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Fiat Justitia Ruat Cælum. there for a considerable length of time. The tions for building and farming. The country genepublic market is hardly worthy of notice. Fresh rally fro:n the mouth of the Brassos to San Felipe de beef, &c. is brought in, by the inhabitants of Austin, and for twenty miles above, is flatter than ! the adjacent country, and is plenty and cheap. 1. calculated for cotton and sugar planting ; I entertain
could wish-not swampy-badly watered, but well It is taken to the houses of the purchasers. The people generally raise the most of the vegetables || iana lunds for sugar. In th:t portion of the country
no doubt but it is equal, if not superior, to the Louisthey consume, in the village. Articles produced of which I have just spoken, the most of the water in the country are, in general, sold at reasona- courses, the Big and Little Berna'ds, Caney Creek, ble prices; but such as are imported rate high. &c. are bounded on each side, for from an half to a The citizens generally are very kind, social, | mile, with what the sculers call Canc and Peach, the and hospitable.
soil of which is remarkably light, productive, and · Having spent six days in Nacogdoches, and but io cut away the cane and what few peach sap
easily put in cultivation, nothing having to be dono made an acquaintance with several intelligent lingu are stonding among it. These pesch saplings, and influential citizens and public officers, and as to texture, smell, and the grain of the wood, rehaving communicated to some of them the object semble very much the peach tree which is cultivated of my visit to that country; having, also, ob
in the United States of the North-The greatest diftained the chief information that I went in quest ference seems to be that the Texas wild peach has of, as far, at least, as it could be done without only a small black berry, which, however, serves as devoting more time than I could then spare, I left which is situated on the Brassos river, ninety miles
a fine mast for hogs. From San Filipe de Aus'in, Nacogdoches in the afternoon of the 7th of July, from its mouth, South and West, for about thirty miles and returned on foot to Louisiana, by nearly to the Colorado river, the country is an entire sandy the same route that I came. I re-crossed the prairie ; but across the country, east and south east, Sabine river in the afternoon of the 10th, having and from Major William Robinson's on the Colorado, met with some detention in making further en- 1o the neighborhood of Col. John P. Coles' and Nesquiries and investigations, relative to the state tor Clay's, embracing Mill and Yegua Creeks, the of the country, &c. The weather was about land is good and well timbered. This neighborhood as warm, then, as it generally is in our middle
is foriy-five miles above San Filipe de Austin. On states at the same season of the year.”
the 28ih of December, 1831, I went into the Yegua
bottom in company with Nestor Clay, to look at his We now give some extracts from the publi- cattle, and found the boitom thickly set with a luxu
riant green coat of winter grass, half leg high, and cations of two other gentlemen, as mentioned his cattle, comparatively, scarcely able to support above, relative to those parts of the Texas coun
their lord of fat-Indeed, I think I have rarely, if
ever, seen fatter beef produced in any market. For try further to the southwest, where Austin's and twenty miles East of San Filipe de Austin, the lan) Dewitt's colonies are situated. Owing to the is of the flat description I before mentioned';' ut from
that to Col. Coles, the country rises gradualiy, and great length of this article, they are abbrevi- | breaks off into beautifully high rolling prairie and ated as much as possible. From information timber, occasionally interspersed with small creeks, derived from various sources, we have no doubt H I do not think the land quite so rich; but it is a beau
affording sufficient water to turn small mills--though of the general correctness of their statements.tiful farming country, and the prospect is a very imThe first extract is from a communication lately | ihan another, as far as the eye can carry you, fre
posing scene the ridges rising regularly one higher inserted in a St. Louis paper, over the signature quently bedecked with Live Vaks and other eve:of Philander Priestly, who visited Austin's colo. greens. The description I have already given will
apply, with equal correctness, to Dewitt's colony, ny a few months since: and the second is from only, that the land upon which Gonzales is situated a letter written by a gentleman now residing in and for many miles round, is rich and fertile, which
is not the case with the lands adjacent to San Felipe Texas, of the name of Byrd Lockhart, recently de Austin ;-besides, the mountains come nearer to published in a paper at Xenia, Ohio.
the Sea board above Dewitt's colony than Austin's, Speaking of the tract of land owned by Col. and I am of opinion that the air is purer and more
Dewiti's colony is also better watered than the other, Stephen F. Austin, at the mouth of the Brassos wholesome-more mill seats and water power, to carriver, and the country above, Priestly remarks ry on machinery of every description, present them
selves. as follows:
“In the colonies, owing to the scarcity of rock bi About four or five miles North East of the mouth
from which 10 make lime, the people are likely to sucthere are plenty of oysters, on Oyster Bayou, and are
ceed in procuring a substitute, by burning a kind of of tolerably good quality.' On the South West side clay, resembling very much our' lime-this clay is of the river, ihe land is good, and is held for many
found in abundance, in the bottoms of and along the miles along the coast and the river, by Col. Stephen margins of some of the creeks, is quite hard and F. Austin, and is called Austin's reserve. The river,
firm,* and by experiment has proved to answer the at its mouth, makes a bar, which I am told is con- purpose. Many of the prairies in both colonies, are mon to most of the rivers of this country ; the conse
what the inhabitants call Hog-wallow lands, and prequence of which is, that vessels are sometimes delay. sent to the eye the richest loam I ever saw. I know ed, waiting for the tide, to ensure a safe entry.
not what to compare the appearance of those prairies Navigation for vessels drawing from five to eight feel, to, better than saying, they resemble the undulating is easy and good for fifty or sixty miles up the Brassos,
waves of a gentle sea. Most kinds of timber, comThe Colorado, the La Baca, and the Guadaloupe. mon to the United States of the North, are to be On the Brassos, vessels run to Marion, a newly laid found in those colonies. We have but little hickory, off town, twelve miles by land above Brazoria, vhere, but the Pecan supplies its place, and is very abunda all goods for the upper country are deposited. From ant; there is no Poplar here, but cypress and Cedar, the mouth of Brassos to Brazoria, on both sides of and on and near the mountains, Pine of good quality. the river, the land is generally rich and productive, Il Gonzales is situated on the Rio Gaudaloupe, on a and sufficiently well timbered for all farming purpo prairie bluff ; it is seventy miles from the mouth of ses; the prairies are commonly good farming lands, the Rio Labaca, forty miles from the mountains, has and the people, for the most pari, both in Austin's and Dewiti's colonies, seem to prefer prairie situa- * Rock in formation.--Ed. G. U. E.
Fiat Justitia Ruat Cælum. an inexhaustible quantity of good timber convenient
the country ;
but that operates equally on the to it on both sides of the river. The mouth of the native and thn foreigner.' The Catholic religion Labaca is the best landing place yet discovered, f.r is the established religion of the Republic ; qyet persons migrating to Dewitt's colony. Gonzales is professors of religion from other countries hold family ninety miles from San Filipe de Austin, and sixty-five | worship, and enjoy unmolasted their religious tenets. or seventy from Bexar, alias San Antoniu.
" Salt to a considerable amount is made at Mata“As regards Agricultural pursuits, Captain | gorda and the mouth of the Brassos river. Many of Westall made and saved, last year, (1831,) 76 bales ihe citizens of De Witt's colony procure dirt within of cotton, eraging 550 pounds each, 1420 barrels of || eight miles of Gonzales, which, after boiling down, corn, and 700 bushels of sweet potatoes, with even yields one half the quantity of good Salt.” hands ; Robert Williams raised 60 bales of cotton, also a necessary supply of corn, potatoes, &c. with
Lockhart is not quite so prolix as Priestly ; 4 hands; Thomas Cayce with his own labor and that but the extract from his letter, below, well be of 4 small boys, cleared 21 acres" and 17 poles of
found interesting. land, some 5 or 6 acrey having been previously opened, made 18 bales of collon, averaging 450 lbs.,
" The river bottom lands on the Prassos and and I was of opinion that there still remained in the Colorado, are very n`arly the same ; and very exețnfield from 3 to 500 pounds per acre ; be also made sive. They are covered with cane or peach, and corn, potatoes, &c. in abundance-hé had 73 acres though of a radilish color, are extremely fertile. In in cotton; Doctor Benjamin Wilkins mensured a the products of cotton, sugar, corn, sweet potatoes, sweet potatoe al Munson's, its circumference was 29 and garden vegetables, they cannot be excelled. inches. Mr. Hommedieu informed me that he knew Whent, rye, oats, flax and tarnips have grown on the several farmors who had made and saved SO bushels back lands or prairies which are not quite so rich. AL of corn to the ocre. While in company with Mr. about one hundred miles from the gulf or bay shore, up Royall, he shewed me a field which he held last
Tho e rivers,
the lands are very level, thence incy befrom which he gathered 50 bushels of corn per acre come a litle rolling though fine for farming and stock he planted the corn by making a hole in the ground || raising, good water, &c. The Post oak timbered with the end of a handstick, and had the weeds chop. || lands are of a more thin soil but will produce good ped down once with a hoe. Mr. Royall also pointed || small grain and cotton. The Guadaloupe and San out to me the field of one of his neighbors, from Marcos rivers afford lands and water fir superior to which was gathered 2000 pounds of cotton per acre these descrihed. The lands in De Witt's Colony in-it was planted and cultivated in the same way that clude the San Marcos and Guadalope, from San Mr. Royall plarted a'd cultivated his corn. Mr. Antonio road to the ten border leagues from the bay Wm. Robinson last year made a successful experi- of Matagorda, a distance of nearly 120 miles. Gon. ment as regards the growing of Wheat-he saved 25 zales is just below the confluence of said rivers, and bushels per acre, of good sound griin. This year nearly in the cen're of the Colony, on the river Guahé, Col. John P. Coles and others, are sowing more daloupe. All of the lands on those rivers are taken extensively-I hive not seen, at any time, at this in de d: to De Witt's colonists—they are rich and season of the year, a better prospect for an abundant beautiful, the springs are fine, and for stock raising crop, in any portion of the United States of the North. every other country in Texas it excels. There is no A man with no one to ussist him, on Oyster Bayou, I cane on those rivers, and the country is free of any last year, from 10 acres of ground, deposited in a stagnant wa'ers; and I am well assured that there is warehouse in Brazoria, 700 bushels of corn, for sale ; no reason why it may not be called more healthy han he sold thirty dollars worth to his neighbors or emi-' any of the Western States of the United States of the grants, and kept enough for h's own use for the year || Norih. From an experiment made here in my neigh-he planted and cultivated it entirely with his hoe. borhood (th's I can stare,) that dry as the season
“ The increase of stock will appear almost incredi- has been there is the best Tobacco and Cotton made, ble to any but shose who visit the country and are an- that I ever have known any where. I am here on the prised of the veracity and respectable standing of the Guadaloupe river, 72 miles from the bay, and in De persons from whom they derive their information.-- || Witt's Colony. I have lived on my farm four years Heifers mist commonly have calves at 18 months in good healib. They can raise more produce in old, often at 16 months, and frequently a Cow will | his country than any other on erth, and get a higher Gring 3 calves in 2 vears. Hogs increas? much market here tlian in any other for the same. In the faster ; at one year old, hogs generally weigh fion unmer time, aft-r eight o'clock in the morning until 180 to 200 pounds. Neither caitle nor hogg require evening, a sea breeze springs up that makes it a comany feeding. It is necessary, for the purpose or keep- || fortable time to do business. ing your stock gentle to go among them occasionally: " In the Texas Gazette ant Brazoria Commercial Sage, Indigo, Red Pepper and Onions are the natural Adve tisor. I find stated as follows : and spontaneous pro luctions of this coun'ry. The Nir. Neil cultivated in Citton, with 24 hands, 142 apple of the Prickly Pear dyes a hea uifu! red-ie is acres, and produced 146 bales, averaging 526 lbs. tolerably plenty in the colonies ; but in the interior it eacı. abounds, and ihe inhabitan s build sufficient fire in "Westall cultivated 71 acres, with 7 field hands, the cluster to burn off the prickles, after which Oxen produced 76 bales of 540 lbs. each. are very fond of eating it.
"Randoni cultivat d 50 acres, 5 field hands, and pro“ Since writing the foregoing. I have seen the duced 50 tales of 560 lbs. each. coʻuntry on both sides of the Ro Guadaloupe, for Afty Munson cultivated 50 acres, 8 field hands, and promiles below Gonzales, as also thai portion of De. duced 43 bales of 560 lbs. cach. witt's colony which lies above Gonzales and Bexar. • Besides the above products in Cotton, each plan. The lands on the South West side of the river are ter raised a sufficient quantity of Corn, Sweet Pot 3very handsome, for the most part, well timbered ar:d toes, ont other vegetables for the consumption of watered. On the North Easi side of the river, I am thei-sospective families.' not as well pleased with the anp'arance of the land "'The lands he-e will produce any of the above in neither is the e so much timber and water as on the as great an abundance as can be fvund on the coast South West side, yet I think it will answer the views of the Mississippi or any part of the United States, of farmers and stock raiser:. Many persons in the and with one half of the labor, owing to the long time United States of the North have very incorrect infor- we have in planting each season.
Vines or every mation as regards the Texas of the Mexican republic, 1 kind'are more productive here than in any northern and the reputation of most of the sellers of iho Colo: climate." nies. The colonists are a very favored people-they have all the privileges of native citizens with very
few Some further observations, respecting the exceptions, and those exceptions embrace matters about which. the Americans care litile or nothing.
state of the country generally, the laws relative The colonists have no taxes 10 pay of any kind.
to Mexican Colonization, &c. &c., are reserved Thors is a heavy duty upon articles imported into || for future numbers of this work. The superior
EXPERIMENTS RELATIVE TO THE VALUE OF FREE
Fiat Justitia Ruat Cælum. advantages offered in that republic, over all the | her will, by "acts,” relative to the abolition of places yet proposed, as an asylum for the per- slavery. But slavites and popularity-hunters secuted people of color in these states, will be look to any thing but the real causes of the de. adverted to. The healthiness of the country cline of slave countries, for lessons of instruc. and the congeniality of the climate ; the convetion. They will open their eyes to the true nience and comparatively small expense of state of things when the poor, the humble, and emigrating thither; and the facility for extending | the contrite advocates of genuine republicanagricultural and commercial enterprise, will ism obtain the majority. also claim attention. And, what is still vastly Bbitish SLAVERY IN THE West Inmore important, the opportunities it will give the || DIE6.—The following may serve as a philanthropists of the present generation to MAKE
“ certain” persons, in a "certain"
quarter of the United States, who have LABOR, IN PRODUCING SUGAR, COTTON, RICE, &c., | been feloniously looking for British aid by the side of our southern slaveholders; the in a certaio” contiogency. The prosspeedy means it will afford the man of color to | perity of the British West India islands become wealthy, and rise above the degradation || have been nullified by various acts of the that slavery and prejudice has imposed on him," mother country."
The best managed thereby FURTHER PROVING to the people of this estates hardly yield an interest of two nation, that here, in America—the land of his birth per cent. on their capital-most of them and his natural home—he may be fitted for free- | are cultivated at an absolute loss,or workdom and self-government with perfect case anded for the benefit of persons having safety; and the irresistible influence which all mortgages upon the lands and slaves ; these practical considerations will have upon and the late insurrection in Jamaica, and the question of universal emancipation in the disturbances in other colonies, shew the American hemisphere, will be duly noticed and nearer and nearer approach of that pecommented on. That the door may be opened, riod which will certainly arrive, when a ere long, for the migration and settlement of our
black belt will be stretched from Cape colored people in the Mexican republic, we
Antonio, in Cuba, to the southernmost have no doubt; and that many of them ardently part of Trinidad-by a general “ nullidesire it, we know. Measures are in train for
fication.' the accomplishment of this important object : and
British House of Lords, May 24.it will be our duty to acquaint the public with The lord chancellor presented an imevery thing connected therewith, that may be
mense petition from Glasgow against the
continuation of colonial slavery-a pegenerally interesting.
