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EPISTLE I.

There's some peculiar in each leaf and grain,

Some unmark'd fibre, or some varying vein : TO SIR RICHARD TEMPLE, LORD COBHAM. Shall only man be taken in the gross ? Of the Knowledg. and Characters of Men.

Grant but as many forts of mind as moss.

That each from other differs, first confess; THE ARGUMENT.

Next, that he varies from himself no less; I. Tuat it is not sufficient for this knowledge to

Add nature's, custom's, reason's, paffion's strife,

And all opinion's colours cast on life. consider man in the abstract : books will not

Our depths who sathoms, or our shallows finds, serve the purpose, nor yet our own experience Quick whirls

, and shifting eddies, of our minds ? singly, ver. 1. General maxims, unless they be on human actions reason though you can; formed upon both, will but be notional, ver. 10.

It may be reason, but it is not man: Some peculiarity in every nian, characteristic to

His principle of action once explore, himself, yet varying from himself, ver. 15. Dif

That insane 'is his principle no more. ficulties arising from our own pallions, fancies, like following life through creatures you dissea, faculties, &c. ver. 31. The shortness of life to

You lose it in the moment you detea. 30 observe in, and the uncertainty of the principles

Yet more; the difference is as great between of adion in men to observe by, ver. 37, &c.

The optics seeing, as the objects seen. Our own principle of action often hid from our.

All manners take a tincture from our own ; selves, ver.41. Some fow characters plain, but

Or come discolour'd through our paflions shown. in general confounded, diffembled, or inconsiste

Or fancy's beam enlarges, multiplies, ent, ver. 51. The same man uiterly different in

Contracts, inverrs, and gives ten thousand dyes. different places and seasons, ver. 71. Unima

Nor will life's stream for observation tay, givatle weaknesses in the greatest, ver. 70. &c.

It hurries all too fast to mark their way: Nothing constant and certain but God and na.

In vain sedate reflections we would make, (take. ture, ver. 95. No judging of the motives from the actions; the same actions proceeding from Ost, in the passion's wild rotation soft,

When half our knowledge we must snatch, not contrary motives, and the same motives influ.

Our spring of action to ourselves is loft : cneing contrary actions, ver. 100. Il Yet, to

Tir'd, not determin'd, to the latt we yield, forni characters, we can only take the strongest

And what comes then is master of the Geld. actions of a man's life, and try to make them

As the laft image of that croubled heap, agree: the utter uncertainty of this, from na

When fenfe fublide and fancy sports in Necp, ture itself, and from policy, ver. 120. Charac. (Thi ugh past the recollection of the thought), ters given according to the rank of men of the

Becomes the stuff of which our dream is wrought: world, ver. 135. And some reason for it, ver.

Something as dim to our internal view, 143. Educa ion alters the nature, or at least

Is thus, perhaps, the cause of most we do. character, of many, ver. 149. Actions, passions,

True, some are open, and to all men known; opinions, manners, humours, or principles, all Others, so very close, they're hid from none; subject to change. No judging by nature, from (So darkness strikes the sense no less than light), ver. 158. to ver. 178. 111. lc only remains to

Thus gracious Chandos is belov'd at sight; sind (if we 'can) his ruling rafii in : that will

And every chi d hates Shylock, though his soul certainly influence all the rest, and can recon

Stil fits at squat, and peeps not from its hole. cile the seenuing or real inconsistency of all his

At half mankind when generous Manly raves, actions, ver. 175. Instanced in the extraordinary

All know 'tis virtue, for he thinks them knaves : character of Clodio, ver. 179 A caution against When universal homage Umbra pays, mit aking second qualities for first, which will

All see 'eis vice, and itch of vulgar praise.

6. destroy all poflibiliry of the knowledge of man.

When flattery glares, all hate it in a queen, kind, ver 210. Examples of the strength of the While one there is who charms us with his spleen. Tuling passion, and its continuation to the last

But these plain characters we rarely find : breath, ver. 222, &c.

