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glad though, for I love you, that when you “I have yet one petition to make of read this letter you also should feel the you all; of you all, because I know that calmness and strength of soul which I you, mother, and you, Stanislaus, are poor. enjoy ; I should be glad to pour into you Although the sum is trifling, yet the fremy whole soul, for you would then have quency with which I have importuned my that peace and courage which I trust will family, and the unwillingness which I feel not fail me in my last moments. I might of late to put myself under an obligation console yon in the same way as those who, of this sort, make me address you all upon not knowing me, have the kindness, or this subject. I owe 50 Prussian dollars feel it their duty, to console me, with to Mr. Weber of Leipsic, and 100 francs the idea that the Czar may send on a com to Mr. De Roy, of Chaudes-fonds, in Switmutation of my punishment. They seek zerland. Send them the money addressed to console me, for they do not know that as follows : à Monsieur Weber, à Leipzig, I need no consolation. I ought to follow asking his pardon for the delay, and assurtheir example, for I know that you are in ing him of my friendship and gratitude, need of consolation; but having been and à M. De Roy, à Chaudes-fonds, also open and sincere through my life-time, I assuring him of my friendship and gratiwill not be false to truth now. I there. tude. fore avow to you without argument, for I “I cannot help asking you, if circụm. trust you will believe me, that the decree stances should allow it, to take leave of not only does not disturb my tranquillity, her who through my affections, through but actually yields me gralification. If the choice of my soul, becomes related to you could see me, you would read in my you. I loved her and in spite of the countenance the truth of this confession. enormity of the sufferings with which the The same truthfulness makes me add, that late events have overwhelmed my soul, I if it should really prove as my friends love her still. I do not know whether my hope, if the decree of death should be poor dear Emily can remember me long, commuted by the Czar to imprisonment, when her heart is torn and bleeding. I torture, or exile to Siberia, then I should do not ask it of her, I should not wonder be indeed really unhappy. Then your if she should entirely forget me since her sympathy and tears for me would be justi. whole family are in prison. I would not fiable. I trust you will agree with me, however have any other one for my wife, that it is far better to die once by the hand should my life be spared. Bid farewell to of the executioner, than to die by inches her and to her whole family for me. Ask through many years in some dungeon or them in my name to forgive the tears and in the mines of Nerezynsk. You too will sufferings which they have endured on gain by this decree. You will bewail me my account. They are now all imprisoned, -(this they cannot forbid you), but my but their innocence will be proved and memory will be rendered more pleasing they will be freed. by the conviction that my soul is unpollu “ You, Stanislaus, I know, love your ted, and that I died bathed with your tears mother. Remember that she has suffered and those of my numerous friends; for I much in her life-time through the malice had friends whom I loved, wherever I of men; but did she suffer justly? God went. As this is doubtless the last letter will judge. Remember that to your own, I shall write you, I wish to assure you, my you add all my anxiety, all my love, for mother, in order to alleviate the sufferings her. Let not my death delay your marwhich you will feel on my account, and riage. Do not put on any external signs to sweeten the remnant of your life, that of mourning for me. I do not know your I die with a clear conscience. Should the future wife. I have only one observation malice or stupidity of men, when I am no to make to you therefore : Remember more, torment you by calumniating my that he who marries charges himself with name, or representing my life in a false solemn duties to his wife for his whole light,-should there be such as would in- lise. You have a good understanding flict upon you even this form of suffering, and experience. I believe, therefore, do not believe them, mother, for my con- that you will be happy. Receive, therescience is clear in every respect, and my fore, as it were from heaven, the blessing life has known no crimes. I am guilty in of your Simon, together with that of our the sight of government, and for this I father and all of our family who have left am to suffer death; but in the sight of the world. I know you will often think mankind, of honor, of uprightness, in spite of me and of Emily. There in Heaven I of the most difficult situations in which I will wait for you all, for here, in the age have been placed, even in the sight of God, in which you live, wherein one must enmother, I am guiltless, save of those sins dure the torments of hell if he would be to shun which one must be more than a honest, life is a burden. You will some man; save of those sins, I shall not be day, Stanislaus, tell your children of your judged, nor doubtless punished.

brother Simon, who lived in this world an

honest man. If you have a son, call him should be set free ; and 3rd. that the in remembrance of me, Simon James, and things he left behind him should be if a daughter, call her Emily. “ As to the things I shall leave behind, I quests were granted ; the last, as he

sent to his family. The first two rewas told they would become the property foresaw, was not. of the government. Although I well know that the government does not need

Agreeably to his request, on the 27th a few pieces of rags, yet it may be they of February, at day-break, Rodziewitz will not be sent to you as a remembrance

was admitted into his cell.

