Imágenes de páginas

D'OX 778, long-suffering, not hastening to punish the sinner immediately after

his transgression, but leaving him time, and affording him opportunities to retrace his evil course. Mendelssohn explains the three last epithets thus: "He who is moved with compassion when he sees the misery of others, is called DN79; and if he is thereby urged on disinterestedly to assist the sufferers, he is juin.... But God alone is j1301 Dinn, whilst man is only

the ,ארך אפים and in the same manner the former only is ;מרחם וחונן

latter merely 98 7789.” This distinction seems to signify, that in God alone those qualities are permanent, inherent, and necessary attributes; while in man they manifest themselves only temporarily, on certain occasions, and

not as a spontaneous emanation of his nature. 70N 27, abundant in goodness, granting His gifts and blessings beyond the

desert of man; not distributing his bounties with cold and rigid justice, but

prompted by kindness, and by the desire of beatifying His creatures. noki, full of truth, not only recompensing the pious as He has promised, but

eternally true to Himself, pursuing His sublime and inscrutable schemes for the salvation of mankind; faithfully governing the world in accordance with

the truths revealed by Him. D'DSXS 700 783, keeping mercy for thousands, remembering the good deeds of

the ancestors to the thousandth generation (xx. 6); reserving reward and

recompensation to the remotest descendants. 80ni yuai Fly XVI, pardoning every transgression; bearing with indulgence

the sins of man, and by forgiveness restoring him to the original purity of his soul. The Rabbins (Talm. Jom. 36 b) distinguish ly as the sin com

(); (, , (). is ever ready to pardon all transgressions, either springing up from a corrupt heart or careless unconsciousness of the snares surrounding the path of

virtue. Apexs 7p. However, as man is a free agent, as he is responsible for his deeds,

and as he possesses a spirit capable of discerning between right and wrong, God cannot leave entirely unpunished repeated wickedness and obstinate persistence in evil; His goodness cannot destroy His justice; He is often compelled to inflict chastisement to reform the sinner; man is to gain salvation by exerting his innate divine powers; he is to strive after the purity of God with perseverance and zeal; but in these exertions he can be certain of God's gracious assistance; the incompetency of man is aided by a superior power; and the justice of God is as much tempered by kindness, as His kind ness is kept in constant equipoise by His paternal severity. Another inter

" 5 , ,

from malice and_spirit of ,פשע ;(זדונות) mitted from evil disposition God .(שגגות) from error or heedlessness ,חטאה and ,(מרדים) opposition

see on ,פקד עון אבות וכ' and of the following ,ונקה לא ינקה pretation of

p. 349.



To p. 205. Royle (in Kitto's Cyclop. of Bibl. Lit. ii. p. 976) believes the hyssop of the Bible to be identical with the caper-plant (capparis spinosa), called in Arabic asuf, which grows in several valleys about Mount Sinai, “ creeping up the mountain side like a parasitic plant, its branches covered with small thorns." But although Royle's demonstration is admirable for its logical precision, he does not succeed to raise his opinion beyond a vague hypothesis, the principal support of which is an accidental, but often illusory, resemblance of names.

To p. 232. Another interpretation of D'ign is divided into five sections,” namely the centre, the right and left wings, the van, and the rear, which was the usual arrangement of the Oriental armies; see Freytag, Chrestom. Arab. p. 120; Ewald, Geschichte des Volkes Israel ii. p. 54, note. If we, indeed, connect Wion with the number Won, it must soon have lost that original meaning, and received the general signification of armed, arrayed for battle, as is clear from Josh. i. 14; iv. 12. But the obvious analogy of vion and rosn, Josh. iv. 12 and 13, seems to be more in favour of the acceptation adopted by us.

To p. 249. Ewald proposes to read in ver. 20, qunny instead of hunn, and translates: “and it came to pass that the cloud both caused darkness and illumined the night.” If this supposition is confined to a mere change of the vowels (although the correspondence with the following 78'would require 700'), it is impossible to admit another conjecture of the same sagacious critic, adopting in ver. 25 the reading of the Samaritan codex 704'instead of 7D'), and explaining 2013 in the sense of “paralyzing, weakening"; that alteration is unnecessary, whilst this meaning of and is questionable; for it is an unsupported assertion, that it signifies in Eccl. ii. 3, “ to be loth or weary.”

