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developed by means of the successive transformations of the musical scale into another, in which the ratios of the notes to the fundamental note, and to each other, were as simple as possible. It is thus that the different Greek scales have been transformed by degrees into our two modern scales — that is, into the major scale and the minor scale. The first was more easily to be found, but the second, with its two variations for the ascending and descending movement, is not found completely developed until the seventeenth century, when music had attained an admirable degree of development, and when there were magnificent schools of music and singing in the principal cities of Italy.
Yet another idea characterizes our modern music: the idea of the fundamental note and chord. This idea did not exist in Greek music, although certain passages of Aristotle point to something similar. It did not exist in the Ambrosian chant, but began to be developed with polyphonic music. The interlaced singing of the Middle Ages demanded, as a practical condition, that the different singers should frequently return to one note, as to a firm resting place, in order to keep together. The more complicated the harmony was, the more necessary such a resting place became. It is thus that the idea of the fundamental note or tonic was developed, and later, the idea of the fundamental chord and of key. This precept has become more and more rigid, as music has become more complicated. It is now required that a piece of music should begin and end with the fundamental chord, which can only be a perfect major or minor chord, and that in the following out of the musical idea, and in the development of the great masses of chorus and orchestra, the fundamental note should often recur, as a necessary resting place for our comprehension.
From «The Theory of Sound in its
Relation to Music.» 11-32
SARL Blind, essayist, scientist, and revolutionist, was born at TRES Mannheim, September 4th, 1820, and educated at HeidelSM berg and Bonn Universities. In 1847 when all Europe was stirred by the progressive impulse which developed the German revolutionary movement of 1848 and 1849, Blind was still a student at the University. He was an enthusiastic sympathizer in the revolutionary movement, and, after being repeatedly imprisoned, took refuge in England where he lived until 1867, being then allowed to return to Germany. He has devoted much attention to the scientific study of Teutonic and Norse mythology. Among his published works are « The Siegfried Tale” and “Fire Burial among our Germanic Forefathers.”
WODAN AND THE WANDERING JEW
DIN or Wodan, the Spirit of the Universe, was conceived by our forefathers as a great wanderer. His very name de
scribes him as the All-pervading. Watan in Old High German, wadan in Old Saxon, and vadha in Old Norse, are of the same root as the Latin vadere and (with the introduction of a nasal sound) the German wandern — to go, to permeate, to wander about. Wodan is the Breath of the World; his voice is in the rushing wind. Restlessly he travels through all lands. The Sanskrit wåta, which etymologically belongs to the same root, signifies the wind; and the wind, in that early Aryan tongue, is also called “the Ever Traveling.”
Hence several of the many names under which Odin was known represent him as being forever on the move. In the poetic “Edda” he is called Gangradr; Gangleri (still preserved in the Scottish "gangrel ” — that is, a stroller); and Wegtam - all
appears incarnated as Grimnir, he wears a blue mantle – a symbolic representation of the sky, of which he is the lord, and along which he incessantly travels. In the prose « Edda,” where his image is reflected, in the «Incantation of Gylfi," under the guise of a man who makes inquiries about all things in the Heavenly Hall of Asgard, he assumes a name meaning the “Wayfarer.» He there says that he comes from a pathless distance," and asks “for a night's lodging ” — exactly as, in later times, we find the Wandering Jew saying, and asking for, the same.
In the Icelandic Heimskringla (the “World Circle ") the semihistorical, semi-mythical Odin, whose realm lay near the Black Sea, and who ruled in company with twelve temple priests, called Diar (that is, gods, or divines), again appears as a great migratory warrior. He was often away for years, wandering through many lands.” The story of this powerful captain in war, who led the Germanic hosts from Asia or Asa-land, through Gardariki (Russia) and Saxon-land (Germany) to the Scandinavian North, is inextricably mixed up with the story of the Odin of mythology. But it is noteworthy that a restless, peregrinatory spirit — that spirit which, later on, made the Teutonic tribes overrun all Europe, and even the North of Africa — is also the characteristic of the warlike leader of the Icelandic hero-chronicle.
Saxo calls Odin the viator inde fessus — the Indefatigable Wanderer. The Northern Sagas are full of the records of his many journeys. In the Ragnar Lodbrog Saga, however, we see Odin already changed into a gray-headed pilgrim, with long beard, broad hat, and nail-clad shoes, pointing out the paths to Rome. The broad hat everywhere characterizes the great god in Teutonic lands. It signifies the cloud region — the head-dress, as it were, of the earth. In many Germanic tales, the once powerful ruler of the world wears a motley mantle of many colors pieced together. This seemingly undignified garment is but another symbolic rendering of the spotted sky.