Though strong the bent, yet quick che curns of Yes, you defpise the man ro books confin’d,

mind : Who from his study rails at human kind;

Or puzzling contraries confound the whole; Though what he learns he speaks, and may ad Or affectations quite reverse the soul. vance

The dull, fiae íalschood serves, for policy ; Some general maxims, or be right by chance. And in the cunning, truth itself's a lie: The coxcomb bird, so talkative and grave, Unthought-offraillies cheat us in the wise ; That from his cage criescuckold, whore, and knave, The fool lies hid in inconsistencies. Though many a passenger he rightly call,

See the same man, in vigour, in the gout; You hold him no philofopher at all.

Alone, in company; in place, or out;
And yet the face of all extremes is such, Early at business, and at hazard late;
Men may be read, as well as books, too much. Mad at a fox chase, wise at a debate ;
To observations which ourselves we make, Drunk at a borough, civil at a ball;
We grow more partial for th' observer's lake; Friendly at Hackney, faithless at Whitehall.
To written wisdom, as another's, less :

Catius is ever m ral, ever grave, i baxtims are diawn from notions, these from guess. Thnks who endures a knave, is next a knave;

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Save just at dinner-then presers, no doubt, Why risk the world's great empire for a punk? A rogue with venison to a faint without. 8o Cæsar perhaps might answer, he was drunk.

Who would not praise Patricio's high desert, But, fage historians! 'tis your task to prove His hand unftain'd, his uncorrupted heart, One action, conduct; one, heroic love. * His comprehensive head! all interests weighid, 'Tis from high life high characters are drawn: Al Europe fav'd, yet Britain not betray'd. A faint in crape is twice a saint in lawn; He thanks you noc, his pride is in picquette, A judge is just, a chancellor juster still ; Newmarket fame, and judgment at a bett. A gownman, learn'd; a bishop, what you will ; What inade (fay, Montagne, or more fage Char- Wise, if a minister ; but, if a king, ron!)

More wise, more learn'd, more juf, more every Otho a warrior, Cromwell a buffoon?

thing.

140 A perjur'd prince a leaden saint revere,

Court-virtues bear, like gems, the highest rate, A godless regent tremble at a star?

90 Born where heaven'sinfluence scarce can penetrate: The throne a bigot keep, a genius quit,

In life's low vale, the soil the virtues like, Faithless through piety, and dup'd through wit? They please as beauties, here as wonder strike. Europe a woman, child, or dotard rule,

Though the same fun with all-diffufive rays
And juft her wifeft monarch made a fool ? Blush in the rose, and in the diamond blaze,

Know, God and nature only are the same : We prize the stronger effort of his power,
In man, the judgment thoots at flying game; And jully set the gem above the flower.
A bird of passage! gone as soon as found,

'Tis education forms the common mind; Now in the moon perhaps, now under ground. Just as the twig is bent, the tree's incli'd. 150

la vain the fage, with retrospective eye, Boaftful and rough, your first son is a 'squire; Would from th' apparent What conclude the Why, The next a tradesman, meek, and much a liar; Infer the motive from the deed, and now, Tom struts a foldier, open, bold, and brave; That what we chanc'd was what we meant to do. Will sneaks a scrivener, an exceeding knave : bel.old if fortune or a mistress frowns,

Is he a churchman? then he's fond of power : Some plunge in business, others shave their crowns: A Quaker ? Ny : A Presbyterian? four : To case the soul of one oppreflive weight, A smart Free-hinker? all things in an hour. This quits an empire, that embroils a itate :

Ask men's opinions : Scoto now shall tell The tamc adust complexion has impell d

How trade increases, and the world goes well; Charles to the convent, Philip to the field. Strike off his pension, by the setting fun, 160

Not always actions show the man : we find And Britain, if not Europe, is undone. Who does a kindness is not therefore kind :

That gay Free-thinker, a fine talker once, Perhaps prosperity becalm’d his breast,

What turns him now a stupid, filent dunce?
Perhaps the wind just shifted from the east : Some god, or spirit, he ha- lately found;
Not therefore humble he who feeks retreat, Or chanc'd to meet a minister that frown'd.
Pride guides his steps, and bids him thun the great: Judge we by nature? Habit can efface,
Who combats bravely is not therefore brave, Interest o'ercome, or policy take place :
He dreads a death-bed like the meanest flave : By action ? those uncertainty divides!
Who reasons wisely is not therefore wise,

By paflions, these diflimulation hides :
His pride in reasoning, not in acting, lies. Opinions ? they ftill take a wider range : 170

But grant that actions beft discover man; 119 Find, if you can, in what you cannot change.
Take the most strong, and fort them as you can. Manners with fortunes, hun oursturn with climes,
The few that glare, each character mult mark, renets with bi oks, and principles with times.
You balance not the many in the dark.

