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a party among us, sneered at and con- who have succeeded you, stolen your demned as “workies, ," " radicals," “ lo- name and livery; but only as the co-focos,"
," "agrarians," have done no- hypocrite steals “the livery of the bly in contending, however they may court of Heaven, to serve the Devil have misjudged as to the proper means in.” Ye wanted freedom to perform of securing them,—with the equal the functions which God gave you ; right of every man to have a voice in to stand up the men ye were made saying who shall be the law-makers, to be; men of pure heart, of sound and what shall be the laws. The equal mind, and strong hand, - living and rights, for which these contend, belong toiling for the realization of the to social position, condition, or oppor- will of Heaven, in the manifestation tunity, and are, equal chances to equal and growth of humanity ; they want a capacities, and, equal rewards to equal political machine, in which ye shall be works. The working men's party,-a the cogs and wheels, or the motive party which has never been understood power, which they can work for their in the country, and which miserable own political elevation and selfish ends. demagogues are even now courting Hence their fawning and caresses, their while perverting,-meant by equal protestations of love for the dear peorights, precisely what I have defined ple, and their maddening shouts of deto be freedom for each individual to act mocracy ! democracy !" But what do out his individuality, or to perform his they propose for your benefit? What special function in the social body. have they done to elevate your condiThey saw, that, in every society on tion? They would extend to you the earth, this freedom is restricted, and is elective franchise ;-ay, but with the nowhere enjoyed; they felt that gov- express understanding that you are ernment should secure this freedom; to vote for them, and that they are to they felt, moreover, that neither of the turn you off with mere political equaligreat political parties of the country ty, while they reap all the advantages did secure, or even labor to secure it; of the social state. Out upon them. and they came forward from their car. They are wolves in sheep's clothing. penter's shops, their blacksmith's forges, I must be pardoned for this apparent and shoemaker's benches,-men who digression. Unwearied pains have been were sick of humbug and cant, men of taken to prejudice me in the eyes of downright earnestness, and demanded, my old friends, the working-men, and in such tones as they were masters of, to have it go forth, that it is their docthat henceforth government should be trine of equal rights, that I condemn administered so as to secure the end for under the names of democracy, and which, and for which alone, it exists. loose radicalism. No such thing. We Noble minded men! I heard your erred in many of our views as to the voice as it rang out from your work- proper means of gaining the equal shops, and responded to it from the rights for which we contended, and had Christian pulpit, where then I stood. It we succeeded in carrying our measures, still rings in my ears, and in my heart, we should not have succeeded in our and, though you have been decried, end; but the end itself was true and denounced, and your noble aspirations just, and was never confounded by one blasphemed, I yet dare echo your voice; of our number with the democracy and and, amid all the charges of fickleness, equality, which in the pages of this of change, and conservatism, with Journal, and elsewhere, I have conwhich I am now overloaded, I fear not demned. Trafficking politicians early to say, that never for a moment have I seized upon some of our watchwords, ceased to stand by your cause, and to and gave them a meaning widely difdefend it as the cause of truth, justice, ferent from the one we gave them, and right, patriotism, humanity, religion. would now fain make it believed, that Under your flag, which ye flung out to they are our genuine successors, and the breeze fourteen years ago this very that we in disowning them, are disinmonth, I enlisted; under it I have heriting our own children. Let them fought, and in it I will be wrapped, when tell this to the marines, or to the greenlaid in my grave. It is not your doc- horns; we who survive of the Worktrine, wronged and decried Working. ingmen's Party of 1829, are too old men, not your doctrine of equal rights, salts to helieve them. We know what that I condemn; but that of partisans we struck for, and shall not be wheedled
out of it, by the mere adoption of our ation of government, we cannot secure battle-cry.
