that of the king's deposing, appears first in the copy of 1608, the third quarto impreslion, being wanting in the two former : and in cne copy of 2 Henry IV. there is a scene too that is not in the other, though of the same year; it is the first of Act the third. And Hamlet has some still more considerable ; for the copy of 1605 has these words:
• It were easy to add abundance of other arguments in favour of these quarto's ;-Such as, their exact affinity to almost all the publications of this fort that came out about that time; of which it will hardly be asserted by any reasoning man, that they are all clandestine copies, and publish'd without their authors' consent : next, the high improbability of supposing that none of these plays were of the poet's own setting-out: whose case is render'd fingular by such a supposition ;- it being certain, that every other author of the time, without exception, who wrote any thing largely, publish'd some of his plays himself, and Ben Jonson all of them : nay, the very errors and faults of these quarto's,---of some of them at least, and those such as are brought against them by other arguers,-are; with the editor, proofs of their genuineness ; for from what hand, but that of the author himself, could come those seemingly-strange repetitions which are fpoken of at p. 329 ? those imperfect exits, and entries of persons who have no concern in the play at all, neither in the scene where they are made to enter, nor in any other part of it? yet such there are in several of these quarto's; and such might well be expected in the hafty draughts of so negligent an author, who neither saw at once all he might want, nor, in some instances, gave himself sufficient time to consider the fitness
“ Newly imprinted and enlarged to almost as much againe as it was, according to the true and perfect Coppie :” now though no prior copy has yet been produc'd, it is certain there was such by the teftimony of this title-page : and that the play was in being at least nine years before, is prov'd by a book of Doctor Lodge's printed in 1596; which play was perhaps an imperfect one; and not unlike that we have now of Romeo and Juliet, printed the year after ; a fourth instance too of what the note advances.
of what he was then penning. These and other like arguments might, as is said before, be collected, and urg'd for the plays that were first publish'd in the quarto's; that is, for fourteen of them, for the other fix are out of the question : but what has been enlarg'd upon above, of their being follow'd by the folio, and their apparent general likenefs to all the other plays that are in that collection, is so very forcible as to be sufficient of itself to fatisfy the unprejudic'd, that the plays of both impressions spring all from the same stock, and owe their numerous imperfections to one common origin and cause, the too-great negligence and hafte of their over-careless producer.
But to return to the thing immediately treated, the state of the old editions. The quarto's went through many impressions, as may be seen in the Table: and, in each play, the last is generally taken from the impression next before it, and to onward to the first; the few that come not within this rule, are taken notice of in the Table: and this further is to be observ’d of them : that, generally speaking, the more distant they are from the original, the more they abound in faults; 'till, in the end, the corruptions of the last copies become so excessive, as to make them of hardly any worth. The folio too had it's re-impressions, the dates and notices of which are likewise in the Table, and they tread the same round as did the quarto's : only that the third of them has seven plays more, (see their titles below,4) in which it is follow'd by
4 Locrine; The London Prodigal; Pericles; Prince of Tyre; The Puritan, or, the Widow of Watling Street; Sir John Oldcastle; Thomas Lord Cromwell; and The Yorkshire Tragedy : And the imputed ones, mention'd a little above, are these ; The Arraignment of Paris; Birth of Merlin ; Fair Em; Edo
the last; and that again by the first of the modern impressions, which come now to be spoken of.
If the stage be a mirror of the times, as undoubtedly it is, and we judge of the age's temper by what we see prevailing there, what must we think of the times that succeeded Shakspeare ? Jonson, favour'd by a court that delighted only in masques, had been gaining ground upon him even in his life-time; and his death put him in full pofleffion of a poft he had long aspir'd to, the empire of the drama : the props of this new king's throne, were-Fletcher; Shirley, Middleton, Maffinger, Broome, and others; and how unequal they all were, the monarch and his subjects too, to the poet they came after, let their works testify: yet they had the vogue on their fide, during all those blessed times that preceded the civil war, and Shakfpeare was held in disesteem. The war, and medley government that follow'd, swept all these things away : but they were restor’d with the king;
ward Ill. Merry Devil of Edmonton ; Mucedorus; and The Two Noble Kinsmen : but in The Merry Devil of Edmonton, Rowley is call’d his partner in the title-page ; and Fletcher, in The Two Noble Kinsmen. What external proofs there are of their coming from Shakspeare, aré gather'd all together, and put down in the Table; and further it not concerns us to engage: but let those who are inclin'd to dispute it, carry this along with them :---that London, in Shakspeare's time, had a multitude of playhouses ; erected fome in inn-yards, and such like places, and frequented by the lowest of the people ; such audiences might have been seen some years ago in Southwark and Bartholomew, and may be seen at this day in the country ; to which it was alfo a custom for players to make excursion, at wake times and festivals : and for such places, and such occafions, might these pieces be compos'd in the author's early time; the worst of them suiting well enough to the parties they might be made for :-and this, or something nearly of this fort, may have been the case too of some plays in his great collection, which mall be spoken: of in their place.