« AnteriorContinuar »
4. To prevent misunderstanding between the tcachers in any school, it must be understood that where there is a master he must always take the lcad, and be answerable for the order of the school, and in fact, that his efforts be directed to the understandings of the children, so as to make them original and deep thinkers, whilst the efforts of the mistress must be directed to the hearts, or wills, of the children, so as in after life to make them amiable, mild, gentle, clcanly, delicate, and kind in all their actions; the master imparting a degree of energy of character to the pupils, the mistress a degrec of mildness and amiability.
5. That as the playground is the place where the child shews its qualities and manifests its tempers and dispositions, it is requisite that both tcachers constantly watch the children therein, for it is here where the character must be formed, and the child taught to bear and forbear with its neighbours, and to curb its selfish principles, and learn to think of the happiness of others as well as its own; it will learn the advantages of sociability, and be taught to fccl that happiness cannot exist among numbers without mutual kindness on both sides; and being taught this in infancy, its future life must, in some mcasure, be assected thereby. The little boys, in all instances, must be encouraged in acts of kindness and attention towards the little girls, and this will be sure, from the nature of the female mind, to meet with a suitable and proper return, for kindness begets kindness, and love begets love.
6 That especial care be taken to allow the children in the play ground as much freedom as possible, and never to interfere unless the actions of the children are decidedly mischievous or wrong in themselves, for if kept under too inuch controul, their characters will not develope themselves, and the tcachers will be thereby prevented from encouraging the good ones, and essecting a cure for those that are bad All innocent amusements may be allowed, and the chil also permitted to crcate them for themselves; when, how
ever, the swings are going, they must then be subject to the following rules, except those who do not wish to swing; for it must never be lost sight of, that a teacher is never to force a child to swing against its inclination, Nature itself will increase the timid child's courage, as it perceives the successful efforts and feats of the more courageous pupils; it will then wish to try of its own accord, but would be much injured and retarded by being forced before it was prepared.
7. Rule I. That a circle be made of chalk, round the poles, of such a diameter as the master shall think fit, and that no child be permitted to go within that circle, except the four children that are swinging; and when the four children that are swinging have had their turn, they must be outside the circle before the others are allowed to come in, and not again allowed to swing, so long as there are others who have not had their turn. The mistress to attend to the girls' pole, and the master to attend to the boys', and both to be conducted on the same principles; the mistress taking especial care to teach her girls to swing in a proper manner, and not to allow them to get into the habit of swinging in an indelicate manner, and make any kind of posture that would offend the eye, and on no account to allow the children to tie the ropes together for the purpose of sitting to swing, nor on any occasion to push' each other round. If this is attended to, accidents cannot occur.
Rule II. That for the purpose of combining physical exercise with the mental improvement of those children who are looking on outside the circle, they be desired to say the pence table, time table, or some portion of either the addition, subtraction, or multiplication tables, at the discretion of the teacher, during the time the four children are swinging, and when the portion of either table is finished which the teacher has desired, then the children who are swinging must be out, and four others allowed to take their places, according to the rules before mentioned; the counters moving their hands altogether, or their feet altogether, as
directed by the teacher. This will secure exercise and amusement to the lookers on, as well as to those that are swinging, which will tend to order, regularity, and justice, all of which are indispensable; but when the children have their wood bricks, to be taught the principles of brick building, the swings are not to used.
The children to be taught to build triangular pillars, oblong pillars, pentagons, hexagons, septagons, octagons, nonagons, and decagons; they may also build circular and elliptical pillars, the teachers at first superintending the work, until some of the elder children can be entrusted to do it for them; fronts of houses, and other buildings, may also be imitated, so as to combine amusement with instruction, all of which may be of great use, to the boys especially, in after life; and should they emigrate, as many at this time do, its uses to such are evident; besides, it keeps them out of mischief, and prevents idleness, the product of much evil and misery. Care must be taken not to let the children throw the bricks about, which at first they are sure to do, if not prevented. They must never be allowed to take them into the privies, which they are apt to do, if not repeatedly told to the contrary.
All orders should be given when the entire of the children are in the gallery, or when they are so situated as that they can all hear, and little children can scarcely ever be told the rules too often. The prophet's advice must be rc membered, “line upon line, precept upon precept." A place must be made to put the bricks away when done with, and the children must always be taught to put them up properly; "to have a place for every thing, and every thing in ils place. To poor children this will be of lasting benefit; to girls as well as boys Half the complaints against servants of both sexes arise from want of attention to those things.
Rule IV. At stated times, and as opportunities occur, the [cachers will tell the children the names of the flowers and shrubs, cautioning them, at the same time, not to injure them, for their own sakes, because they will not look so pretty, and then they cannot be gratified by seeing them every day; to tell them as much about the flowers as they can, what class they belong to, which is the stem, root, and other parts, to point out how they are nourished, and, when injury is done to any plant, notice must always be taken of the fact, in the presence of all the children. The teachers must never forget that they are to legislate for all, and to let all have the benefit of their advice; it is folly to expect children to obey laws which are not frequently explained to them. Little faults must never be overlooked, then great ones will be rarely committed. Never correct a child in anger; ascertain the temper of the child, and the quality of the fault it has committed, before you correct it at all. Some will need no other correction but the expression of your displeasure, others must be treated differently, each according to character, which must be well studied by all teachers, who would excel in their noble occupation, and who wish success and the blessing from heaven to crown their labours. Whatever the world may think, infant teachers must bear in mind that their occupation is inferior to none, and that the day is fast approaching, when the infant teacher will be thought equal to any of his brethren, and that his office and its responsibility are greater and more important than the teaching at any other period. He is to lay the foundation, and if that is defective, however beautiful the superstructure may be, the building is unsafe, and cannot stand. Let teachers be careful in correcting their scholars, be sure they know all the rules before they are corrected for violating them, let them have opportunities of knowing you, and feeling confidence in you, dependence upon you, and, above all, love for you; this last will produce all its subordinates, and will save you much trouble, and your pupils some pain. Do not be always threatening, nor often promising, but if there
is necessity for either, perform what you say; if you do not, your words will be valueless; do not keep the infants too long in the school, or on the gallery; remember you have to form the character, and renovate the constitution; do not injure it by too much eonfinement; spend a large portion of time in the play-ground ; strong bodies are fit for strong minds, though not always found together: fccd the children's minds by little and little, do not cram them one day and neglect them another, but watch when they are hungry, and then fecd them, always keeping in mind that children can, on fine days, be instructed out of doors, as well as within. Watch the state of the wcather; it has mighty influence on the minds of children; on dull days give them something lively and animating, on sine days give them the drier and more uninterculing lessons; you will, if you think, find proper time for all of every kind and degree If you are dull yourself, let the other teacher take them in hand ; if you are both out of tune, let the children alone, until you are in another mood; if the weather permits, send them out, and in half an hour you will find a difference in yourself and the pupils. Do not be always slapping the pupils and cusing them about; correct properly, and as seldom as you can; remember firmness is always requisite in the management of children, cruelty never. It is an important fact, that I never saw an orderly school in any part of the three kingdoms, where these points were unattended to. Remember you cannot do a child a greater service, in any rank of life, than to teach it to use the faculties which God has blessed it with, at the earliest possible period; let it never be led to expect others to do for it, what it can do for itself; those that have not been taught to help themselves, if reduced to a state of poverty, are the most wretched beings upon the face of the carth. The time is approaching, when distinctions will be made between the useful and the useless persons in the world ; the country which possesses