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of this power, in careening ships and where they are, but which also, by means getting them afloat when aground. of mechanical connections, may extend

The following is Mr. Etzler's cal- their operations for many miles into the culation on this head: To form a con- continent. (Etzler's Mechanical System, ception of the power which the tide af- page 24.) Thus this power may cultivate fords, let us imagine a surface of 100 the artificial soil for many miles upon the miles square, or 10,000 square miles, for several miles, the dry land, along the

surface of the sea, near the shores, and, where the tide rises and sinks, on an shore, in the most superior manner imaaverage, 10 feet; how many men ginable; it may build cities along the would it require to empty a basin of shore, consisting of the most magnificent 10,000 square miles area, and 10 feet palaces, every one surrounded by gardens deep, filled with sea-water, in 6+ hours and the most delightful sceneries; it may and fill it again in the same time? As level the hills and unevennesses, or raise one man can raise 8 cubic feet of sea- eminences for enjoying open prospect water per minute, and in 6 hours into the country and upon the sea; it may 3,000, it would take 1,200,000,000 cover the barren shore with fertile soil, men, or as they could work only half and beautify the same in various ways; it the time, 2,400,000,000, to raise 3,000- may clear the sea of shallows, and make 000,000,000 cubic feet, or the ole easy the approach to the land, not merely quantity required in the given time.

of vessels, but of large floating islands, This power may be applied in vari

which may come from, and go to distant ous ways. A large body, of the heav- parts of the world, islands

that have every iest materials that will float, may first. ants which the firm land affords."

commodity and security for their inhabitbe raised by it, and being attached to

“ Thus may a power, derived from the the end of a balance reaching from the gravity of the moon and the ocean, hithland, or from a stationary support, fast- erto but the objects of idle curiosity to ened to the bottom, when the tide falls, the studious man, be made eminently subthe whole weight will be brought to servient for creating the most delightful bear upon the end of the balance. abodes along the coasts, where men may Also when the tide rises it may be made enjoy at the same time all the advantages to exert a nearly equal force in the op- of sea and dry land; the coasts may hereposite direction. It can be employed after be continuous paradisiacal skirts bewhenever a point d'appui can be ob- tween land and sea, everywhere crowded tained.

with the densest population. The shores

and the sea along them will be no more “ However, the application of the tide as raw nature presents them now, but being by establishments fixed on the everywhere of easy and charming access, ground, it is natural to begin with them not even molested by the roar of waves, near the shores in shallow water, and shaped as it may suit the purposes of their upon sands, which may be extended grad- inhabitants; the sea will be cleared of ually further into the sea. The shores of every obstruction to free passage everythe continent, islands, and sands, being will be gathered in large, appropriate re

where, and its productions in fishes, etc., generally surrounded by shallow water, not exceeding from 50 to 100 fathoms in ceptacles, to present them to the inhabdepth, for 20, 50, or 100 miles and upward. itants of the shores and of the sea." The coasts of North America, with their extensive sand-banks, islands, and rocks, Verily, the land would wear a busy may easily afford, for this purpose, a aspect at the spring and neap tide, ground about 3,000 miles long, and, on an and these island ships--these terre average, 100 miles broad, or 300,000 infirmæ—which realise the fables square miles, which, with a power of of antiquity, affect our imagination. 240,000 men per square mile, as stated, We have often thought that the fittest at 10 feet tide, will be equal to 72,000 locality for a human dwelling was on millions of men, or for every mile of coast, the edge of the land, that there the cona power of 24,000,000 men.

“Rafts, of any extent, fastened on the stant lesson and impression of the sea ground of the sea, along the shore, and might sink deep into the life and charstretching far into the sea, may be cover

acter of the landsman, and perhaps imed with fertile soil, bearing vegetables part a marine tint to his imagination. and trees, of every description, the finest It is a noble word, that mariner-one gardens, equal to those the firm land may who is conversant with the sea. There admit of, and buildings and machineries, should be more of what it signifies in which may operate, not only on the sea, each of us. It is a worthy country to

belong to--we look to see him not vious powers, already used to a trifling disgrace it. Perhaps we should be extent. But there are innumerable equally mariners and terreners, and others in nature, not described nor dis even our Green Mountains need some covered. These, however, will do for of that sea-green to be mixed with the present. This would be to make them.

the sun and the moon equally our satelThe computation of the power of the lites. For, as the moon is the cause waves is less satisfactory. While only of the es, and the sun the cause of the average power of the wind, and the the wind, which, in turn, is the cause average height of the tide, were taken of the waves, all the work of this planet before now, the extreme height of the would be performed by these far inwaves is used, for they are made to rise fluences. ten feet above the level of the sea, to which, adding ten more for depression, “ But as these powers are very irregewe have twenty feet, or the extreme lar and snbject to interruptions; the next height of a wave. Indeed, the power object is to show how they may be conof the waves, which is produced by the verted into powers that operate contingwind blowing obliquely and at disadvan- ally and uniformly for ever, until the matage upon the water, is made to be, not chinery be worn out, or, in other words, only three thousand times greater than into perpetual motions." “ Hitherto that of the tide, but one hundred times the power of the wind has been applied greater than that of the wind itself

