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so entirely under their indirect control. usages of the Roman Catholic Church It would seem that there was a con “ idolatry," is too well known to siderable opposition party or faction in need remark'; and there is no doubt the Islands, which united all the ele- that this mode of attack against the ments of discontent generated by the progress of the obnoxious intruders rigid system of government established was plied to the utmost. “ As the under the Missionary influence. The proselytism of natives slowly progresssectarian antagonism between the Pro- ed and the Romish mission gave inditestants and Catholics, thus gradually cations of permanency," writes Mr. assumed also a political tinge ; and JarvesBoki, who became the chief reliance of the priests and their friends, aspir- “ the Protestant missionaries, by force of ing to the regency, at one period as- argument, teaching, and all the influence sumed an attitude which threatened an they could lawfully employ, endeavored to armed revolution. The old queen, the arrest its progress. The minds of the head of the other party and of the chiefs were sufficiently established; the regular government, was the firm and variable disposition of the mass was zealous friend of the Missionaries, of of Protestantism, and attacking the dog,

feared. Sermons, defending the theology whom she is represented by the Catholics as the mere tool. În 1829, the from every pulpit ; tracts gave further

mas of the hostile church, were uttered priests lost their main support, in the circulation to their opinions, and a war person of Boki, who perished on an of discussion was commenced and activeexpedition which he undertook in questly pursued. Government lent its aid, and of an island supposed to contain a rich unfortunately for the principle, though quantity of sandal-wood, of which the necessarily for its support, church and Sandwich Islands themselves were by state were united more closely than ever.” this time nearly exhausted. At about the same period, the young king began The English consul, Mr. Charlton, to interpose personally in the public who is represented as a man of profliaffairs, being now in his seventeenth gate character, sided against the Misyear. He has ever since been warm sion throughout all this period, and and firm in the support of the Mission- contributed greatly by his influence to aries and what may be termed their strengthen the “opposition.” It was policy. The influence of the old at last resolved by the government to queen Kaahumanu continued unabated, expel the Catholic priests from the till her death in June, 1832. It was Islands, and an order was given to exerted in a strenuous opposition to the Messrs. Bachelot and Short, on the Catholics. Severe charges have been 2d of April, to depart in three months. urged against the Mission of having This order, several times repeated, stimulated this spirit, and of having they continued to evade, on the pretext been the indirect authors of the really of inability to procure a vessel ; till on cruel and abominable persecutions to 24th of December they were placed on which the Catholics were subjected. board a small vessel belonging to the These are as earnestly denied on the government, and landed on the shores other side ; and the anxiety manifested of California. Kaahumanu died in the to repel the imputation is an acknow. following June, 1833, from which time ledgment of the gravity of the offence, the young king, now on the throne, if true. We do not think that a suc- Kamehameha III., assumed all the reeess perfectly satisfactory attends these sponsibilities of government. On the efforts at exculpation. The influence 17th of April, 1837, the two banished of the Mission could undoubtedly have priests reappeared at Honolulu, as pasprevented these persecutions, had its sengers on board of a vessel named members seen proper adequately to the Clementine, the property of a Mr. exert it. The ground on which the Dudoit, a Frenchman, though wearing imperious old queen justified the pun- English colors. A few months before ishment of the Catholic converts was there had been two vessels of war at the law against“ idolatry,”a law having the Islands, the one English and the reference to the gross and pagan idola- other French; the commander of the try of the old superstition of the peo- former of which, Lord Edward Russel, ple. The habit of many of the Pro- had forced upon the king, under the testant sects of denouncing some of the threat of his guns, a treaty of which