Search then the ruling passion : 'There, alone, What will you do with such as disagree?

The wild are constant, and the cunning known; Suppress them, or miscall them policy?

The fool consistent, and the false sincere ; Muft then at once (the character to fave) Prielts, princes, women, no difienblers here. The plain rough hero turo a crafty knave? This clue once found, unravels all the rest, Alas! in truth the man but chang'd his mind, The prospect clears, and Wharton ands conseft. Perhaps was sick, in love, or had not din'd. Wharton, the scorn and wonder of our days, 186 Ak why from Britain Cæfar would retreat ? Whose ruling pallion was the luft of praise : Galar himself might whisper, he was beat. 130 Boro with whate'er could win it from the wise,

Women and fools must like him, or he dies :

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VARIATIONS.
After ver. 86. in the former editions.

VARIATIONS.
Triumphant leaders at an army's head,

The mighty Czar what mov'd to wed a punk? Hemai'o roved with glisies, pilfer cloth or bread; | The authty Czar would tell you he was drunk As meanly plunder as they bravely fought,

Altered as above, becauic izlar wrict his ComNow fave a people, and now save a groat. mentaries of this war, and does not tell you he was Ver. 129, in the former editions.

beat. · As Cælir too afforded an instance of both Ak why from Britain Cæsar made recreat? cases, it was thought better to make him the fingle Calar himself would tell you he was beac. example.

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Though wondering senates hung on all he spoke, The frugal Crone, whom praying priests attend,
The club must hail him master of the joke. Still ftrives to save the hallow'd taper's end,
Shall parts so various aim at nothing new? Collects her breath, as ebbing life retires,
He'll Thine a Tully and a Wilmot coo.

For one puff more, and in that puff expires.
Then turns repentant, and his God adores “ Odious: in woollen ! 'cwould a saint provoke,
With the same fpirit that he drinks and whores : (Were the last words that poor Narcissa fpoke)
Enough if all around him but admire, igo "No, let a charming chintz, and Brussels lace,
And now the punk applaud, and now the friar. Wrap my cold limbs, and shade my lifeless face :
Thus with each gift of nature and of art,

" One would not, furé, be frightful when one's And wanting noching but an honest heart;

“ dead

250 Grown all to all, from' no one vice exempe ; “And-Betty-give this cheek a little red.” And most contemptible, to fhun contempt; The courtier smooth, who forty years had shin'd His pafsion still, to cover general praise ;

An humble servant to all human kind, [ftir, His life, to forfeit it a thousand ways;

Just brought out this, when scarce his tongue could A constant bounty, which no friend has made; « 1f-where I'm going-1 could serve you, Sir!" An angel congue, which no man can persuade ; “ I give and I devise (old Euclio said, A fool, with more of wit than half mankind, 200 And figh’d) “ my lands and tenements to Ned." Too rash for thought, for action too refin'd: Your money, Sir!" My money, Sir! what all ? A tyrant to the wife his heart approves ;

“ Why-if I muft-(then wept) I give it Paul.” A rebel to the very king he loves;

The manor, Sir ?.-" The manor ! hold, he He dies, sad outcast of each church and state,

cry'd.

260 And, harder till! flagitious, yet not great. “ Not thar,-- cannot part with that" -and dy'd. Ask you why Wharton broke through every role? And you ! brave Cobham, to the latest breath, 'Twas all for fear the knaves should call him fool. Shall feel your ruling paffion strong in death :

Nature well known, no prodigies remain, Such in those moments as in all the past, Comets are regular, and Wharton plain.

Oh, save my country, Heaven:" İhall be your
Yet, in this fearch, the wiselt may mistake, aro laft.
If second qualities for first they take.
When Catiline by rapine swell’d his store;
When Cæsar made a noble dame a whore;

EPISTLE II.
In this the lust, in that the avarice,
Were means, not ends; ambition was the vice.
That very Cæsar, born in Scipio's days,
Had aim'd like him, by chastity, at praise.

Of the Characlers of Women.
Lucullus, when frugality could charm,
Had roasted turnips in the Sabine farm.