, immediately apon the machinery for use, meeting its object at right angles. and we have had to wait the chances of

the wind's blowing; while the operation Moreover, this power is measured by the area of the vessel, and not to blow. But the manner, which I shall

was stopped as soon as the wind ceased by its length mainly, and it seems to be state hereafter, of applying this power, is forgotten that the motion of the waves

to make it operate only for collecting or is chiefly undulatory, and exerts a powo storing up power, and then to take out of er only within the limits of a vibration, this store, at any time, as much as may else the very continents, with their ex- be wanted for final operation upon the tensive coasts, would soon be set machines. The power stored up is to readrift.

act as required, and may do so long after Finally, there is the power to be de- the original power of the wind has ceased. rived from Sunshine, by the principle And though the wind should cease for inon which Archimedes contrived his tervals of many months, we may have by burning mirrors, a multiplication of mir- the same power a uniform perpetual morors reflecting the rays of the sun upon

tion in a very simple way.the same spot, till the requisite degree up gives us an image of reaction. The

“The weight of a clock being wonnd of heat is obtained. The principal ap- sinking of this weight is the reaction of lication of this power will be to the winding it up. It is not necessary to wait boiling of water and production of till it has run down before we wind up steam.

the weight, but it may be wound up at “How to create rivulets of sweet and any time, partly or totally; and if done wholesome water, on floating islands, in always before the weight reaches the botthe midst of the ocean, will be no riddle tom, the clock will be going perpetually. now. Sea-water changed into steam, will In a similar, though not in the same way, distil into sweet water, leaving the salt on we may cause a reaction on a larger scale. the bottom. Thus the steam engines on

We may raise, for instance, water by the Acating islands, for their propulsion and immediate application of wind or steam other mechanical purposes, will serve, at

to a pond upon some eminence, out of the same time, for the distillery of sweet which, through an outlet, it may fall upon water, which, collected in basins, may be some wheel or other contrivance for setled through channels over the island, ting machinery a going. Thus we may while, where required, it may be refriger: store up water in some eminent pond, and ated by artificial means, and changed into take out of this store, at any time, as cool water, surpassing, in salubrity, much water through the outlet as we the best spring water, because nature want to employ, by which means the orihardly ever distils water so purely, and ginal power may react for many days after without admixture of less wholesome it has ceased.”... “Such reservoirs of matter."

moderate elevation or size need not be

made artificially, but will be found made So much for these few and more ob- by nature very frequently, requiring but

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little aid for their completion. They re- For the description of these machines quire no regularity of form. Any valley we are referred to “Etzler's Mechaniwith lower grounds in its vicinity, would cal System, page 11 to 27.” We should answer the purpose. Small crevices may be pleased to see that “Mechanical be filled up such places may be eligible System,” though we have not been for the beginning of enterprises of this able to ascertain whether it has been kind.”

published, or only exists as yet in the The greater the height, of course the design of the author. We have great less water required. But suppose a

faith in it. But we cannot stop for level and dry country; then hill and applications now. valley, and " eminent pond," are to be constructed by main force; or if the

“Any wilderness, even the most hidsprings are unusually low, then dirt the most fertile and delightful gardens.

eous and sterile, may be converted into and stones may be used, and the disad- The most dismal swamps may be cleared vantage arising from friction will be of all their spontaneous growth, filled up counterbalanced by their greater gravi- and levelled, and intersected by canals, ty. Nor shall a single rood of dry ditches and aqueducts, for draining them land be sunk in such artificial ponds entirely. The soil, if required, may be as may be wasted, but their surfaces meliorated, by covering or mixing it with “may be covered with rafts decked rich soil taken from distant places, and with fertile earth, and all kinds of the same be mouldered to fine dusi, levvegetables which may grow there as elled, sifted from all roots, weeds and well as anywhere else."

stones, and sowed and planted in the most And finally, by the use of thick en

beautiful order and symmetry, with fruit velopes retaining the heat, and other trees and vegetables of every kind that contrivances,

the power of steam may stand the climate." caused by sunshine may react at will, and thus be rendered perpetual, no

New facilities for transportation and matter how often or how long the sun- locomotion are to be adopted : shine may be interrupted. (Etzler's Mechanical System).