To p. 281 (VER. 25). Still farther from the truth is the acceptation of those who take pauni pn in the sense of “oracle and decision,” so that this passage would imply, that a perpetual oracle assisted Moses in carrying out his plans, or that a prophetic voice guided Israel during the journeys. The emphatical repetition of the adverb OV: “ There God made for them ODVD Pn, and there He tried them,” shows clearly that our text does not allude to a permanent prophecy, but to one single admonition at a certain time. And although bĐVO is used in the signification of decision, in the term. QUOwn (see p. 541); PM alone does not signify oracle, but law, statute, or edict (from Pon, to appoint, or decree, originally to engrave or inscribe).

To p. 586. The attributes of God, are:***"The Eternal is the Eternal; that is, as the Talmud (Rosh Hash. 17, 6)

explains it: “I am '” before man sins, and I am '” after he has sinned and

repented,” He does not chastise for ever; His loving-kindness changes not. 5x, He is all-powerful, Lord of the Universe, ruler of nature and mankind; might

and glory belong to Him alone. D107, merciful, full of affectionate sympathy for the sufferings of human frailty;

looking with feeling compassion on the imperfections, the aberrations, and

the miseries of mankind. 1137, gracious, assisting and helping wherever aid is necessary, consoling the

afflicted and raising up the oppressed.


To p. xxxi.

The origin and character of the Christians are not treated with greater consideration by Tacitus, who narrates (Ann. xv. 44), that Nero charged with having caused the conflagration of Rome, “quos per flagitia invisos vulgus Christianos appellabat. Auctor nominis ejus Christus Tiberio imperitante per procuratorem Pontium Pilatum supplicio affectus erat; repressaque in praesens exitiabilis superstitio rursus erumpebat, non modo per Jadaeam, originem ejus mali, sed per urbem etiam, quo cuncta indique atrocia aut pudenda confluunt celebranturque.” We find here, in an unusually repulsive form, the same inveterate animosity and blind hatred, which the heathens felt against all those who professed other religious opinions, or followed different rites and ceremonies. The Christians were, indeed, long held in the same abhorrence as the Jews, from whom they had sprung; and the persecution which Claudius ordered against the Jews, included, as a matter of course, the Christians likewise.

To p. 63. Ewald (Geschichte des Volkes Israel, ii. p. 89) is of opinion that Sinai is the earlier, Horeb the later name. But if this is the case, did both peaks, the northern and the southern one, bear the same name? And what are the reasons which Ewald adduces for this opinion?“ Deborah (Jud. v. 5) uses the name of Sinai, whereas that of Horeb is not found earlier than-Exod. iii. 1; xvii. 6, etc.,” for that critic assigns these portions of Exodus to the “ fourth historian” of the Pentateuch.-For those who are familiar with Ewald's theory of analyzing, or rather anatomizing, the sacred books, this remark requires no elucidation. However, it is evident from xvii. 6, compared with xix. 1, 20, that Horeb designates the whole region, since already during the encampment of the Hebrews in Rephidim, Moses stood "on a rock in Horeb,” but that Sinai is the name of the highest mountain of that region, on which the revelation took place.


,התל and is formed from ,הֲתִלת in Judges xvi


is used_instead of) הֵתַלְתּ is a Chaldaism ,תָּחֲלוּ instead of the contraction תְּהָחֵלוּ The

form-הוֹשִׁיב from הוֹשַׁבְתָּ

To p. 145. . ) ,

. , a which occurs both in regular and irregular verbs (especially "')); for instance, niyxpro (Ezek. xlvi. 22); yun! (1 Sam. xvii. 47); 17710! (Neh, xi. 17); and even in proper names, as 2000: (Ps. lxxxj,6); see Gesen., Lehrg. p. 323, 386.—The root 5So is kindred with thė Chaldee Sho, from which the frequently used substantive #515098, irrision, is used; compare S. D. Luzzato on Isaiah xxx. 10, in Rosenmüller's Scholia in Vet. Test. in Compendium Redacta II. xix.- Another instance of compensating a long

8: , .

.ינחילם instead of יִנְחֵלֶם :8 .rowel by a dagesh forte is in 1 Sam


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