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children, though her sphere of usefulness in the meantime is greatly circumscribed. In a letter I lately had from her, she says—" I still love my work of teaching, but I have rather few children. Twenty is the number. I am much obliged to the dear ladies who still think of me in these times of trouble.”

The four persons mentioned by Mr Hart as being at Chumie, are the elders of the church there, who retire into the bush during the day, and come out, usually, morning and evening, to conduct worship in the church, with those who, like themselves, are harbouring near the place, and who live mainly upon roots dug from the soil. I have had no information what is their number, though it is understood to be considerable. Notishi, in her letter, speaking of them, says,-" Those that we left at Chumie are all well, with the exception of Coti, one of the teachers, who died of consumption. Yes, Sir, he is no more in this country of war and sorrows. He is, I hope, entered into the everlasting rest in heaven. Dukwana, Festiri, Tobi, and Nyosi, I am very glad to tell you that these four brethren still carry on the work of God, every Lord's-day, at Chumie. I often hear about them through a cousin of mine."

Of Pella whom Mr Hart mentions as being at Uitenhage, Mr Cumming, in a letter which I received by last mail from him, and who by this time is on his way home, relates the following incident:- Pella is working here (at Algoa Bay). The other day he found a ten pound note lying in the street. He brought it to me; and now it lies at the bank, waiting for a claimant. If no one appears, I suppose he will get it back. This is a pleasing instance of principle triumphing over circumstances.” He might have added, of grace triumphing over the native covetousness of the Caffre heart.

I feel unwilling, Mr Editor, to occupy much of your precious space, though I have a great inclination to say some things in connection with the causes of the war and mission stations, which hitherto I have not seen fully and fairly stated, and I may yet ask room for them; but, in the meantime, I conclude by quoting a sentence or two from the letter of Notishi, in which she gives vent to her feelings of gratitude to our two missionaries. “ Kind Mr Niven," says she, “whom I will never forget so long as I live, for his kindness in time of peace, or in time of war. He is always the same. He and Mr Cumming have been fathers to us all, who came out with them from Caffreland to the colony. I was often very sorry to see the unkind treatment they got from their own countrymen, just because they were kind to us black people. They are well known to be our true friends. Sir, I cannot tell you how sorry I am that our teachers have been obliged to leave us in the wilderness. I may say we are all like sheep-we cannot do without a shepherd. I am sorry for the churches that have been burned again in my country. If I but knew that we shall get Mr Niven back again, then I would rest with great hope amongst all these troubles. Two weeks ago we had Mr Cumming here on a visit, and were very glad to see him looking 80 well. Please remember me to Mr Niven.”

Such are the expressions of affection of Notishi towards the missionaries ; and in these I believe all will concur.

Gavin STRUTHERS.

ILLUSTRATIONS OF SCRIPTURE FROM SCOTLAND

No. I.

[Engaged at leisure hours, some years ago, in collecting materials towards the elucidation and

illustration of the early Literature of Scotland, the writer had accumulated (as so many siderays), a variety of ancient manners and customs, traditions and superstitions, and sun-set lingering memories of the past in Scotland. Much of this debris throws very interesting and unexpected light on portions of Scripture, in themselves, and with relation to our heathen forefathers and fatherland. It is thought that a few of these Illustrations may not unacceptably nor unprofitably occupy an occasional spare page of our Magazine. A general application and enforcement of the whole shall be given at the close. Meantime .... in the words of Hooker .... let it be remembered that there is in the world no kind of knowledge whereby any part of truth is seen, but we justly account it precious ; yea, that principal truth, in comparison of which all other knowledge is vile, may receive from it some kind of light.”]

1.

HEAPS OF STONES—“CAIRNS.” * “And all Israel stoned him with stones * * * * and they raised near him a great heap of stones [that remaineth] unto this day.”-Joshua viii. 25, 26.

“And the king of Ai he hanged on a tree until even-tide ; and as soon as the sun was down, Joshua commanded that they should take his carcase down from the tree, and cast it at the entering of the gate of the city, and raise thereon a great heap of stones, that remaineth unto this day.”—Joshua viii. 29.

" And they took Absalom, and cast him into a great pit in the wood, and laid a very great heap of stones upon him.”—2 Samuel xviii. 17.