“ Large and commodious vehicles, for Here is power enough, one would carrying many thousand tons, running think, to accomplish somewhat. These over peculiarly adapted level roads, at the are the powers below. Oh ye mill- rate of forty miles per hour, or one thouwrights, ye engineers, ye operatives sand miles per day, may transport men and and speculators of every class, never things, small houses, and whatever may again complain of a want of power; it serve for comfort and ease, by land. is the grossest form of infidelity. The Floating islands, constructed of logs, or question is not how we shall execute, manner, as is to be done with stone, and

of wooden-stuff prepared in a similar but what. Let us not use in a niggard- of live trees, which may be reared so as to ly manner what is thus generously of- interlace one another, and strengthen the fered,

whole, may be covered with gardens and Consider what revolutions are to be palaces, and propelled by powerful en. effected in agriculture. First, in the gines, so as to run at an equal rate new country, a machine is to move through seas and oceans. Thus, man along taking out trees and stones to may move, with the celerity of a bird's any required depth, and piling them up flight, in terrestrial paradises, from one in convenient heaps ; then the same climate to another, and see the world in machine, “ with a little alteration," is all its variety, exchanging, with distant to plane the ground perfectly, till there nations, the surplus of prodnctions. The shall be no hills nor valleys, making the journey from one pole to another may be requisite canals, ditches and roads, as performed in a fortnight; the visit to a it goes along.

transmarine country in a week or two; or The same machine,

a journey round the world in one or two " with some other little alterations," is

months by land and water. And why then to sift the ground thoroughly, sup- pass a dreary winter every year while ply fertile soil from other places if there is yet room enough on the globe wanted, and plant it; and finally, the where nature is blessed with a perpetual same machine with a little addition,” summer, and with a far greater variety and is to reap and gather in the crop, luxuriance of vegetation ? More than thresh and grind it, or press it to oil, one-half the surface of the globe has no or prepare it any way for final use. winter. Men will have it in their power

to remove and prevent all bad influences piece of vitrified substance ; huge pieces of climate, and to enjoy, perpetually, only are to be moulded so as to join and hook that temperature which suits their con- on to each other firmly, by proper joints stitntion and feeling best."

and folds, and not to yield in any way with

out breaking. Who knows but by accumulating the “ Foundries, of any description, are to power until the end of the present cen- be heated by burning mirrors, and will tury, using meanwhile only the smallest require no labor, except the making of the allowance, reserving all that blows, all first moulds and the superintendence for that shines, all that ebbs and flows, all gathering the metal and taking the finished that dashes, we may have got such a articles away." reserved accumulated power as to run the earth off its track into a new orbit,

Alas, in the present state of science, some summer, and so change the tedi- we must take the finished articles ous vicissitude of the seasons? Or, away ; but think not that man will alperchance, coming generations will not ways be a victim of circumstances. abide the dissolution of the globe, but, and found the streets cluttered with

T'he countryman who visited the city availing themselves of future inventions in aerial locomotion, and the na

bricks and lumber, reported that it was vigation of space, the entire race may the endless repairs and reforming of our

not yet finished, and one who considers migrate from the earth, to settle some vacant and more western planet, it may will be done. But why may not the

houses, might well wonder when they be still healthy, perchance unearthy, not composed of dirt and stones, whose dwellings of men on this earth be built primary strata only are strewn, and once for all of some durable material, where no weeds are sown.

It took but some Roman or Etruscan masonry little art, a simple application of natural which will stand, so that time shall laws, a canoe, a paddle, and a sail of only adorn and beautify them? Why matting, to people the isles of the Paci- may we not finish the outward world fic, and a little more will people the for posterity, and leave them leisure to shining isles of space. Do we not see attend to the inner? Surely, all the in the firmament the lights carried gross necessities and economies might along the shore by night, as Columbus be cared for in a few years. All might did? Let us not despair nor mutiny.

be built and baked and stored up,

dur

ing this, the term-time of the world, “ The dwellings also ought to be very against the vacant eternity, and the different from what is known, if the globe go provisioned and furnished like full benefit of our means is to enjoyed. our public vessels, for its voyage They are to be of a structure for which through space, as through some Pacific we have no name yet. They are to be ocean, while we would “tie up the neither palaces, nor temples, nor cities, rudder and sleep before the wind," as but a combination of all, superior to what those who sail from Lima to Manilla. ever is known. Earth may be baked into bricks, or even vitrified stone by heat,