this free expression of the sense of The most that can be said is, that each man; and, if we could, governthe political equality expressed by uni- ment would be superseded, for the sense versal suffrage and eligibility, is a ne must exist, and the conditions of excessary means of securing the “equal pressing it, independent of the governrights," or the 'freedom, which, we ment; we further object, that, what is have seen to be the legitimate end of assumed here, as the basis of the argugovernment. The right of every man ment, that the voice of the people is is to be well-governed, so governed as the representative of the voice of God, to enjoy this freedom. If the suffrage is not true. I do not deny, nay, I asand eligibility are indispensable means sert, that the will of God, to a certo this end, then, but only then, can tain extent, speaks through man's nathey be said to be a man's natural ture; for Creation is no less a revelaright. They are neither indispensable tion of the Divine Will, than is Provimeans, nor adequate means to this end. dence. Hence, I infer from the fact, Mere political equality is by no means that God has made man, that he wills the equivalent of equal rights, or man's freedom ; for man exists, and legitimate freedom. This is the error, can exist, only so far as he is free. But as we have seen, of our democratic freedom is not license; it must therepoliticians. Nevertheless, we should, fore be directed: and while man is in a country like ours, where the con- left free to act, his activity must be ditions of the people are so nearly directed to the legitimate end of acequal, contend that every man, who tivity. I do not destroy the river when has not, in any way forfeited his man. I prevent it from overflowing its banks, hood, by crime or misdemeanor, should or when I give its channel a certain have the municipal right in saying who direction, and confine it within its chanshall be our law-makers, and, through nel. The current of human activity them, what shall be our laws; and must flow on unobstructed ; but all also an equal right with every other means, that can be taken, not obstructman to be voted for, if his fellow- ing its on-flowing, must be taken, to citizens see fit to give him their suf compel it to flow on in its destined frages. All I contend is, that the channel. Hence, two forces are to be right in question, is a right of the citi considered ; the propelling force,—that zen, not of the man. The rights of carries man onward, the innate acthe man, I have defined under the tivity, which is man himself, or human name of freedom ; the rights of the nature; and the directing force,-which citizen, are simply means for securing, must be other than this human nature,and enjoying, the rights of the man. which confines the first named force And to this end, though not of them within its appointed channel, and preselves sufficient, the rights of suffrage vents it, not only from taking a wrong and eligibility, no doubt, with us, do, direction, but from overflowing and or at least may, contribute, and should sweeping away what may grow along on no account be abridged.
its banks. Democracy says, that they will ne Now, the assumption of democracy cessarily secure this end, and that is, that this first named force is the the connexion between the rights of only force to be recognised. Human suffrage and eligibility, and Freedom, nature unquestionably speaks out in is so intimate, that no distinction is to every man, and speaks always, says be drawn between them. But this is democracy, what it should speak. founded on the assumption, that the Leave man solely to himself, to his voice of the people is the voice of God, natural promptings, to move in the diand, therefore, that where every man is rection his nature impels him, and he free to express his own sense, in the will always move in the right direction, practical administration of the govern- to the precise end, towards which God ment, the voice, or will, of God, which wills him to move. Unless we assume we have translated by the word, Free- all this, it were absurd to say, that the dom, will necessarily prevail. To this free expression of the sense of every we have objected, that in a Democracy, man in the practical administration of owing to the inequalities of conditions, the government, will be the prevalence and influences, and to the natural oper- of the will of God. But are the advo
cates of this doctrine, aware of what ture is perfect, and always to be they do, when they say all this? Are obeyed? Christ came to redeem man they aware, that they assume, that, from the curse of his nature, and his whatever nature prompts, is just and religion is given us to control nature, right? That they, not only deny the and guide it to obedience to the Divine fact, that human nature is imperfect, or Will. Here is the condemnation of depraved, as both religion and philoso- the doctrine of the divinity of huphy teach, but do actually contend manity, which I with so many others, for its Divinity,-actually making it in the madness of theory, have been identical with God; at least, the true left at times to insist upon,-a doctrine and perfect, and, therefore, authorita- which, in my Remarks on Universal tive, representation of God.
History, I have done my best to expose But, with the history of the past, and refute. nay, with the present state of the While then we leave to man his world, open to our inspection, how can natural activity, that is, freedom to act we fall into the monstrous absurdity of with the whole force of his nature, we such a blasphemous assertion? How must, for the right governing of that from a perfect, a divine, human na- force, have another force, out of him, to ture, representing in all its instincts, turn it in its proper direction for the all its promptings, all its tendencies, attainment of the true end of man. the Divine Will, could spring up the Man's mis-directed energy, destroys terrible evils, which have afflicted our his energy itself; and he annihilates race, since the eating of the forbidden himself, just in proportion as he abuses fruit, and since the murderer Cain, who his power. Hence, say the Holy Scripdenied that he was his brother's keeper, tures, say, " the wages of sin is death." down to the wrongs and outrages, sel- The power itself, veritable human acfishness, vice, and crime, under which tivity, is preservable only on condition we now groan in pain? Whence false of its right exercise. Now, as the governments? Whence tyranny and democracy we are condemning admits oppression? Whence the exaltation of no directive force, nothing to guide the the few at the expense of the many ? propelling force of nature, it would not You must either assume, that human secure in the administration of governnature left to itself, will not go directly ment, the full expression of the Will to the end God wills; or else you must of God, even if it could, as it cannot, boldly declare, that whatever is, is collect the sense of every individual right; that there are, and have been, man, in the freest and fullest manner. no wrongs; that there have been no ty The office of the government is not rants or oppressors; that there is, and to destroy, nor in any degree to weakhas been, no disobedience to the Divine en, the force which man is; but to Will. They who are prepared to make guide it in the right direction. We this last assumption, are indeed un have shown, that it cannot have its orianswerable, they are past being rea- gin in human nature, for then it would be soned with ; and can be corrected only human nature, and therefore the force by physic and good regimen.
