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ple assembling round him, Diogenes beat them away with his stick, saying, “I was calling for men.”
Demosthenes, as he was dining one day in a tavern, observed Diogenes passing, upon which he endeavored to conceal himself; but Diogenes perceiving him, said: “Do not try to conceal yourself; for the more you secrete yourself in a tavern, the further you penetrate into it.” On another occasion he saw some stran. gers who had come on purpose to see Demosthenes «There!” said Diogenes, going straight up to them, and with a sneer pointing him out, “there he is! observe — mark him well; this is the great orator of Athens.”
He one day entered, half shaven, into a company of young people who were enjoying themselves. After receiving a sound beating, he thought it prudent to retire; but, to revenge himself, he wrote on a small piece of paper the names of those who had beaten him, and, attaching it to one of his shoulders, went out into the streets to expose them, and bring them into contempt.
A very bad man one day reproached him for his poverty: “I never saw any one punished,” said he, "for being poor, but I have seen many hanged for being villains.”
He used to remark that things of the greatest value were often least esteemed; that while a statue, for example, cost three thousand crowns, a bushel of flour might be had for twenty pence. When ready to go into a bath one day he found the water very dirty: “Where,” said he, (are we to wash after bathing here ? »
Diogenes was once taken prisoner by the Macedonians, near Chæronea, and being brought to Philip, he asked him what he was: “I am,” he replied, “the witness of your insatiable greed.” The king was so pleased with this answer that he gave him his liberty, and allowed him to return.
Diogenes considered that the wise could never be in want of anything, and that the whole world was at their disposal “Everything,” said he, “belongs to the gods; the wise are the friends of the gods; but among friends all things are common: consequently, all things belong to the wise.” Whenever, therefore, he stood in need of anything, he used to say that he demanded it for a friend of the gods.
Alexander, passing through Corinth, had a curiosity to see Diogenes, who happened to be there at the time; he found him basking in the sun in the grove of Craneum, where he was mending his tub. “I am,” said he to him, «the great king Alexander.” "And I,” replied the philosopher, «am the dog Diogenes.” «Are you not afraid of me?” continued Alexander. “Are you good or bad ? asked Diogenes. “Good,” rejoined Alexander. "And who need be afraid of one that is good ?” answered Diogenes.
Alexander admired the penetration and freedom of Diogenes; and after some conversation he said to him: "I see, Diogenes, that you are in want of many things, and I shall be happy to serve you; ask of me what you will.” “Retire, then, a little to one side,” replied Diogenes; "you are depriving me of the sun.”
It is no wonder that Alexander stood astonished at seeing a man so completely above every human concern. «Which of the two is richer," continued Diogenes: "he who is content with his cloak and his bag, or he for whom a whole kingdom does not suffice, and who is daily exposing himself to a thousand dangers in order to extend it ?» The courtiers of the king were indignant that so great a monarch should thus honor such a dog as Diogenes, who did not even rise from his place. Alexander perceived it, and, turning about to them, said: “Were I not Alexander, I should wish to be Diogenes.”
As Diogenes was one day going to Ægina, he was taken by pirates, who brought him to Crete and exposed him to sale. He did not appear to be in the least disconcerted, nor to feel the slightest uneasiness on account of his misfortune; but seeing one Xeniades, a corpulent and well-dressed man, “I must be sold to that person,” he exclaimed, «for I perceive he needs a master. Come, child,” said he to Xeniades, as he was advancing to examine him, “come, child, buy a man.”
Being asked what he could do, he said he had the talent of commanding men. «Crier,” said he, “call out in the market, If any one needs a master, let him come here and purchase one.” The person selling him desired him not to sit. “Why, what matters it ?” said Diogenes; “people buy fish in any posture; and it is very surprising that, though one will not buy even a pot without ringing it to know whether it be good metal, he will buy a man upon simply seeing him.” When the price had been fixed, he said to Xeniades: “Though I am now your slave, you must prepare to obey my will; for whether I serve you as physician or steward, as a slave or freeman, it matters not, my will must be done.”
Xeniades confided to him the instruction of his children, a trust which Diogenes discharged with great fidelity. He made them commit to memory the finest passages of the poets, and also an abridgment of his own philosophy, which he drew up on purpose for them; he saw that they exercised themselves in running, wrestling, hunting, and horsemanship, and in the use of the bow and the sling; accustomed them to a very plain fare, and in their ordinary meals to drink nothing but water; had their heads closely shaven, and brought them with him into the streets carelessly dressed, and frequently without sandals or tunics. These children had a great affection for their teacher, and took particular care to recommend him to their parents.
While Diogenes was in slavery, some of his friends used their interest to procure him his liberty. “Fools!” said he, you are jesting; do you not know that the lion is not the slave of those who feed him? They who feed him are his slaves." ...
He was reproached by one for having coined base money. “It is true,” said Diogenes, that the time was when I was what you are now; but the time will never come that you will be what I am now.”
