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the form of one of the three capital virtues, Faith, Hope, and Charity: they are to assume a visible shape, in order to enable us to comprehend more easily the plan of regeneration by which we are to be again made perfect. ‘By these Three Persons,’ says the writer, “I understand that the supreme spirit is willing to make himself gradually known to men.” The author gives them the usual titles of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, but he adds, “ owing to holy instructions that have been given concerning the Trinity, I cannot any longer confound them with the self-existent God.” That is to say, the Three Persons of the Trinity have been created by the Almighty Spirit, to be partakers of His divine nature, in an especial and privileged manner, and to be on earth ‘His representatives and prime ministers.’ The Father will be a deified man, the first man, we suppose, already alluded to ; Jesus Christ will be his Son, and the Virgin Mary will be the Holy Ghost!!! When the late Marquis of Londonderry, a short time before he committed suicide, paid a visit to George IV., he rambled so oddly in his discourse that the King immediately sent for Lord Liverpool, to whom he at once said, “Either I or Londonderry must be mad.” In the same manner we feel a horror in conversing any longer with the author of the work before us, for he has so few ideas in common with ours, we may truly say that either he or we must be insane. If we be in that unhappy state, we have the consolation of knowing that a great part of the civilized world is in the same predicament, whereas the author of this book of revelations stands alone in his lunacy, if such a verdict should be brought in against him. Gracious God 1 to what a condition has this country been brought by that much-boasted, but all-destructive “reformation " Is it possible that the principle of private judgment can be a just one, can be of heavenly origin, when it leads of necessity to such outrages upon all religion as those which have been witnessed here within the last three centuries 2 Can that principle be of a divine character which authorizes the ravings of a Wesley, the visions of a Southcote, the buffoonery of an Irving, and the new revelations of the scribe whose work we have just closed ? Assuredly, if these questions receive a correct answer by an affirmative, the conclusion becomes inevitable, that God is the author of evil, and of the greatest evii to which mankind could be doomed. But such a conclusion cannot be maintained : it would be blasphemous in the highest degree; it would be a severance of the link which binds us to the creator, and a violation of the plainest rules of common sense. Let us not hesitate, therefore, to pronounce the principle of “private judgment” to be the invention of the common enemy of mankind—an invention by means of which he has worked greater injury to the cause of Christianity, than he could have done by all the other instruments of crime put together, which he has the mysterious power of setting in motion.
ART. II.-Adventures on the Columbia River, including the Narrative of a Residence of Sir Years on the Western Side of the Rocky Mountains, among various Tribes of Indians hitherto unknown, together with a Journey across the American Continent. By Ross Cox. In two vols. 8vo. London : