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IR WALTER RALEIGH was born in the year 1552, being defcended of an ancient family in Devonshire, and when but fourteen, was fent to finish his education at the univerfity of Oxford, where he became a commoner of Oriel College. Here he distinguished himself both by the ftrength and vivacity of his genius, and his application to his study: he continued here but three years, for in 1569, being only seventeen years old, he was one of the troop of an hundred gentlemen volunteers, whom queen Elizabeth permitted Henry. Champernon to tranfport into France for the fervice of the proteftant princes. Mr. Raleigh had here a good opportunity of acquiring experience in the art of war, and improving himself in the knowledge of the languages, and of men; he did not return till the end of the year 1575, having fpent fix years in France.

The activity of his temper did not fuffer him to reft long at home, for he went into the fervice of the prince of Orange against the Spaniards, in 1578.

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Soon after this he had an opportunity of trying his fortune at fea; his half brother, Sir Humphry Gilbert, having obtained a patent to plant and inhabit fome northern parts of America, unpoffeffed by any people in alliance with the queen of England, Mr. Raleigh engaged with a confiderable number of gentlemen in an expedition to Newfoundland; but this proved unfuccefsful, for divifions arifing among the volunteers, Sir Humphry, the general, was in 1579, obliged to fet fail with only a few of his friends; and, after variety of misfortunes at fea, returned with the lofs of one of his fhips in an engagement with the Spaniards, in which Mr. Raleigh was expofed to great danger.

The next year, 1580, upon the descent of the Spanish and Italian forces into Ireland, under the pope's banner, for the fupport of the Defmonds in the rebellion in Munfter, he obtained a captain's commiffion; where, under the command of Thomas earl of Ormond, governor of Munfter, he furprised the Irish Kerns at Rakele, and having enclosed them, took every rebel upon the fpot; among them was one loaded with withies, who being afked, What he intended to have done with them? boldly answered, To have hung up the English churls; upon which captain Raleigh ordered him to be hanged immediately. He affifted likewife at the fiege of Fort Del Oore, which the Spanish fuccours under San


Jofepho their commander, affifted by their Irish confederates, had raised and fortified as a place of retreat. The lord-deputy himself befieged this fort by land, Sir William Winter, the admiral, attacked it by fea, and captain Raleigh commanded in the trenches; it was, however, on the ninth of November 1589, obliged to furrender at difcretion when, by order of the lord-deputy, the greatest part of the garrison were put to the fword, the execution of which fell to the fhare of the captains Raleigh and Mackworth, who first entered.

the castle.

During the winter of this year, captain Raleigh had his quarters affigned him at Cork; when obferving the feditious practices of David lord Barry, and other ringleaders of the rebellion in thofe parts, to diftrefs the peaceable, and to excite the difaffected to an infurrection, he took a journey to Dublin, and remonftrated to the lord-deputy the dangerous confequences of thefe practices, in fo ftrong a manner, that his lordship gave him full commiffion to feize the lands of lord Barry, to reduce him to peace and fubjection, by fuch means as he should think proper; for which purpose he was furnished with a party of horfe but during this interval, that lord himfelf burnt the caftle to the ground, though it was his principal feat, and laid waste the country round it with greater outrage and deAruction, than even the zeal of his enemies would have extended to.

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Captain Raliegh in his return to Cork, was attacked by Fitz Edmonds, an old rebel of Barry's faction, at a fort between Youghal and Cork; he was inferior to Fitz-Edmonds in number, yet he forced his way through the enemy, and got over the river; but a gentleman of his company being by fome accident thrown in the middle, between the fear of drowning and being taken, called out to the captain for help; who, though he had escaped. both dangers, yet ventured into them again to refque his companion, who in the hafte and confufion of remounting, over-leaped his horse, and fell down on the other fide into a deep mire, where he muft have been fuffocated, if the humane Raleigh had not recovered him afecond time, and brought him to land. He now waited on the oppofite bank, with a staff in one hand and a piftol in the other, for the reft of his campany who were yet to cross the river; but though Fitz-Edmonds had got a recruit of twelve men, yet finding captain Raleigh ftand his ground, only exchanged a few rough words with him and retired.

In 1581, the earl of Ormond going to England, his government of Munter was given to captain Raleigh, in commiffion with Sir William Morgan and captain peers. Raleigh refided for fome time at Lifmore; but afterwards, returning with his little band of eighty foot and eight horfe, to his old quarters at Cork, he received intelligence that Barry was at Clove with feveral hundred men :


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