to be guided ; but it must have its The fact is, men have always been origin out of man, in God,-man's free to follow Nature, in the full sense, rightful Governor. We must then disin which democracy demands, and it miss the democratic form of governis because of this, that we have had ment, as false in its origin, impotent to so many evils of which to complain. direct, and dangerous in its tendencies. Is it, I ask, not natural for man to op- If, then, we contend for universal sufpress man? Is not every man naturally frage, and place the administration of the a tyrant ? Does not every man natu- government in the hands of the people, as rally seek to gain all he can for him- we have wisely done in this country, it self, and thus prove himself the plague must still be the people under the Conand tormentor of his kind? Away, stitution; not as the government taken then, with this insane deification of absolutely, but as the ministry, subject human nature! With old paganism, themselves to the power that makes, or our “Nature-Worship,” should cease. imposes, the Constitution. What is the meaning of Christianity ?
If there be any force in my reasonWhat means its profound doctrines oning thus far, I have established two of Sacrifice and Self-denial, if Na- important facts : 1, that our GovernVOL. XIII.-NO. LXIV,
ment is not a Democracy, but a Con- controversy is not here, but further stitutional Republic; and 2, That just back ; not as to who may act, or what in proportion as we resolve it practi- may be done, under the Constitution, cally into a Democracy, do we destroy but as to the power that makes the its character as a government,-its Constitution. The Constitution with us,
answer the true ends of when made, unquestionably represents government. To complete my view, the will of the sovereign. What then is and to show how our form of government the power that makes the Constitution ? solves the problem as to what should The popular answer to this question be the constitution of government, I is, that the People make the Constituought now to go on, and give my views tion; that it emanates solely from of the Constitution, and show what is them; and is, therefore, at all times, the real Constitutional theory of the and in all respects, subject to their government; but for this, it must be will. This is the strictly democratic obvious to every reader, I have now no answer, and, if true, would prove that space. I must therefore content my our government is, not a Constitutional self, with reiterating, that in this Consti- government, but a Democracy. tution, understood and administered ac Now, this is precisely what I have cording to its true intent and meaning, all along, in these essays, been deI find the practical answer, which I nying; and my chief purpose has been accept with all my heart, to the ques- to demonstrate, that this answer is intion, what should be, for us, the consti- admissible, and that if it were, our tution of government. *
government would be proved to be tan
tamount to no-government. In order But leaving now the end of govern- to demonstrate this, I have gone back ment, and accepting our own institu- of popular sovereignty, and traced tions, as the practical answer to the government to its orgin in Divine Right, question, what should be the constitu- and shown, that it is not, and cannot be, tion of government, we may proceed to government, unless it can speak with consider our third question, namely, more than human authority. What is the Part of the people in con This more than human authority, I stituting the government? This ques- have contended, must be embodied and tion, in the sense I wish now to take it represented in an outward visible instiup, I repeat as I put it in my last paper : tution ; which institution, in one of its Denying then the absolute sovereignty necessary departments, is the Church, of the people, denying also, that the in the other the State. people are the representatives of the By accepting our government, as the Divine Will, and assuming, that it is practical solution of what the constithe Divine Will that is sovereign, tution of government should be, and and therefore that which is to be col- proving it to be not a democracy, but a lected and expressed by the Constitu- constitutional government, I have netion of the State, may we not say, that cessarily identified the State with the it is, nevertheless, the people who Constitution. must devise, establish, and maintain this The Constitution, then, represents, Constitution ?”
not the authority of the people, but, I have affirmed, that our government under the Church, the authority of God. is a Constitutional Republic, that in our On this ground, and this alone, I depolitical order, the Constitution is su- mand for it allegiance, and the loyalty preme, and that no action of the peo- of the subject. It expresses, not the ple, through the Legislature, is law, un- propelling force, which we have seen is less authorized by the Constitution. man himself, but that other force, This much, I presume, will be con- which we found to be necessary for ceded on all hands. The point of the the control and direction of man.
