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While these events were passing in Spain, 1808.

May. Portugal also was convulsed by this political earthquake. The first insurrection in Madrid An agent had been no sooner known at Badajoz, than an Badajoz to anonymous proclamation from that city was cir-ards at culated on the Portugueze border; and a lieutenant of the Walloon Guards, by name Moretti, was sent to consult at Lisbon with General Carraffa upon

the means of withdrawing the Spanish troops. Carraffa thought it too hazardous to declare himself at that time; but though in other Neves, t. iii. respect acting altogether in subservience to Junot, he did not make him acquainted with the transaction, and Moretti returned in safety. Junot was now disturbed from his dreams of Difficulties

of Junot's royalty; yet his head lay as uneasily as if it had situation. worn a crown.

Like the other French commanders, when the insurrectionary movement became general throughout Spain, he thought it impossible that any continued or formidable resistance could be opposed to the power of France: but his own situation was exposed to peculiar danger; he was farther removed from assistance than any of the other commanders in the Peninsula ; there was an English squadron


1808. May.


Chap. in sight, watching the course of events, and in de

fiance of all his vigilance, well informed of whatever was going on; and it was not to be doubted, that if a favourable opportunity offered, Great Britain would make an effort for the deliverance of Portugal. Pursuant to his instructions from Madrid, he had sent into Galicia the remains of Taranco's division, so that Carraffa's was now the only one which remained; some 4000 of these were at Porto, the rest were in detachments at Lisbon, Mafra, Santarem, and on the

other side the Tagus at Setubal, Cezimbra, and. Neves, iii. other places. In the hope of exciting a national,

feeling against them, and thereby counteracting that sympathy which their common language, manners, and religion, and now a sense of their common interest, were producing between them and the Portugueze, rumours were spread, that by an arrangement made with Buonaparte, Portugal was to be governed by Spain till its fate should be determined at a general peace. But this artifice failed. The Spaniards were not to be deceived; from the time when they knew that Ferdinand had been inveigled to Bayonne, there was an end of all good understanding between them and the French; and they were so ready to engage in personal quarrels, from the national indignation which possessed them, that it was found necessary to confine them to their quarters at an early hour in the evening. Care was taken to divide them into small detachments, and station every where with them a


1808. May.


superior number of French. Many deserted, CHAP. especially of those who were quartered beyond the Tagus. Some made their way to the Spanish frontiers in strong parties. The regiment of Murcia marched for Spain in a body, in defiance of its colonel ; a detachment of 600 French was sent from Lisbon to intercept them; they met at Os Pegoens; this was a case in which individual Neves, iii. strength and determination were of more avail observador

Portugucz, than military discipline; the Spaniards were vic-287. torious, and proceeded on their way, receiving the utmost kindness from the people, and nearly two hundred wounded French were landed at Lisbon.

Badajoz was the point to which the Spaniards Kellermann repaired from Alem-Tejo and the south of Por- command tugal, and the numbers who were collected there

Tejo. made such an addition to the strength of the garrison, that General Kellermann, who was then at Elvas, felt himself ill at ease in the neighbourhood. That general had taken the command in Alem-Tejo upon Solano's departure, and so different was the spirit of his administration, that one of his first measures was by his own authority to impose an extraordinary contribution upon the exhausted province. Evora was to pay 10,000 cruzados novos, Elvas and Portalegre 8000 each, Villa Viçosa 6000, and other places in proportion. The sum was exacted within six hours after the demand: but it was restored without delay, in consequence of peremptory orders from Observador Junot, when complaint was made to him of this p. 277.

in Alcm.

Portuguez, X.

1808. May.

May 22

He attempts to conciliate

CHAP. unauthorized exaction. He was displeased with

Kellermann for presuming to levy money at his own pleasure, and this was no time for exasperating the people by farther acts of oppression. Already they were in so perturbed a state, that it was deemed expedient to order all absent bishops and beneficed priests to return to their dioceses and cures, and there exert themselves in preserving order, and exhorting the people to submission. Buonaparte had reckoned upon the good services of the clergy; experience, he said, had shown him that countries where there were many friars were easily conquered; . . he was undeceived of both errors in the Peninsula.

In the hope of reviving old animosities, and the Spani- exciting the Portugueze to act against the SpaBadajoz. niards, Kellermann called out the Ordenanças,

and required the people of Elvas to take arms for the defence of their city, which, he said, the Spaniards, eternal enemies to the name and independence of Portugal, were preparing to attack from Badajoz. At the same time he sent a letter to the Spaniards of that place, exhorting them to return to their duty, and promising intercession, and pardon and protection. No answer was returned; he then put forth an argumentative address to the Commandant and the Representatives of Extremadura, asking them what end they could propose to themselves from the revolt in which they had blindly engaged? The House of Bourbon had renounced all its rights to Spain; Ferdinand was in France, and the right of ap

June 1.


1808. June.

pointing a king for the Spaniards had been trans- CHAP. ferred to the Emperor. Did they wish to draw upon themselves the evils by which France had been ravaged during so many years ? If that country had come with glory out of a struggle which would for ever be celebrated, it was owing to her internal strength, her valour, and above all the talents of that extraordinary man whom Heaven had sent to reign over her, for her happiness, and for the happiness of the Spaniards also, if they chose it. Could they expect a like issue? Would valour alone suffice to effect it? What was their position? Half Spain had declared for the new order of things. Their own countrymen would take the field against them. The French armies were in the midst of the land, under the greatest generals, without enemies, and abundantly supplied with all the means of war. On their part they had only some soldiers who had murdered their chiefs; a populace vain of their own strength, because they had met with no resistance; and a few miserable English, the eternal artists of discord, active in stirring up enemies to the French, and always ready, like cowards, to abandon the victims of their infernal policy. Nor was there any thing in the change which had taken place to provoke their opposition. At the commencement of the preceding century Spain had called Philip V. to the throne, forthe purpose of establishing an invariable union with France. The establishment upon that throne of a prince of the new French dynasty was no

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