Mr. Jarves's work contains a copy of the frequency of slight earthquakes, the constitution which has been adopted and the gradual increase of coast. for their government, a political instru- Although no mention is made of a Hament reflecting high credit on those to waiian St. Patrick, there are no serwhose instructions and advice the na- pents, frogs or toads upon the islands. tives owe its possession. Guarantee. The climate is remarkably even, ranging the protection of the leading great ing only from 37 degrees to 77 degrees personal rights of person and property, Fahrenheit in the winter months, and and basing its system of government from 76 degrees to 83 degrees in the on the law of God and general spirit of summer. The fertility of the soil and His word, it organizes an executive, the nutritious powers of the Kalo plant with two legislative bodies, and a judi- are so great, that the group is capable ciary, and provides for a popular ad- of supporting an immense population, ministration of equitable laws. Under (Hawaiian Spectator, vol. 1, pp. 75.) its operation, supported by a continua- Notwithstanding this fact there is no tion of such favoring influences as have doubt of a large decrease of population thus far shed their blessings on the since they have become known to the population of the Islands, there is every whites. This fact is, however, disreason to expect, before the passage of tinctly assignable to special causes, many generations, to behold the Hawai- which are very satisfactorily explainians as a nation elevated into a con- ed in Mr. Jarves's work (page 397 et dition not unworthy of an honorable seq.) which have now ceased to opeplace within the great community of rate. The present population is about civilized christendom. The efforts of 100,000. the American missionaries have not Brief space only remains to us for a merely been limited to the religious topic on which we had designed to culture of the Hawaiians. They have speak at greater length, and with an justly considered that no nation in the emphasis that should give expression present age, can really appreciate the to the unanimous feeling strongly perbenefits to be derived from Christianity, vading the United States. We refer unless at the same time it attains a to the recent violent, and even brutal certain degree of intellectual cultiva- seizure of this lovely archipelago by tion. In this view, having reduced the an English naval commander, Lord language to a written form, they have Paulet, on grounds not rising to the established schools, which are now sup- level of even a pretext-an act of sheer, ported by the native government; so simple, downright and outright spoliathat few of the younger people of either tion, on “ the good old plan.” The sex are unable to read. Numerous his- French had recently possessed themtorical, scientific and religious works selves of the Marquesas, and again of of an elementary nature, have been Tahiti, though with rather more manprinted. The constitution which has agement, rather more decency in the been adopted has been already men mode. With a worthy rivalry in robtioned; it is one of the most remarkable bery, the English naval force in the documents in the history of the world, Pacific makes all sail for the Sandas containing a voluntary cession of wich Islands; and in disregard of the power by superiors to inferiors; a code fact that commissioners were at the of laws civil and criminal, fitted to very time in England for the settlethe nature of the islanders, has been ment of a treaty, he coolly commands formed; and trial by jury, so equi- and compels the helplessness of the table as to be resorted to by foreign- native government to cede the islands ers in questions involving large amounts to the British crown,—to give up “the of money, have secured the judg- life of the land,” in the words of the ment of his peers to any subject ; and touching address by the king, Kameha

crown the whole, the Hawaiian mela III., to his people. In all its cirlegislature has annual sessions--verily cumstances this was one of the most this has the resemblance if not the re outrageous outrages that have ever disality of a civilized country.

graced even the foreign domination of The physical phenomena of the isl- that great maritime and mercantile tyands, are well worthy of our inspec- ranny-so insatiate in its aims, so untion. Among them we may mention principled in its means. It was not volcanic changes which have occurred, only an abomination of injustice in the

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act itself, but in the manner, also, so bold, a matter of consequence, when our so brutal, it was in bad taste--shock- Oregon territory shall be more thickly ingly bad. But we reserve further re- settled, and when the communication mark on this point till the reception of across the isthmus of Panama is opened intelligence from England, as to the -an event now not much longer to be action of her government. Their offi- delayed. The number of American cer has been the Thief-will they be citizens now residing at the Islands, in the Receiver ?

various capacities, already exceeds in Others may indulge a more liberal number 500 souls, and the amount of hope, respecting the course that will be American property at stake, upon the pursued by England, based on the for- Islands, had increased from $400,000 tunate fact that the terms of a treaty in 1836, to $1,000,000 in 1842. The had been already arranged at London mercantile interests, which till within by the commissioners from the Islands, two years, have been opposed to the involving a full recognition of their na- Missionary efforts, are now found to tionality and their independence. For coincide with them, and united, keep ourselves, we have read the foreign his- up a strong American feeling. Fivetory of England in vain, if the great eighths of all the vessels visiting the lion should give up the poor little mouse Islands are American. The recognion which it has thus set its huge paw. tion of the independent existence of