Now the motley, many-colored mantle, as well as the enormous broad hat and the heavy shoes of the Wandering Wodan, recur, on the one hand, in the curious shirt of St. Christophorus, and, on the other, in two of the chief attributes of the Wandering Jew. The coincidence is so striking, that Gotthard Heidegger already declared, at a time when the science of mythology was little developed yet, that the great Christophorus and the Wandering Jew go together.” At present, little doubt is entertained that, so far as the Church legend is concerned in Germanic countries, Christophorus carrying the Savior over the water has replaced the older heathen tale of the giant Wate carrying Wieland over the water. Curiously enough, this tale has its prototype in a Krishna legend in India. Wate, as even his name shows, was only a Titanic counterpart of Wodan, who himself appears in the Asa religion also under the form of a water god, or Neptune.
But before going into a comparison between the symbolical attributes of the errant Ahasverus and those of Germanic deities, the tale of the Wild Huntsman has to be looked at, for he is the link between Wodan and the Wandering Jew.
This tale of the Wild Huntsman is found all over Germany, and in neighboring countries where the German race has penetrated during the migrations, in an endless variety of forms. Wodan-Odin was the Psychopompos, the leader of the departed into Walhalla. The Wild Huntsman, who has taken his place, careers along the sky with his ghostly retinue. In the same way Freia, who in heathen times received a number of the dead in her heavenly abode, is converted into a Wild Huntress, who hurries round at night with the unfortunate souls.
The names given in Germany to these spectral leaders of a nocturnal devilry bear a mark which cannot be mistaken. In German-Austria the Wild Huntsman is called Wotn, Wut, or Wode; in Holstein, Mecklenburg, and Pomerania, Wod. The name corresponds to that of the Wild Huntsman in Sweden, where it is Oden. In the same way a female leader of the wild chase meets us as Frau Wode, Gode, or Gauden; again, as Frick, Berchta, Holla, Hera, Herka, or, biblically changed, Herodias; all the former names, with the apparent exception of the latter, being but appellatives of the same heathen goddess. To the seemingly biblical name of Herodias, in some places a male Herodis corresponds. But I hold that a Hera, Odin's wife, could without difficulty be formed into a Herodias. And an Oden, who was a Heer-Vater (Father of the Armed Hosts), and who afterward became a leader of the Wilde Heer, was as easily disguised into a Herodis. . . .
The gradual transition from the heathen Germanic circle of ideas to the Christian legend is provable in many other ways. On Swiss and German soil, in places of close proximity, the same phantom form is alternately called the Eternal Hunter and the Eternal Jew, as well as the Pilgrim from Rome or the Wandering Pilate. In the last-mentioned form, he is assigned a local habitation in the Pilatus Mountain of Switzerland. It is a wellknown process of Germanic mythology to «enmountain,” if I may say so, the deposed heathen gods, to charm them away into hills and underground caves, where they are converted into kings and emperors, often with a retinue of twelve men, corresponding to the duodecimal number of the deities.
A forest-haunting or hill-enchanted Jew has clearly no mean. ing. But if the Jude was originally a Wodan, Godan, or Gudan, — and, indeed, there is a Frankish form of the god's appellation, from which the Godesberg, near Bonn, has its name,- then the mystery is at once dissolved. Godan may, by softer pronunciation, have been changed into a Jude or Jew,— even as the Gätchen,” the German spirit forms, were converted into Jüdchen, or little Jews. Where the Wanderer is known, in the Aargau, as the Ewige
ted that in the inn where he asks for a night's lodging he does not go to bed, but walks about, without rest, in his room during the whole night, and then leaves in the morning. He once stated that, when for the first time he came to that Rhenish corner where Basel stands at present, there was nothing but a dark forest of black fir. On his second journey he found there a large copse of thorn bushes; on his third, a town rent by an earthquake. If, he added, he comes the same way a third time, one would have to go for miles and miles in order to find even as much as little twigs for making a besom.
The immense age and everlastingness of the Wanderer are fully indicated in this description.
At Berne he is said to have, on one occasion, left his staff and his shoes. In a « History of the Jews in Switzerland” (Basle, 1768), the Zurich clergyman Ulrich reports that in the Government Library at Berne a precious relic is preserved - namely, the aforesaid staff and a pair of shoes of the “Eternal, Immortal Jew"; the shoes being uncommonly large and made of a hundred snips, – a shoemaker's masterpiece, because patched together with the utmost labor, diligence, and cleverness, out of so many shreds of leather.” Evidently some impostor — who, however, kept up to the floating ideas of the old Germanic myth, which had grown into a Christian legend — had thought fit, in order to maintain his assumed character, to present the town of Berne, as it were, with a diminished facsimile of Vidar's shoe.
At Ulm, also, the Wandering Jew is said to have left a pair of his shoes. This persistent connection of a decayed divine