Those who wish to know what is my exposition of the Constitution, and, therefore, what is my answer to the question I am obliged to pass over, are referred to an Essay on Constitutional Government: Boston : Benj. H. Green. 1842. Also, to Mr. Calhoun's Speeches and Letters on the points involved in the Controversy between the General Government and South Carolina, and especially to his Speech in support of the veto power, February 28, 1842.
Now, premising all this, have the whose agency you can secure,—that is people any part, if so, what part, in to say, the more truly popular, you can making, devising, adopting, changing, render this agency, the nearer you modifying, or preserving, this Constitu- come to COLLECTING THE ACTIVE SENSE tion, which, as we have seen, repre- OF THE WHOLE PEOPLE, the better. sents the Divine Will, and is identical Here is the great wisdom of our own with the State ? This is the question institutions, and, in this fact, that they now before us.
are so contrived as to collect the sense I must now ask my readers to turn of a larger proportion of those who back to my last essay in this Journal, are their subjects, than the institutions and re-read it from page 257 to 261, of any other country, do I find their inclusive. It is the metaphysical por- chief glory. Thus far I go with my tion of that essay, and somewhat brist- democratic friends, and find room for ling with scholastic formulas, but im- the freest and fullest action, of what portant in solving the problem before the Washington Globe calls “ the Deus. Wherefore did I go into the de- mocracy of Numbers." monstration of free agency, and prove But, this popular agency must be from the profoundest data of modern subjected to authority, not to an auphilosophy, as well as of ancient Pla- thority which annihilates it,-for that tonism, that man is an entelecheia, es- would be for authority to annihilate its sentially causative force? Why, but subjects, and to put itself out of the to demonstrate that God himself, in condition to govern; but to an auhis government of man, can govern thority, which, while it leaves it free man only in and through man's free- to exert itself, yet prescribes to it the dom, and therefore, that every govern- rules of its action, the forms through ment claiming to be divine, must needs which, and through which alone, it can do the same, if it would make good its of right act. This authority the peoclaims? And why this, but to estab- ple are not, and cannot be. It must lish beyond all cavil, by going to the needs be over them, and independent of bottom of things, that human agency them. In some forms of government, must have its share in every wise and this authority can ma itse but just, in every legitimate, government? faintly heard, scarcely felt; these are
In constituting, and in administering, purely human governments, and therethe government, in all that concerns it, fore tyrannical and oppressive. there is room, not only for human Translate what we have said here agency, but popular agency. “ Men," into the language of practical politics, I say, in the conclusion of the last es- and it will mean precisely what is exsay, “cannot create, or institute, the emplified in our own history. It will sovereign, they cannot originate or mean, that the people may modify the commissior government; but they can existing forms of the Constitution, but provide, more or less wisely, for the only in obedience to the Constitution free, full, and authoritative expression itself. With us, as we have seen, the of the Divine Will, the only legitimate Constitution does not emanate from the Sovereign." The force that acts in people; because the Convention is constituting the government, as well as called by a pre-existing authority; and in administering it, is the force, which it is that authority, which reappears in I term humanity, and under our con the Constitution that comes forth from stitution, it is THE PEOPLE; the au the Convention. The people are actthority under which, and by which, it ing under law, under the existing Conacts, is not the authority of this human stitution, just as much when assembled force itself, but that of God. The in Convention, as when assembled in solution of the problem, is in this dis- the Legislature. They are in Conventinction, between the FORCE that acts, tion the representatives, however, of and the AUTHORITY that directs it. the supreme authority of the State,
Let us state this in other terms. The and, therefore, may do whatever that people are not the government; but authority has the right to do. They they really act in constituting, and ad- may,—with an exception hereafter to ministering it. As the active agency be noted, do whatever seems to them is that of man, and as man acts only good. But,—and this is the point to
individuals, unquestionably, the be borne in mind,--they do it, not in greater the number of individuals their own name, not in right of popu