The emphatic and indignant protest these Islands thus becomes a question of of our government will have already vital importance to American comcrossed the ocean before this Number merce, and particularly to that portion of this Review. To us it is a matter of capital which is invested in the whale of scarcely less grave concern than to fishery. We were gratified to learn the plundered people themselves. With- that our government had given assurin the last five years, the Sandwich ance to the Hawaiian commissioners, Islands have assumed a high political recently in this country, of the continuimportance in the Pacific. Their fa- ance of our amicable relations, and vorable commercial position, the secu- virtually recognized the established rity of their harbors, and the necessary government of the Islands. The words visits of whaling ships, have attracted of the Secretary of State were, that thither the best part of the commerce “the President is quite willing to deof that ocean. The vital consequence clare as the sense of the government of of their independence to the interests the United States, that the government of the United States, in the Pacific, of the Sandwich Islands ought to be cannot be over-estimated. Mr. Jarves respected : that no power ought either says:

to take possession of the Islands, as a

conquest, or for the purpose of coloni“ If the ports of this group were closed zation, and that no power ought to seek to neutral commerce, many thousand miles for any undue control over the existing of ocean would have to be traversed before government, or for any exclusive privihavens possessing the requisite conveni- leges or preferences in matters of comences for recruiting or repairing shipping,

merce." could be reached. This fact illustrates

And the language of the Message of their great importance in a naval point. the President to Congress, of DecemShould any one of the great nations seize ber 31, 1842, is yet fresh in the memoupon them, it might be considered as holding the key of the North Pacific—for ry of the public, but may here be no trade could prosper in their vicinity, or appropriately recalled : even exist, while a hostile power, possess “ Just emerging from a state of barbaing an active and powerful marine, should rism, the government of the islands is as send forth its cruisers to prey upon the yet feeble; but its dispositions appear to neighboring cominerce. Their isolated be just and pacific, and it seems anxious position, in connection with their reef or

to improve the condition of its people by precipice bound shores, would add greatly the introduction of knowledge, of relito other local advantages of defence, and gious and moral institutions, means of a military colony once fairly established, education, and the arts of civilized life. might surely put at defiance any means of “ It cannot but be in conformity with attack which could be brought against the interest and the wishes of the governthem."

ment and the people of the United States,

that this community, thus existing in the Their situation, too, becomes doubly midst of a vast expanse of ocean, should

be respected, and all its rights strictly and unfit to make the declaration, that their conscientiously regarded. And this inust government seeks, nevertheless, no pecualso be the true interest of all other com- liar advantages, no exclusive control over mercial States. Far remote froin the do- the Hawaiian government, but is content minions of European powers, its growth with its independent existence, and anxand prosperity, as an independent State, iously wishes for its security and prosmay yet be in a high degree usesul to all, perity. Its forbearance, in this respect, whose trade is extended to those regions; under the circumstances of the very large while ils nearer approa h to this continent, intercourse of their citizens with the and the intercourse which American ves- Islands, would justify this government, sels have with il—such vessels constitut- should events hereafter arise io require it, ing five-sixths of all which annually visit in making a decided remonstrance against it-could not but create dissatisfaction on the adoption of an opposite policy by any the part of the United States at any at- other power.” tempt, by another power, should such attempt be threatened or feared, to take possession of the Islands, colonize them, A brief period will suffice to determine and subvert the native government. Con- this question—if indeed any appeal residering, therefore, that the United States mains to the conscience of the British possess so very large a share of the inter- people from the black muzzles of Lord course with those islands, it is deemed not Paulet's guns.

THE WARNING.

BY RH. S. S. ANDROS.

It shall not always be!
The air breathes where it will; the wind

Is chainless, and the storm is free ;
Shall chains enthral the mind ?