“ Heaps of stones,” similar to those raised over the graves of Achan, of the king of Ai, and of Absalom, are still to be met with in the more remote muirs and hill-sides of Scotland. They are called “cairns,” and mark the graves, as in Old Testament biography, of men signal either for eminent virtues or for notorious vices. In the former class, are those which were raised over the martyrs on the spots where their reeking corpses were left by a ruthless Claverhouse or Grierson, as has been preserved in many a touching legend and song.f In the latter class, are those which were raised over malefactors and suicides, who were anciently buried in biviis on our cross-roads. In either case, the passing traveller was accus

proverbial saying is in common use in the Highlands .....“ Curri mi cloch er do charne,” ....." I will add a stone to your cairn"..... meaning, when you are no more, I will do all possible honour to your memory. I In Wales, there is a proverb nearly similar, but it is used as a curse .....“Karn ar dy ben”.... literally, “a heap on thy head,” i. e., “Ill betide thee.” S

Several “ cairns" have been opened, and sometimes curious "urns ” have been

* Our readers will find a very full and interesting disquisition on “Cairns” in Wilson's “ Archæology and Prehistoric Annals of Scotland.” [Edinburgh, 1851), pp. 59-65.

We gladly avail ourselves of the following passage from this truly acceptable Work:

“One of the most remarkable groups of cairns in Scotland, associated with other primitive monuments, occurs on a small plain washed by the River Nairn, about a mile to the east of the field of Culloden. The whole plain, for upwards of a mile in extent, is covered over with large cairns, encircled by standing stones surrounding them at uniform intervals. Numerous circular groups, or ‘Druidical Temples,' occur in the same neighbourhood, with single monoliths and detached circles of small stones, scarcely visible amid the thick covering of grass and heath, but indicating, in all probability, the sites of ancient buildings, the dwellings of the cairn builders.”-P. 63.

Mr Wilson furnishes some interesting details concerning various “ Cairns" which have been opened from time to time ; and his lively anecdotal remarks give a human interest to these decaying “memorials” of the lonely muir.

+ See “Gleanings among the Mountains.” By the Rev. Robert Simpson, Sanquhar. I vol. foolscap 8vo.

Š Rowlands' "Mona Antiqua,” p. 50 sq.

found containing "a little dust." the cross-road "cairns." *

Stray bones are occasionally discovered under

2.4

: "And Jacob said unto his brethren, Gather stones ; and they brought stones and made a heap: and they did eat there upon the heap.”—Genesis xxxi. 46.

“ Behold this heap, and behold this pillar, which I have set between thee and me; this heap shall be a witness, that I will not come over this heap to thee, and that thou shalt not come over this heap and this pillar to me, for evil.”—Genesis xxxi. 51, 52.

“And Jacob offered sacrifice upon the mount [i. e., the heap), and called his brethren to eat bread.”—Genesis xxxi. 54.

Larger heaps of stones than the ordinary “cairns” are likewise still extant, as well in Scotland as in England and Ireland; and antiquaries are agreed that they correspond with the “covenant heap” of Jacob and Laban. “Rowlands," says the judicious Dr Jamieson, “has some observations on these [carnedde) which deserve attention.” They are as follows :

“Of the larger carnedde (or “cairns "] such as are in some places to this day, of considerable bulk and circumference, I cannot affirm them to be any other than the remains and monuments of ancient sacrifices. And though the particular manner and circumstances of that sort of worship, viz., by throwing and heaping up stones, are found extant in no records at this day, except what we have of the ancient way of worshipping Mercury in that manner; yet some hints there are of it in the most ancient history of Moses, particularly in that solemn transaction between Laban and Jacob, which may be supposed to be an ancient patriarchal custom, universally spread in those unpolished times.” And Jacob said unto his brethren, Gather stones; and they brought stones and made a heap: and they did eat there upon the heap.' “ Now the design of the whole affair was to corroborate the pact and covenant mutually entered into by those two persons, Jacob and Laban, with the most binding formalities. The whole tenor of it runs thus :”'Behold this heap, and behold this pillar, which I have set up between thee and me : this heap shall be a witness, that I will not come over this heap to thee, and that thou shalt not come over this heap and this pillar to me, for evil.' “ This whole affair has no semblance of a new institution, but is rather a particular application to [of] a general practice, because concluded by a sacrifice, the highest act of their religion; and that sacred action seems to have been a main part of it, and the chief end for which it was instituted; and, together with the other circumstances, made up one solemn religious ceremony." And Jacob offered sacrifices upon the mount [i. e., the heap), and called his brethren to eat bread.'