But, to go back a few years in imawe may bake large masses of any size gination, think not that life in these and form into stone and vitrified sub- crystal palaces is to bear any analogy stance of the greatest durability, lasting to life in our present humble cottages. even thousands of years, out of clayey Far from it. Clothed, once for all, in earth, or of stones ground to dust, by the some “flexible stuff,” more durable application of burning mirrors. This is than George Fox's suit of leather, to be done in the open air, without other composed of " fibres of vegetables," preparation than gathering the substance, “glutinated” together by some “cohegrinding and mixing it with water and sive substances," and made into sheets, cement, moulding or casting it, and bring. like paper, of any size or form, man ing the focus of the burning mirrors of will put far from him corroding care proper size upon the same. The charac- and the whole host of ills. ter of the architecture is to be quite different from what it ever has been hither “ The twenty-five halls in the inside of to; large solid masses are to be baked or the square are to be each two hundred cast in one piece, ready shaped in any feet square and high ; the forty corridors, form that may be desired. The building each one hundred feet long and twenty may, therefore, consist of columns two wide ; the eighty galleries, each from hundred feet high and upwards, of pro- 1,000 to 1,250 feet long; about 7,000 priportionate thickness, and of one entire vate rooms, the whole surrounded and

intersected by the grandest and most And as for the environs of the estabsplendid colonnades imaginable ; floors, lishment, ceilings, columns with their various beautiful and fanciful intervals, all shining, and

" There will be afforded the most enreflecting to infinity all objects and per, rapturing views to be fancied, out of the sons, with splendid lustre of all beautiful private apartments, from the galleries, colors, and fanciful shapes and pictures. from the roof, from its turrets and cupoAll galleries, outside and within the halls, las,-gardens as far as the eye can see, are to be provided with many thousand full of fruits and flowers, arranged in the commodious and most elegant vehicles, most beautiful order, with walks, colonin which persons may move up and down, nades, aqueducts, canals, ponds, plains, like birds, in perfect security, and without amphitheatres, terraces, fountains, sculpexertion. Any member may procure tural works, pavilions, gondolas, places himself all the common articles of his for public amusement, etc., to delight the daily wants, by a short turn of some eye and fancy, the taste and smell.” crank, without leaving his apartment; he may, at any time, bathe himself in with hard vitrified, large plates, so as to

« The walks and roads are to be paved cold or warm water, or in steam, or in be always clean from all dirt in any some artificially prepared liquor for in- weather or season. ... The channels vigorating health. He may, at any time, give to the air in his apartment that tem- being of vitrified substance, and the waperature that suits his feeling best. He tilled if required, may afford the most

ter perfectly clear, and filtrated or dismay cause, at any time, an agreeable beautiful scenes imaginable, while a vascent of various kinds. He may, at any riety of fishes is seen clear down to the time, meliorate his breathing air,--that bottom playing about, and the canals may main vehicle of vital power. Thus, by a

afford at the same time, the means of glidproper application of the physical know- ing smoothly along between various sceledge of our days, man may be kept in a per- neries

of art and nature, in beautiful gonpetual serenity of mind, and if there is no dolas, while their surface and borders incurable disease or defect in his organism, in constant vigor of health, and his life be may be covered with fine land and aquatic

birds. The walks may be covered with prolonged beyond any parallel which pre- porticos adorned with magnificent col; sent times afford.

One or two persons are sufficient to umns, statues and sculptural works; all direct the kitchen business. They have of vitrified substance, and lasting for ever, nothing else to do but to superintend the while the beauties of nature around heightcookery, and to watch the time of the

en the magnificence and deliciousness."

“ The night affords no less delight to victuals being done, and then to remove them, with the table and vessels, into the fancy and feelings. An infinite variety dining-hall, or to the respective private of grand, beautiful and fanciful objects apartments, by a slight motion of the and sceneries, radiating with crystalline hand at some crank. Any extraordinary brilliancy, by the illumination of gasdesire of any person may be satisfied by light; the human figures themselves, argoing to the place where the thing is to rayed in the most beautiful pomp fancy be had; and anything that requires a par- may suggest, or the eye desire, shining ticular preparation in cooking or baking,

even with brilliancy of stuffs and diamay be done by the person who desires monds, like stones of various colors, ele

gantly shaped and arranged around the

body; all reflected a thousand-fold in huge This is one of those instances in mirrors and reflectors of various forms; which the individual genius is found to theatrical scenes of a grandeur and magconsent, as indeed it always does, at nificence, and enrapturing illusions, unlast, with the universal. "These last known yet, in which any person may be sentences have a certain sad and sober either a spectator or actor; the speech truth, which reminds us of the scrip- and the songs reverberating with increasture of all nations. All expression of ed sound, rendered more sonorous and truth does at length take the deep that are moveable into any shape at any

harmonious than by nature, by vaultings ethical form. Here is hint of a place time; the sweetest and most impressive the most eligible of any

and

harmony of music, produced by song and of a servitor, in comparison with whom, instruments partly not known yet, may all other helps dwindle into insignifi- thrill through the nerves and vary with

We hope to hear more of him other amusements and delights. anon, for even crystal palace would be “At night the roof, and the inside and deficient without his invaluable ser- outside of the whole square, are illuminatvices.

ed by gas-light; which in the mazes of

it."

in space,

cance.

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