Creation owns no slave; and man,

Shall Man bend low to scourge and ban,
And quake and suffer, and be still?

It shall not always be-
Arise he must—and will !

It shall not always be!
Awhile he yet may wear the chain

In silence, like the northern sea
Mid winter's sunless reign;

Awhile he yet may bow him down

To Power's red scourge and Pride's dark frown,
And toil and weep, and be a slave ;

It shall not always be-
The storm unchains the wave,

It shall not always be !
The lightning smoulders in its mine,

The thunder sleeps as yet—but see!
Is there no tempest-sign?

Ha! tyrant, see! and sheathe thy brand ;

Strike fetter off, from heart and hand !
Nor crush God's image in thy path,

It shall not always be

BE JUST-or brave his wrath ! New Bedford, June, 1843.

THE PRESENT STATE OF SOCIETY.*

BY 0. A. BROWNSON.

Whatever the book he writes, Mr. seize the profoundest and most farCarlyle may well adopt from Schiller reaching truth, by turning over a very for his motto, Ernst ist das Leben ; for familiar word, and looking at it in the although he plays many pranks, and light of the primitive fact it was used cuts many literary capers, which are to designate. One sees this in the not much to his credit, life with him is half-serious, half-sportive remarks of a serious affair, and he writes always Plato on the Origin of Names in the with an earnest spirit, for a high, noble, Cratylus, and especially in Vico's and praiseworthy end. He may often Tract on the Wisdom of the Ancient offend our fastidiousness, he may often Italians, as collected from the Latin vex or disappoint us by the vague- language. There is scarcely a page, ness or defectiveness of his views, scarcely a sentence even, in Carlyle, but we can never read him without in which he does not throw a new and having our better feelings quickened, surprising light on some intricate suband getting a clearer insight into ject, by a dexterous use of a very famany things. We have come even to miliar word. He lays open the word, like his style, -that is, in him and for and makes you see the fact, the thing, him, though by no means in and for of which it was originally the sign, and others. It is natural, free from all of which it is still the sign, if the sign literary primness and affectation, sin- of aught. True, all this is done very cere, earnest, forcible,--admirably adap quietly, by using a capital initial letted to all the varieties and shades of ter, italicising a syllable, separating a thought, and moods of mind of the compound word into its original elewriter ; responding with singular felici- ments, or by giving a Latin equivalent ty to all the natural undulations of the for an Anglo-Saxon term, or an Anglosoul; and, when read aloud, to those of Saxon one for a Latin; and since it is the voice. This is especially true of done so quietly, it is no doubt overthe History of the French Revolution, looked by the great majority of his -a great work, and almost the only readers, who, because they overlook it, one in our language deserving the name call him obscure and unintelligible. “I of History, and before which your do not understand you.' “Sir, I am Robertsons, Humes, Mackintoshes, and under no obligation to furnish you ideas brotherhood, shrink to their proper and brains also.” True, my dear dimensions.

Doctor Johnson, but if we do not furCarlyle is a thorough master of lan- nish our readers brains as well as guage. We know no writer, ancient ideas, how large a proportion of them or modern, who so clearly apprehends will catch even a glimpse of our meanthe deep significance of speech; or so ing on the most familiar topics we disfully comprehends the profound phi- cuss? To perceive another's sense, losophy there is in the ordinary terms or sense in another's words, we must of everyday life. True is it, in more have some little sense of our own ;senses than one, that our only sure a melancholy fact, and which will deway of arriving at psychology is lay some weeks the complete success through the medium of words; and of our excellent societies for the not at psychology only, but at philoso- Universal Diffusion of Knowledge. phy, the everlasting truth and fitness There is no wisdom in sneering at of things. All speech is significant; him who truly studies words. Words, and if blest with clear insight we may even the idlest, are signs, and signs of

• Past and Present. By Thomas Carlyle. Boston : Charles C. Little and James Brown. 1843. 12mo. pp. 296. VOL. XIII.NO. LXI,

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