“Now, this whole transaction was a religious ceremony, instituted to adjust and determine rights and possessions in those times between different parties and colonies. And as it seems to have been one of the statutes of the sons of Noah, so it is likely that the colonizing race of mankind brought with them so necessary an appurtenance of their peace and security of living, wherever they came to fix themselves ; that they carried at least the substance of the ceremony, though they

* Very beautiful are the lines of the American poet Bryant, on “ Monument Mountain." Having told his touching story of the Indian maiden, he says:

“ There was scooped
Upon the mountain's southern slope, a grave ;
And o'er the mould that cover'd her, the tribe
Built up a simple monument, a cone
Of small loose stones. Henceforward all who passed-
Hunter, and dame, and virgin-laid a stone

In silence on the pile. It stands there yet." + “ Occasionally we meet with examples of the pillar and heap united in a memorial cairn, as in one of large dimensions situated at the junction of two roads near the village of Fowlis, Perthsbire, which is surmounted by a large standing-stone, corresponding to the barron's, for which the distinctive appellation of crowned tumuli is suggested."—Wilson, p. 59.

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might here and there vary in some rules of application, or perhaps pervert it to other uses than what it was designed for."*

The quaintly-expressed conclusion arrived at by Rowlands appears to be confirmed by more recent researches, in respect of the fact that these larger carnedde [or “cairns ”'] have invariably been found on the “ boundaries” of estates and shires.

3.

WORSHIP OF BAAL-“BELTANE." + They worshipped all the host of heaven, and served Baal.”—2 Kings xvii. 16. “ They have built also the high places of Baal, to burn their sons with fire for burnt-offerings unto Baal.”—Jeremiah xix. 5.

Those who have joined in the “myrth and jollitie ” of the “ Beltane” festival, which is still celebrated in Scotland on the 1st of May, may be little aware of those darker under-lying rites and superstitions of which, in our own country,” it is the dim memorial. Nevertheless, " of truthe and veritie is it," that our forefathers on this very occasion “worshipped all the host of heaven, and served Baal.” There is a town in Perthshire, on the borders of the Highlands, which is “ unto this day” called Tillie- (or Tullie) beltane ; i. c., the eminence [“ high place "] or rising ground, of the fire of Baal. In the neighbourhood is a druidical temple of eight upright stones, where it is supposed the "fire" was kindled. At some distance from this is another temple of the same kind, but smaller, and near it a well, still held in great veneration. On Beltane morning, the inhabitants of the village go to this well, and drink of it ; then they make a procession round it nine times. After this, they in like manner go round the temple.

But there are even more explicit “memorials ” of idolatry in its most degrading and bloody aspects. The people of Callander, in Perthshire, have (or had within these very few years) a custom which indubitably points to Baal worship.

“Upon the first day of May all the boys in a township or hamlet meet in the moors. They cut a table in the green sod, of a round figure, by casting a trench in the ground, of such circumference as to hold the whole company. They kindle a fire, and dress a repast of eggs and milk, in the consistence of a custard. They knead a cake of oatmeal, which is toasted at the embers against a stone. After the custard is eaten up, they divide the cake into so many portions, as similar as possible to one another in size and shape, as there are persons in the company. They daub one of these portions all over with charcoal, until it be perfectly black. They put all the bits of cake into a bonnet. Every one blindfold draws out a portion. He who holds the bonnet is entitled to the last bit. Whoever draws the black bit, is the devoted person who is to be sacrificed to Baal, whose favour they mean to implore, in rendering the year productive of the sustenance of man and beast. There is little doubt of these inhuman sacrifices having been once offered in this country as well as in the East, although they now pass from the act of sacrifice, and only compel the devoted person to leap three times through the flames ; with which the ceremonies of this festival are closed.

In further elucidation of the text cited (2 Kings xvii. 16), it may be mentioned, that there is a curious monument of the worship of the heavenly bodies in the parish of Cargill, also in Perthshire.

“Near the village of Cargill may be seen some erect stones of considerable magnitude, having the figure of the moon and stars carved upon them. The cornfield in which these stones stand is called the moon-shade (shed]." Edinburgh.