THERE is nothing in Mr. Pope's works more In vain th' observer eyes the builder's toil,

highly finished than this epiftle: Yet its fucBut quite mistakes the scaffold for the pile.

cess was in no proportion to the pains he took In this one paffion man can strength enjoy,

in composing it. Something be chanced to drop As fits give vigour, just when they destroy.

in a short advertisement prefixed to it, on its Time, that on all things lays his lenient hand,

first publication, may perhaps account for the Yet tames not this; it sticks to our latt fand.

small attention given to it. He said that no Consistent in our follies and our fins,

one character in it was drawn from the life. The Here honest nature ends as the begios.

public believed him on his word, and expressed Old politicians chew on wisdom paft,

little curiosity about a satire, in which there was And totter on in bufiness to the last;

nothing personal. As weak, as earnest; and as gravely out, 230 As sober Lanelborow dancing in the gout. Notuing so true as what you once let fall,

Behold a reverend fire, whom want of grace “ Most women have no characters at all.", Has made the father of a nameless race,

Matrer too soft a lasting mark to bcar, Shov'd from the wall perhaps, or rudley press'd And belt diftinguish'd by black, brown, or fair. By his own son, that passes by unbless'd :

How many pictures of one nymph we view, Still to his wench he crawls on knocking knees, All how unlike each other, all how true! And envies every sparrow that he sees.

Arcadia's Countels, here, in ermin'd pride, A salmon's belly, Helluo, was thy fate; Is there, Pastora by a fountain fide. The doctor call’d, declares all help too late: Here Fannia, leering on her own good man, “ Mercy! cries Helluo, mercy on my soul ! 240 | And there, a naked Leda with a swan. “ Is there no hope? --Alas!—then bring the jowl." | Let then the fair one beautifully cry,

In Magdalene's loose hair, and lifted eye,
Or drett in fmilcs of sweet Cecilia shine,

With fimpering angels, palms, and harps divine;
VARIATIONS.

Whether the charmer finner it, or faint it.
In the former editions, ver. 208.

If folly grow romantic, I must paint it.
Nature well known, no miracles remain. Come then, the colours, and the ground prepare!
Altered, as above, for very obvious reasons. Dip in the rainbow, trick her off in air ;

TO A LADY.

220

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Choose a firm cloud, before it fall, and in it

19 As Helluo, late di&tator of the feast, Catch, ere the change, the Cynthia of this minute. The nose of Haut-gout, and the tip of taste, 80

Rufa, whose eye, quick glancing o'er the Park, Critiqu’d your wine, and analyz'd your meat,
Attracts each light gay meteor of a spark, Yet on plain pudding deign'd at home to eat :
Agrees as ill with Rufa 1 udying Locke,

So Philomede, lecturing all mankind
As Sappho's diamonds with her dirty Imock; On the soft paffion, and the taste refin'd,
Or Sappho at her toilet's greasy task,

Th' address, the delicacy-stoops at once,
With sappho fragrant at an cvening mask: And makes her hearty meal upon a dunce.
Sy morning insects, that in muck begun,

Flavia's a wit, has too much sense to pray; Shine, buzz, and fly-blow in the setting fun. To toast our wants and wishes is her way; How soft is Silia! fearful to offend ; 29

Nor asks of God, but of her stars, to give The frail one's advocate, the weak one's friend. T'he mighty blessing," while we live, to live," 90 To her Caliita pror'd her conduct nice;

Then all for death, that opiate of the soul! And guod Simplicius asks of her advice.

Lucretia's dagger, Rofamonda's bowl. Sudden, ihe storms the raves! You tip the wink, Say, what can cause such impotence of mind ? But spare your censure; Silia does not drink. A fpark too fickle, or a spoule too kind, All eyes may fee from what the change arose,

Wise wretch : with pleasures too refind to please ; All eyes may fee--a pimple on her nose.

With too much spirit to be e'er at ease; Papilla wedded to her amorous spark,

With too much quickness ever to be taught; Sighs for the shades-" How charming is a park!" With too much thinking to have common thought: A park is purchas'd, but the fair, he sees

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You purchase pain with all that joy can give, All bath'd in tears—" Oh odious, odious trees!” And die of nothing but a rage to live. Ladies, like variegated culips, shew,

Turn then from wits; and look on Simo's mate, 'Tis :o their changes half their charms we owe;

No ass so meek, no ass so obstinate. Fire by defeat, and delicately weak,

Or her, that owns her faults, but never mends, Their happy fpois the nice admirer take.

Because she's honest, and the best of friends. To as thus Calypso once each heart alarni'd, Or her, whose life the church and scandal share, Aw'd without virtue, without beauty charm'd;

For ever in a pallion, or a prayer, Her tongue bewitch'd as oddly as her eyes,

Or her, who laughs at hell, (but like her Grace) Less wit than mimic, more a wit than wife; Cries, " Ah! how charming, if there's no such Strange graces fill, and stranger flights the had,

place!" Was just not ugly, and was just not mad; 50

Or who in (wcet vicisitude appears
Yet Be'er so fure our passion to create,

Of mirth and opium, ratafie and tears,
As when the touch'd the brink of all we hate. The daily anodyne, and nightly draught,
Narcissa's nature, tolerably mild,

To kill those foes to fair ones, time and thought.
To make a walh, would hardly stew a child; Woman and fool are two hard things to hit;
Has ev'n been prov’d to grant a lover's prayer, For true no meaning puzzle3 more than wit,
And paid a tradelinan once to make him ftare; But what are thele to great Atosla’s mind?
Gave alms at Easter, in a Chriftian trim;

Scarce once herself, by turns all womankind! And made a widow happy, for a whim.

Who, with herself, or others, from her birth Why then declare good nature is her scorn, Finds all her life one warfare upon earth : When 'tis by that alone she can be borne ? 60 Shines in exposing knaves, and painting fools, Why pique all mortals, yet affect a name? Yet is, whate'er the hates and ridicules. A fool to pleasure, yet a llave to fame :

No thought advances, but her eddy brain Now deep in Taylor and the Book of Martyrs,

Whisks it about, and down it goes again. Now drinking citron with his Grace and Chartres; Full sixty years the world has been her trade, Now conscience chills her, and now pallion burns; The wiseft fool much time has ever made. And atheism and religion take their turns;

From loveless youth to unrespected age, A very Heathen in the carnal part,

No paflion gratify'd, except her rage, Yet fill a fad good Christian at her heart. So much the fury itill out-ran the wit, See fin in state, majetically drunk,

The pleasure miss'd her, and the scandal hit. Proud as a peeress prouder as a punk; 70

Who breaks with her, provokes revenge from hell, Chaite to her husband, frank to all belide,

But he's a bolder man wire dares be well. 13° A teeming mistress, but a barren bride.

Her every turn with violence pursued, What then? let blood and body bear the fault, Nor more a torm her hate than gratitude: Her head's untouch'd, that noble seat of thought: To that each pallion turns, or foon or late; Such this day': do&rine-in another fit Love, if it makes her yield, must make her hate : She fins with poets through pure love of wit. Superiors ? death! and equals? what a curse! What has not fir'd her bofoin or her brain? But an inferior not dependant ? worse. Cæsar and Tall-boy, Charles and Charlemagne.

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VARIATIONS.

VARIATIONS.
Ver. 77 What has not fir’d, &c.] In the MS.
In whose mad brain the mix'd ideas roll,
of Tall-boy's breeches, and of Cæsar's soul.

After ver. 122, in the MS.
Oppress'd with wea'th and wit, abundance sad!
One makes her poor, the other makes her mad.

200

210

Offend her, and she knows not to forgive ; If Queensberry to strip there's no compelling,
Oblige her, and she'll hate you while you live : 'Tis from a handmaid we must take a Helen.
But die, and she'll adore you—then the bust From peer or bishop 'tis no easy thing
And temple rise then fa!l again to duft. 140 To draw the man who loves his God, or king :
Last night her lord was all that's good and great; Alas! I copy (or my dranght would fail),
A knave this morning, and his will a cheat. From honeft Mah'met, or plain Parson Hale.
Strange! by the means defeated of the ends, But grant, in public men sometimes are shown,
By spirit robb’d of power, by warmth of friends, A woman's seen in private life alone :
By wealth of followers! without ope distress Our bolder talents in full light display'd;
Sick of herfelf, through very selfishness!