At sight of me. I leave them entirely to chance. of the old man, the cause of so many I will not ask for permission to send them misfortunes, a painful expression passed to you.

An importunity of this kind over Konarski's countenance, but he will displease the authorities, and the subdued the bitterness of his feelings, more since so many of my requests are and said to him, mildly : “I willingly refused.

forgive you all you have sinned against “ Mother! dear mother! have courage, me. May our country and our fellow have a heart to bear the blow that awaits martyrs likewise forgive you. You thee. Remember that Stanislaus still have sinned only through weakness; lives, and that you should spare your life for the sake of his children. What would you have sinned through your old age. he do in this world if you should yield of others, and by many a lofty truth

Afterwards he took his last farewell yourself up to despair and doubly bereave him? I have done with this world, and he strengthened their weaker hearts. will not be unhappy; but poor Stanislaus, When Orzeszko was brought in, he left alone, would lead a sad existence. I, struggled with himself for some time, though alone on my way to the other but finally conquered himself and forworld, can bear a separation, for I have gave him. been for a long time accustomed to it. After these painful adieus, he called May you be happy, may you be free. to him Sokolow, known for his cruel May you enjoy at least half as much of treatment of prisoners, and requested happiness as I have suffered misery. him to buy for him a pair of broadcloth Farewell! and do not mourn for me. We pantaloons with the money his mother ought to mourn not for those who are had left him. “It is so cold now," gone, but for those who are left behind. said he, “it may cause me to tremble, Love each other, live virtuously, and you and the people may think that I tremble will be happy inwardly, and your death will be as light to you as mine is to me.

through fear.” Sokolow answered,

" that he had no permission to do so, Stanislaus ! do not court luxuries; do not wish for more than you have, and God and besides, the distance was not great. will bless your house.

Shortly after, a friar of St. Bernard "I do not know how soon I shall be came to hear him confess. Konarski executed, but it is all the same to me kindly took him by the hand, and said: whether it be a day, a week, or a month “Father! I am sure God will forgive hence. Good night! my dear relatives! me the sins I have committed, for I By the side of my annt's grave in Rum- have suffered much. I have endured bowicze, put up a plain stone, without much for my country and mankind. any inscription, in memory of me, for my Though I am a Calvinist, your blessing life has been plain. There I hope to be is as needful to me as that of my own present with my aunt, either to rejoice or pastor. Bless me, then, as your son, to sorrow with you. I trust God will allow me this; and when you two have die in peace.” The monk shed tears,

as a follower of the cross, and I shall joined us, we will all resort thither to blessed him, and said not a word of a smile over the pains we have endured in this life.

reconciliation with the Church of “ To-day, as the priest tells me, I am Rome, so much was he moved by the to be shot. Farewell

, my friends, and grandeur of the martyrdom. A Proput your trust in God as I do.

testant clergyman, named Lipiuski, “ SIMON KONARSKI." was afterwards sent for. Before he

was found the clock struck ten. When He finished this letter before day- he arrived, he found Konarski taking light. The turnkey informed him, by tea, of which he partook with him. order of Prince Dolhoruki, that he They conversed together of the salvamight write down his wishes referring tion of the soul, and of the nothingness solely to himself. He wrote three of of worldly possessions, and read the them: Ist. that he might take leave penitential psalms. of his fellow prisoners ; 2d. that Emily At eleven o'clock, Konarski made

known that he was ready, and smooth- the left of the road leading to Trock, ing down his light hair, which fell on in the direction of the highlands, oppohis shoulders, put on a blue worsted cap site the place of public amusements, made by Emily's hands, and over his called Pohulanka, till they reached the summer dress, in which he had been square. That spot, as if to excite a arrested, he threw a grey cloak, and longing for this world, presents a beaudescended to the yard surrounded by tiful view. From there is seen Wilna, gens-d'armes. On his departure, he covering the dale with its white houses, desired Sokolow to distribute his re- the Ponarskie Mountains rising tomaining six roubles among the soldiers wards the south, and the Wilia meanthat were to fire at him.