Aristippus fell in with him one day when he was washing his herbs. «Diogenes,” said he to him, “if you knew how to make yourself agreeable to kings, you would not give yourself the trouble to wash herbs.” “And,” replied Diogenes, “if you knew the pleasure there is in washing herbs, you would not give yourself the trouble to please kings.”
On another occasion he went into the school of a master who had very few scholars, but a great many figures of the muses and other divinities; “Counting the gods,” said Diogenes to him, « you have a goodly number of scholars.”
«To what country do you belong >» inquired one of him. “I am,” replied he, «a citizen of the world”; hinting by this that a wise man should have no predilection for any particular country.
Seeing a spendthrift passing, he asked him for a mina. «Why," said the other, “do you ask a mina of me, when you are content with an obolus from another p» «Because,” said he, «they will give me something again; but it is very doubtful whether you will have it a second time in your power.”
He was asked whether death were an evil. “Impossible!” he said, seeing we do not feel it even when present.”
Seeing an awkward fellow draw his bow, he immediately ran in before him: the person demanding of him why he did it, « For fear you should hit me,” he replied.
Antisthenes being dangerously ill, Diogenes went to see him. “Do you need a friend ? ” said he to him; signifying by this that it is especially in affliction that true friends are wanted, for Diogenes knew that Antisthenes bore his distress with impatience.
He went to him at another time with a poniard under his cloak. «Ah!” said Antisthenes to him on this occasion, “ah! what will deliver me from these excruciating pains ?” “This,” exclaimed Diogenes, holding out the weapon. “I wish to be deliv. ered from my malady,” said Antisthenes, not to be deprived of my life. »
Diogenes was told that a great many people made him the object of their ridicule. «What matters it ?” he replied; «suppose they do; and so asses, when they show their teeth and grin, and seem to laugh, probably intend to ridicule them.” “But,” it was rejoined, « they give themselves no trouble about the asses.” «Neither do I,” he said, “give myself any trouble about them.”
He was one day asked why every one called him a dog. “Because,” said he, “I flatter those who give me something, bark at those who give me nothing, and bite the wicked.”
Being asked at another time to what species of the dog he belonged, “When hungry,” said he, "I partake of the nature of a greyhound, and caress everybody; but when my belly is full I belong to the mastiff kind, and bite everybody I meet."
Diogenes observing the rhetorician Anaximenes passing by, who was very fat and portly, “Give me,” said he to him, a little of your redundant flesh; it will greatly oblige me, and ease you of a most uncomfortable burden.” When reproached for eating in the streets and market places he replied, “I am seized with hunger there as well as in other places.”
Returning from Lacedæmonia to Athens, he was asked from whence he came. “I have come,” said he, «from among men, and I am going among women.” . .
The whole world, he said, was in slavery; that, while slaves obey their masters, the masters themselves are slaves to their passions.
He was one day asked where he chose to be buried after his death. «In an open field,” he replied. «How!” said one; "are you not afraid of becoming food for birds of prey and wild beasts ? » «Then I must have my stick with me,” said Diogenes, « to drive them away when they come.” “But,” resumed the other «you will be devoid of all sensation.” “If that be the case," he answered, “it is no matter whether they eat me or not, seeing I shall be insensible to it.”
Some say that, having arrived at the age of ninety, his death was occasioned by indigestion from eating a neat's foot raw, others that, feeling himself burdened by age, he put an end to his life by holding his breath. His friends discovering him the next day muffled up in his cloak doubted at first whether he were not asleep; but being soon convinced that he was dead, there arose a great dispute among them as to who should bury him, and it was on the point of breaking out into open violence, when the magistrates and old men of Corinth opportunely arrived and appeased the disturbance.
Diogenes was buried by the side of the gate lying towards the isthmus, and there was placed on his tomb a dog of Parian marble.
The death of this philosopher happened in the first year of the one hundred and fourteenth Olympiad, and on the same day that Alexander died at Babylon.
Diogenes was honored with several statues, accompanied by suitable inscriptions.
REASON THE SAME IN ALL MEN, OF ALL AGES AND
Two men who never saw or heard of one another, and who I never entertained any correspondence with any other man
that could give them common notions, yet speak at two extremities of the earth, about a certain number of truths, as if they were in concert. It is infallibly known beforehand in one hemisphere, what will be answered in the other upon these truths. Men of all countries and of all ages, whatever their education may have been, find themselves invincibly subjected and obliged to think and speak in the same manner. The Master who incessantly teaches us makes all of us think the same way. Whenever we hastily judge, without hearkening to his voice, in diffidence of ourselves, we think and utter dreams full of extravagance. Thus what appears most to be part of ourselves, and our very essence, I mean our reason, is least our own, and what, on the contrary, ought to be accounted most borrowed. We continually receive a reason superior to us, as we incessantly breathe the