Your virtues open faireft in the shade.
Atoffa, curs'd with every granted prayer,

Bred to disguise, in public 'eis you hide; Childless with all her children, wants an heir. There, none difinguish 'twixt your shame or pride, To heirs unknown descends th' unguarded store, Weakness or delicacy; all so nice, Or wanders, heaven-directed, to the poor. 150 That each may seem a virtue, or a vice.

Pidures, like these, dear madam, to design, In men we various ruling passions find; Asks no firm hand, and no unerring line;

In women, two almost divide the kind; Some wandering touches, some reflected light, Those, only fix'd, they first or last obey, Some flying stroke alone can hit them right: The love of pleasure, and the love of sway. For how should equal colours do the knack?

That, nature gives ; and where the lesson taught Chameleons who can paint in white and black ? Is but to please, can pleasure seem a fault ?

“ Yet Chloe sure was form'd without a spot." Experience, this ;-by man's oppreffion curst, Nature in her then err'd not, but forgot.

They feek the second not to lose the first. “ With every pleasing, every prudent part,

Men, fome to business, some c9 pleasure take; « Say, what can Chloc want ?"-She wants a But every woman is at heart a rake : heart.

16c Men, fome to quiet, some to public ftrife; She freaks, behaves, and acts just as the ought; But every lady would be queen for life. But never, never, reach'd one generous thought. Yet mark the fate of a whole sex of queens: Virtue she finds too painful an endeavour,

Power all their end, but beauty all the means : 226 Content to dwell in decencies for ever.

In youth they conquer with so wild a rage, So very reasonable, fo unmov'd,

As leaves them scarcu a subject in their age : As never yet to love, or to be lov'd.

For foreign glory, foreign joy, they roam; She, while her lover pants upon her breast, No thought of peace or happiness at home. Can mark the figures on an Indian cheit;

But wisdom's triumph is well-tim'd retreat, And when she sees her friend in deep despair, As hard a science to the fair as great ! Obferves how much a chintz exceeds mohair. 170. Beauties, like tyrants, old and friendless grown, Forbid it, heaven, a favour or a debt

Yet hate repose, and dread to be alone, She e'er should cancelhut she may forget. Worn-out in public, weary every eye, Safe is your secree fill in Chloe's ear;

Nor leave one sigh behind them when they die. But none of Chlee's shall you ever hear.

Pleasures the fex, as children birds, pursue, 231 Of all her dears she never slander'd one,

Still out of reach, yet never out of view;
But cares not if a thousand are undone.

Sure, if they catch, to spoil the toy at molt,
Would Chloe know if you're alive or dead? To covet flying, and regret when loft :
She bids her footman put it in her head.

At last, to follies youth could scarce defend,
Chloe is prudent-would you too be wise ? It grows their age's prudence to pretend;
Then never break your heart when Chloe dies. 180 Alham'd to own they gave delight before,

One certain portrait may (I grant) be seen, Reduc'd to feign it, when they give no more: Which heaven has varnish'd out, and made a As hags hold Sabbaths, less for joy than spite, queen: So these their merry, miserable night;

240 The same for ever! and describ'd by all

Still round and round the ghosts of beauty glide,
With truth and goodness, as with crown and ball. And haunt the places where their honour dy'd.
Poets heap virtues, painters gems at will,
And show their zeal, and hide their want of skill.
'Tis wellbut, artists ! who can paint or write,

VARIATIONS.
To draw the naked is your true delight.
That robe of quality so struts and swells.

After ver. 198. in the MS.

Fain I'd in Fulvia spy the tender wife;
None see what parts of nature it conceals : 190
Th’exadeft traits of body or of inind,

I cannot prove it on her for my life :
We owe to models of an humble kind.

And, for a noble pride, 1 blush no less,
Instead of Berenice to think on Bess.

Thus while immortal Cither only fings {kings,
VARIATIONS.

(As Clarke and Hoadly preach.) for queens and After ver. 148, in the MS.

The nymph that ne'er read Milton's mighty line, This death decides; nor lets the blelling fall May, if the love and merit verse, have mine. On any one she hates, but on them all.

Ver. 207, in the first edizion : Curs'd chance! this only could afflict her more, In several men we several passions find; If any part should wander to the poor,

In women, two almoft divide the kind,

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