dering along its way amongst hills In the meantime, the inhabitants of and valleys. On alighting here, KoWilna, before eight o'clock, received no- narski's eye, which till now had been tice, printed in the Russian language, to lifted up to higher worlds, was irrethis effect : “To-day, at eight o'clock, sistibly fixed upon the beautiful wintry A. M., an emissary conspirator, Simon landscape, as though he said in his Konarski, will be punished with death heart, “Oh, Nature ! thou art always for treason against the State. The bountiful and beautiful. Thou art the place of the execution will be Execu- image of thy Creator, but the creatures tion Square, beyond the gate of Trock. that live on thy bosom disgrace their Whoever wishes to witness the just high origin !" Or perhaps he had a punishment of the criminal may go livelier thought, for he gazed as if he there.” Notwithstanding the severe wished to imprint for ever on his mecold, from eight o'clock to twelve the mory the situation of his grave, and whole population of Wilna poured carry this picture, as in a mirror, to a forth into the street leading to Execu- happier land. tion Square, and there awaited the ar All this lasted but a minute. They rival of the martyr, who was then to hurried him along, for the decree conshed his blood for his country.

demning him had to be read in public. To detract from the grandeur of this The commanding officer of the city, awfully impressive scene, the prisoner General Kwietnicki, and many of the was led away from the convent through higher officers were present. After a back gate leading into the Police Alley. the reading of the decree, Konarski There he was put into a one-horse took the paper and, with great coolsleigh, with Lipinski on his right, and ness, looked at it and said, “ He (the numerous gens-d'armes surrounded Czar) has signed it with pale ink, but him. While this group was passing his sentence will be signed with blood.” the market squares beyond the gate of Lipinski, standing by his side, strengthTrock, Konarski requested the soldiers ened his spirit with pious words. Koto make way that the people might be- narski, affectionately pressing his hand, hold and take leave of him. The gens. thanked him for his Christian service; d'armes could not refuse so innocent then turning to the Russian officers, he a request. As the route turned to the bowed to them, but they simultaneously street of Trock, and wound up the hill embraced him ; and, spite of the preon which a great multitude of women sence of the commandant, dared to take were collected, waving their handker- leave of the state criminal as of a brochiefs bedewed with tears, and with ther and a martyr. And this was just prolonged sobs bidding him farewell, and natural, for was he not, in the Konarski, deeply moved, raised his spirit of the gospel of nations, their arm, encircled by a heavy chain, and brother and a martyr for their sake? exclaimed : “ Do not

weep

for
me,

for This conduct of the officers disin a moment I shall be free. Weep pleased the general so much, that when rather for yourselves !” As he ap- Konarski approached him and said, in proached the gate of Trock, he gazed, a voice of calm courage,

“ General! with a certain natural degree of pride, grant me one favor. Let not my eyes be upon the immense mass of his country- blinded,” Kwietnicki turned his back men bidding him their lamenting fare- upon him, and his countenance spoke well, and turning to Lipinski, said with this language—“ Thou art unworthy, a smile, “ Many a king would envy me villain! that I, a faithful servant of the a funeral train so numerous and so gorge- Czar, should speak to thee!" ous" From the gate they turned to Konarski was then brought near the

32

XI

Nn

grave, surrounded on three sides by off the intruders, one of the students ranks of soldiers, and on the fourth by seized the cap from a watchman, and the civil, military and police officers. another carried away the cloak. The Beyond these were an immense multi- police endeavored to arrest the patude of the people. Music, consisting triotic thieves, but the protecting mulof fifes and drums, struck up a wild titude closed before them in a solid march as if to give courage for the wall. From noon till late at night the perpetration of the murder. With such inhabitants of Wilna flocked to the a march Suwarrow must have led his grave of their martyr. A patriotic hordes to the butchery at Prague. lady suggested to a few others of her Three grey watchmen surrounded the sex, that the grave should be ornaprisoner. One carried a death robe, mented with flowers, which was inanother a white sash, and the third a stantly done ; each of them brought handkerchief, with which to blind his secreted under her cloak a flower-pot eyes. As they were putting on the to deposit on the snowy hillock, which robe, his blue cap fell from his head. grew rapidly into a blooming garden. He picked it up and drew it tightly on While some on their knees poured again. His arms were then tied be- forth prayers mingled with fervent hind with the long sleeves of his shirt, tears, for the soul of the departed, he was girded with his sash, his eyes others planted crosses and flowers were blindfolded, and he was placed about the grave. The commandant at beside a post.