A. B. r. * Rowlands’ “Mona Antiqua," : in loc. † Vide Wilson voce “ Strongholds," p. 418, for correlate notices.

# Statistical Account of the Parish of Callander, Perthshire. A similar modification presents itself in the simple smoking of the Calumet-pipe of peace among the North American Aborigines.

§ Statistical Account of the Parish of Callander and Cargill, Perthshire. See subsequent No. of these Illustrations; and note in loc.

Note." The Cromlech is another Scottish memorial of ancient. Fire-worship. The name is supposed to be derived from the Hebrew chercmlnah, a devoted stone;' or cæreminah, a 'burning stone. It is composed of broad flat slabs, placed on high,' in a horizontal position, upon others fixed on their edges in the ground.”

SANATORY REFORM IS SOME OF ITS MORAL, RELIGIOUS, AND SOCIAL ASPECTS, CHIEFLY APPLIED

TO

THE CITY OF GLASGOW.

Since the beginning of the present century, the elements and agencies of material civilisation have been developed and expanded in Great Britain, with an intense and continuous action, greater than at any former period of our national history. The numerous discoveries in science, with their application to manufactures and the arts, have changed in no inconsiderable degree the general aspects of social life, and introduced new elements into the machinery of society. With material civilisation, moral and intellectual cultivation have, to some extent, kept pace. A higher tone of social morality prevails; and amongst the higher and middling classes, self-culture, moral restraint, and enlarged philanthropy, have superseded those habits of coarse self-indulgence so prevalent formerly. Steam power has bridged over the great sea itself, and brought the ends of the earth together; and railways and electric telegraphs have made one family of the British community, throwing into one common stock the productive virtue and intelligence of the whole. As might be expected, from the advanced intelligence of society, a higher tone of legislative morality has been exhibited in Parliament, and the condition-of-the-poor question, general education, secular and religious, and the means of improving the great body of the people, of elevating, in short, the whole lower platform of society, have occupied the attention of successive statesmen of opposite political opinions.

Of the questions affecting the well-being of the operative classes, or the general mass of the population of our large cities, sanatory reform, or the means of improving their condition, by scattering them over a wider surface, improving the Iocalities chiefly inhabited by them, and introducing into their dwellings the healthful elements of family separation, ventilation and cleanliness, with such other adjuncts and conveniences as can be affected, has occupied, and still occupies, a large share of public attention. We propose, briefly, to lay before the reader a few statements regarding the social masses in our native city of Glasgow, and which will be chiefly taken from documentary evidence of unimpeachable character, showing the urgent necessity of a vigorous and united effort to stem the progress of social evils and dangers of the most formidable character. And first, let us look into the state of education amongst the lowest classes of our city population. The Rev. Dr Robert Buchanan, in an able lecture, delivered in the Merchants' Hall, Glasgow, on the 30th January 1852, and subsequently published by Messrs Blackie and Co., under the title of “ The Schoolmaster in the Wynds, or how to Estimate the Masses,” states as follows :

“ Instead, however, of extending any further these preliminary observations, I shall now proceed to the more immediate object of this lecture ; which is, to exhibit the schoolmaster in the Wynds, and to endeavour, by the help of an actual experiment, to throw some light on the question—How to educate the masses ? It will not be denied by any one acquainted with Glasgow, that a better field than the Wynds could not be found, for testing the efficiency of any educational and reformatory scheme, that professes to deal with the masses of our city population. The parish to which the Wynds belong occupies very little more than ten acres of ground; and, on that narrow space, which, if it were a grass field, would scarcely pasture half a dozen cows, there are crowded together upwards of 10,000 human beings. The oldest street of the city,--the original thoroughfare from the Cathedral to the river,-forms, towards its lower extremity, the boundary of two sides of the parish. The two ends of that long and winding thoroughfare were the first inhabited parts of the city,—the little nuclei of that immense and rapidly increasing population, which now covers an area of from three to four miles square. The antiquity which thus undoubtedly belongs to the Wynds is, unhappily, however, the only venerable thing about them. The comforts, and the burghal dignities which distinguished the Saltmarket in the days of Bailie Nicol Jarvie, have long since forsaken it. The whole neighbourhood has sunk down to the level of the St Giles or the Whitechapel of Glasgow,-rivalling in filth, poverty, misery, and crime, these dark places of the great metropolis itself. The feature of its condition, however, which it chiefly concerns me at pre

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