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even supposing the deliverances of memory to be above criticism, the most that can be said for the experiences to which memory testifies, is that we are obliged to think we have had them-cannot conceive the negation of the proposition that we have had them; and to say this is to assign the warrant which is repudiated.

A further counter-criticism may be made. Throughout the argument of pure Empiricism, it is tacitly assumed that there may be a Philosophy in which nothing is asserted but what is proved. It proposes to admit into the coherent fabric of its conclusions, no conclusion that is incapable of being established by evidence; and it thus takes for granted that not only may all derivative truths be proved, but also that proof may be given of the truths from which they are derived, down to the very deepest. The result of thus refusing to recognize some fundamental unproved truth, is simply to leave its fabric of conclusions without a base. The giving proof of any special proposi. tion, is the assimilation of it to some class of propositions known to be true. If any doubt arises respecting the general proposition which is cited in justification of this spe. cial proposition, the course is to show that this general proposition is deducible from a proposition or propositions of still greater generality; and if pressed for proof of each such still more general proposition, the only resource is to repeat the process. Is this process endless ? If so, nothing can be proved—the whole series of propositions depends on some unassignable proposition. Has the process an end ? If so, there must eventually be reached a widest proposition-one which cannot be justified by showing that it is included by any wider-one which cannot be proved. Or to put the argument otherwise : Every inference depends on premises; every premise, if it admits of proof, depends on other premises; and if the proof of the proof be continually demanded, it must either end in an

THE DILEMMA OF EMPIRICISM.

413

anproved premise, or in the acknowledgment that there cannot be reached any premise on which the entire series of proofs depends. Hence Philosophy, if it does not avowedly stand on some datum underlying reason, must acknowledge that it has nothing on which to stand.

The expression of divergence from Mr. Mill on this fundamental question, I have undertaken with reluctance, only on finding it needful, both on personal and on general grounds, that his statements and arguments should be met. For two reasons, especially, I regret having thus to contend against the doctrine of one whose agreement I should value more than that of any other thinker. In the first place, the difference is, I believe, superficial rather than substantial; for it is in the interests of the ExperienceHypothesis that Mr. Mill opposes the alleged criterion of truth; while it is as harmonizing with the ExperienceHypothesis, and reconciling it with all the facts, that I defend this criterion. In the second place, this lengthened exposition of a single point of difference, unaccompanied by an exposition of the numerous points of concurrence, unavoidably produces an appearance of dissent very far greater than that which exists. Mr. Mill, however, whose unswerving allegiance to truth is on all occasions so conspicuously displayed, will fully recognize the justification for this utterance of disagreement on a matter of such profound importance, philosophically considered ; and will not require any apology for the entire freedom with which I have criticised his views while seeking to substantiate iny own.

INDEX.

A

Civilized races, mixed origin of, 187

Civilization, present phase of, 146.
Absolute morality, function of, 211, Classes, upper and lower; morality
215, 249; meaning of, 224.

and conscientiousness of, 354.
Accommodation-bills characterized, Clergy, their opposition to the repea
129.

of the corn laws, 356.
Adam Smith, education of, 374. Climax, explanation of, 42.
Adaptations of private enterprise, 76. Cloths, cheating in their lengths,
Adjective, collocation of with sub- 113.
stantive, 16.

Clothing trades, briberies and dis-
Association of words and ideas, 12. honesties in, 108.
Attention, force expended in, 39. Commercial disasters, origin of, 133.

Commercial immoralities, root of,

142.
B

Composition, literary, upon what it

depends, 9.
Bank of England, suspension of, 323, Concrete terms, advantage of, 15.
a monopoly, 324.

Contractors, railway, 273.
Bankers' operations, checks upon, Convicts, treatment of transported,
347.

219.
Bankers, temptations of, 345. Corporate conscience, 261.
Bank notes defined, 322.

Currency discussion, relation of the
Banking delinquencies, 127.

parties to it, 349.
Basis of a credit currency, 320. Currency, mixed origin of, 320.
Blair, Dr., 10.

Crises, monetary, in England, 330;
Beauty of aspect and beauty of char- in Hamburg, 333.
acter, relation of, 149.

Crises, salutary effects of, 341.
Breeding, equilibrium of constitu-

tions in, 161.
Buying commercial patronage, 109.

D

Dancing, when graceful, 314.
0

Defoe on the corruptions of trade,

137.
Carise and effect, complexity of their Desires personal, the motor of social
connection, 62.

changes, 84.
Causes of dishonesties in trade, 139. Despotism, advantages of, 192; mis
Chancery courts, 95.

chiefs of, 198.
Sharacter and expression, 149. Despotism of trades-unions, 361.

Directors, railway, misduings of, 275.

н
Dishonesty cumulative, 262.
Distrust of the validity of our be- Hero-worship, nature of, 194.
liefs, 48.

Honesty in trade the road to bank.

ruptcy, 125.

Honor paid to wealthy rogues, 44.
E

Humility needed in political conduct,

50.
Ecclesiastical courts, 95,

Hybridity, 160.
Economy of the sensibilities, 40.
Economizing the reader's attention,

I
11.
Education of the working classes, Ideal Greek head, 154.
371.

Institutions must grow, 76; deter
Electors, character of, 173; intelli-

mined by popular character, 216.
gence of, 174, 181.

Intermediate system of prison disci
Emotion, poetry the language of, 38.

pline, 234.
English government, work it' at-
tempts, 182; view of, 187–191.

J
Erroneous popular notions respect-
ing corporate companies, 254.

Joint stock enterprises, lesson drawn
Evils produced by judicial adminis-

from, 251.
tration, 97.

Judicial negligence, 98.
Experience, limits to the teachings Justice neglected by government, 94

of, 103.
Expression, definition of, 150.
Expression, no general theory of, 10.

K
Extension railway, origin of the sys-
tem of, 258.

Kames, Lord, 10, 20.

Knaveries of wholesale houses, 115.
F
Facial features and natural express-

L
ion, 151.
Faith' in government must be out-

Language, relation of to thought,

11; friction of, 42.
grown, 106.
Feeling should control style, 46.

Land-owners greed influences rail
Figures of speech, 27.

way policy, 263.
Forces acting in society, 63.

Law the enemy of the citizen, 97.
Force in expression, causes of, 36.

Laws, inefficiency of, 58.
Frauds in trade, how introduced,

Lawyers' railway, 268.
123.

Legislative miscarriages, 58.
French social order, 89.

Legislative interference with curren
Free-trade, 91; morality of, 212.

cy, bad effects of, 343.
Legislation, blind faith in, 51.
Liberty in any age a fixed quantity

378.
G

Loyalty, use of, 195; causes of de

cline of, 196.
Generalization of social actions, 92.
Gold, drainage of from the country,

M
335; considered as a commodity,
337.

Manufacturers, dishonesties of, 118.
Government attempts too much, 93; Mark system, working of, 235.

bound to enforce contracts, 297. Material development the work of
Gracefulness, theory of, 312.

the age, 146.
Grammar, Dr. Latham on, 9. Mechanics' institutions, management
Grocery trade, cheating in the, 115. of, 166.
Guizot, 99.

Mental faculties, expansion of, 41.

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