At a silent order, last sent his aids to request them to twelve soldiers stepped forward, com- desist, stating that the spot was not a manded by a sergeant. The officer church, nor a fit place for prayers, and that was to command was taken ill, and that the government would be disno other one would take his place. A pleased with their proceedings. gloomy silence reigned over the vast In this manner, though the indivimultitude. Each one could hear only duals had to give their names at the the beating of his own heart. The gates, was Konarski's grave visited order was at length given, the locks for three days. The post by the side snapped, the twelve muskets echoed, of which he suffered death was cut up and when the smoke cleared away, with pen-knives for relics. It is even there lay the body of the martyr, said that some of the patriots had his pierced with balls. With the noise of body taken out and buried in the cemethe muskets mingled the prolonged tery, while the chains which were groans of the people, filling the air even taken off were made into finger-rings, to the heart of Wilna.

which were even worn by many of the The watchmen were the first to officers belonging to the corps of Genethrow themselves upon the corpse. ral Geismar. Many of them were They took from it the blue cap, and persecuted for having thus honored the commenced lowering the body into the memory of the martyr, and some were grave. But the multitude at this time sent into Siberia. broke through the ranks of soldiers Such was the end of the life of and crowded in from all sides. Some Simon Konarski. His spirit, like carried away pieces of the martyr's that of another God, hovers over garment as relics, others dipped their our country, and even now fills handkerchiefs in his blood; and though with fear the oppressors of our nathe police endeavored by blows to keep tive land.

by Davezan

FROISSART'S CHRONICLES.*

After the works of fiction with which either to procure the records of the past, the cheap presses had fed their readers or to discover in them, as well as in our so abundantly as to have surfeited them own opinions and prejudices, even the with light unsubstantial food, we are ser- minutest springs of events, and the moved at last, with good, plain, strong, and tives of actors. On the other hand, yet not unsavory nutriment—no less a though surrounded by the ruins of that book than the celebrated Chronicles of system, which the revolutions of the Froissart; and, if we may judge of the last seventy years have strewn over the eagerness with which the mass of read- two continents, like the armor of the ers have purchased these, from the vanquished scattered over an immense fact of having observed several cabmen field of battle, we are, nevertheless, intently occupied in perusing them at no longer under the sway of the revolutheir stands, we should infer that the tionary passions that first impressed enterprising publisher has been well re- their own life and power upon the new paid for having better appreciated social order. than his rivals the soundness of the It was with thoughts like these, that public taste.

we commenced the perusal of Froissart, Not that we censure the diffusion of in the translation. We had read the the imaginings of Cervantes, Le Sage, original in early youth, charmed then Cooper, Scott, Chateaubriand, Edg- much more with the gorgeous coloring, worth, Sedgwick, Gore, Bulwer, St. the romantic interest of the events, and Pierre, Bremer ; but we believe that the the heroic character of the epoch, than only class of readers to whom the lasci- with the admirable art with which the vious and grotesque productions of Paul author preserves the unity of the great de Kock,and his wretched imitators, are drama, without confusion or intricacy, likely to give delight, are Americans through incessant changes of scene and who have lived just long enough in Eu- two generations of actors. If, like rope to vitiate their native taste, and to Ariosto, sporting with our curiosity, pick up as much French as will enable the chronicler often interrupts his narthem to understand what they fully be- ration at the very moment when we lieve to be French wit, and correct de- are following it most eagerly in the lineations of Parisian society.

expectation that it will lead us out of An enlightened critic has said that, the mazes of our uncertainty, like to form a just opinion of any intellectual the Tuscan poet too, he never loses work, we ought to stand halfway be- sight of it, and seizing again the golden tween an excessive distance from, and thread, with a master's hand weaves it too near a proximity to the epoch of its into the woof of the complex texture, of composition. If this be a sound canon which it is only one of the countless of criticism, applicable to events as well filaments. As we proceeded, a new as to books recording them, this light seemed to have descended upon generation, placed at equal distances the weird pages. The entire fabric of from two social orders, stands on ground feudality rose before our eyes ; not from which can be viewed, and rightly such, however, as it has been portrayed appreciated, both the social order by authors who sought only to eluciof which Froissart has been the inimi- date that form of government in relatable annalist, and the new system tion to such portions of it as, still preserbrought about by altered circumstances, ving their vitality, continue to pervade changed habits, younger and healthier our legislation, but, the actual everyopinions. We are not so far removed day workings of that system, in the from the former, as to find it difficult, society it had created, and which for

Sir John Froissart's Chronicles of England, France, Spain, and adjoining countries. New York, J. Winchester, 30 Ann-street.

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