tition signed by 135,000 persons. The
Earl of Harewood supported that part EMANCIPATION IN THE BRITISH COLONIES. | of the prayer of this petition which
The great“ mountain" of Christendom has, | called for an inquiry into the state of the within half a century, been frequently “in West Indies. Lord Suffield presented labour," and produced many a philanthropic several petitions, also against colonial
MOUSE. In England, however, its throes slavery ; his lordship declaring that to are now greater than ever;' and something | subject our fellow creatures to a state of more iceportant may, ere long, be expected. | slavery was a crime in the sight of heavAn American paper, of a recent date, in no
en, and that its existence in our colonies ticing the news from Europe, &c. has the fol
was a foul blot on the English name.lowing article. The first paragraph contains || His lordship also intimated that he should
resist an error, that should not be overlooked-name
any proposition for inquiring into ly: "The prosperity of the British West India the state of the slaves, when there was
80 loud a voice against the very existIslands has been nullified by various acts of
ence of slavery. the mother country.” The writer should have looked back to the despotisms of olden time, |tion of a good many petitions on the
In the Commons, after the presentabefore making this declaration. He might
subject, Mr. F. Buxton brought forward then have learned, that the oppressors of their his motion, respecting colonial slavery, species have, themselves, generally “nullified" || Since he gave his notice, he said he had their own prosperity, without the intervention altered the terms of his motion ; they of a “mother country.” We have heard much of now were declaring, “that it is the duty mismanagement, depreciation of property, and of the British legislature to put an end mortgaging of lands, in the British West India to the existence of slavery throughout Colonies, before the parent State expressed ll the dominions of Great Britain ;" and
Fiat Justitia Ruat Cælum. then moving—"that a select committee place where his youthful eye first caught a view be appointed to consider and report up- of the “cursed whip” and the "hellish manaon the safest and speediest mode of ef- cle”—where he first saw the slaves in chains, fecting the extinction of slavery through-forced along like brutes to the southern markets out the British colonies.” The honor- || for human flesh and blood! Then did his young able member earnestly pressed the mo- heart bound within his bosom, and his heated tion on the house, as a crisis had arrived blood boil in his veins, on seeing droves of a when something must be done, and as
dozen or twenty ragged men, chained together the increase of mortality in the West In- and driven through the streets, bare-headed and dia colonies showed the destructive char- | bare-footeil, in mud and snow, by the remorseless acter of the system. Mr. Macauly sup- soul sellers," with horsewhips and bludported the motion on the like ground.
geons in their hands!! It was the frequent Sir R. Peel and other members resisted repetition of such scenes as these, in the town of it; contending that it was most inconve
WHEELING, Virginia, that made those durable nient to call on the House to furnish an
impressions on his mind relative to the horrors abstract proposition. The motion oc
of the slave system, which have induced him to cupied the whole of the evening, the
devote himself to the cause of Universal Emanchancellor of the exchequer not resisting the demand for inquiry, but it will cipation. During an apprenticeship with a rebe observed that his lordship proposed spectable mechanic of that place, he was, by an abandonment to the motion. Sir F. these and other means, made acquainted with Burdett expressed the hope that an ar- the cruelties and the despotism of slavery, as rangement might be come to as to the tolerated in this land ; and he made a solemn vou different motions, so that the necessity to Almighty God, that, if favored with health and of a division might be avoided. Mr. strength, he would break at least one link of Buxton afterwards proposed an amend that ponderous chain of oppression, when he ment, upon his own motion, to the effect || should become a man. He has already lived that the committee be instructed to in- | to witness an important change in public sentiquire into the question of compensation, ment. The banner of African emancipation has but without detriment to the emancipa- || been reared on that very spot, then trodden by tion of the slaves. A committee, after the victims of insatiate rapine, and crimsoned a division, was agreed to; but, at the with their life-current through the agency of suggestion of the chancellor of the ex- the blood-extorting lash. Thousands are flockchequer, the nomination of its members ing to this glorious standard, in other places, was postponed. [The committee has and thousands will flock to it there. Go on! since been appointed.]
philanthropists of Wheeling—be valiant in this pacific and holy warfare; hold up the Christian
ensign to your brethren afar ;-and the "old We stated, in the Addenda to the last volume dominion” will, ere long, be purified from the of this work, that a Memorial to the Legislature sin and the abomination of slavery. Your cause of Virginia, urging the immediate adoption of is second to none for justice and sacred impormeasures for the abolition of slavery in that tance; and, applying the language of your own state, (or at least in the western part thereof,) || great statesman (the sage and patriot Jefferson) had been published in the “Wheeling Gazette ;" || to your opponents, be assured “the Almighty and we also promised the insertion of it in this has no attribute that can take side with them in number. It is with the greatest pleasure that such a contest.” Persevere, with undaunted we now redeem the pledge thus given. The firmness, and you cannot possibly fail of eventMemorial will be found at the close of this arti- || ual success. cle, and, no doubt, be read with deep and lively
From the Wheeling Gazette, of Aug. 25th, 1832. interest by every true friend of the cause of || MEMORIAL TO THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF Emancipation into whose hands it may fall. It has been circulated, pretty generally, through The undersigned, citizens of the counthe state, and will be numerously signed.
, profoundly sensible of the The editor of the Genius of Universal Eman-| great and inappreciable blessings which, cipation feels the most sincerc gratification in under the merciful dispensations of an reviewing the proceedings of the citizens of overruling Providence, they are permitWheeling, in this case; and he truly congratu- ted to enjoy-devotedly attached to the lates them upon the occasion. He takes the principles of the government under which greater interest in the matter, as that was the li they live, and actuated by an ardent de
MEMORIAL FROM WESTERN VIRGINIA.
Fiat Justitia Ruai
Cælum. sire to promote the prosperity of this, and every thing they hold dear upon their native state, and to protect them- | earth. selves and their posterity from every evil Your memorialists have heard with against which human wisdom can pro- surprise that an objection has been made vide-bey leave respectfully to call the to any attempt to discuss the question of attention of your honorable body to a | abolition, on the ground that it is calcusubject deeply interesting to the commu- |lated to excite insurrections among the nity, and requiring your immediate and slaves. This objection carries its own serious consideration. Your memnorial- | refutation on its face; for if insurrecists are fully aware of the extreme sensi- tions are so much to be dreaded, and so bility of niany of their fellow citizens easily excited, it is conclusive proof that upon all questions concerning our slave slavery ought immediately to be abolishpopulation, and that by expressing their | ed. if the danger of insurrections is so opinions in favor of abolition, they will great, does it not become prudent, wise, subject themselves to severe animadver- and brave men, to meet and overcome it sion, and a gross misconstruction of their | at once, rather than wait till the dispromotives. But they would feel that they portionate increase between the slaves were undeserving the privileges they en- and the whites, shall render the result of joy, and unworthy of the name of free- such a contest doubtful. Are the people men, if any consideration short of utter of Virginia such dastards and inhuman ruin and annihilation, could deter them monsters, that they will shrink from prefrom an unreserved avowal of their sen-sent danger, in order to defer it to a futiments in support of a measure, in the ture time, that it may fall with ten-fold success of which every humane, gene- violence upon the heads of their posterirous, noble, and patriotic feeling of their ty? Heaven forbid that they should ever hearts is deeply enlisted. Whilst, low- subject themselves to such disgrace and ever, they are resolved to exercise the infamy. rights which belong to them as citizens
Such objections your memorialists reof this commonwealth without restraint gard as extremely frivolous, and they feel or reserve, they will not be unmindful of assured that they can have no weight the respect which is due to you as the with persons capable of much reflection. representatives of the people; nor are And they deem it unnecessary to notice they disposed to trample on the rights, many other objections of the same chato disregard the interests and wishes, or
racter which have been urged against the even to contemn the prejudices of the public investigation of the question of rest of their fellow citizens. They will slavery. They therefore proceed to state neither suffer their own privileges to be some of the reasons why they wish to curtailed, nor infringe upon the rights of see the great work of abolition immediothers. Acting in pursuance of this determina-promitent are the following.
ately commenced-of which the most tion, they will not stop to consider, nor will they be so forgetful of what is due
Slavery is in itself unjust, and conto themselves, as to attempt to refute by of republican government which asserts
trary to that great fundamental principle argument, the absurd opinion which has been expressed, (probably without reflec- and independent”—an axiom which no
" that all men are by nature equally free tion, that the people of Western Virgi- intelligent and moral people will ever be nia have no right to agitate the question disposed to forget, and which they cannot of abolition, because they have fewer slaves than the people east of the Blue conscientiously disregard. Ridge. Neither will they enter into any
It cannot exist except in violation of discussion as to the rights which they, in the golden rule which prescribes “ that common with the rest of their fellow we should do unto others as we would citizens, have, to express their sentiments have others do unto us”—a rule of acfreely and without reserve upon all question worthy of its divine origin, and tions which may, directly or indirectly, which will never cease to be held in the affect the prosperity and welfare of the highest veneration, as long as the princommonwealth. That is a right not to ciples of justice and humanity shall conbe questioned, and which they will nottinue to influence the conduct of men. suffer to be controlled or withheld from It has an obvious and irresistible tenthem, without a sacrifice of their lives, || dency to destroy the virtue and morality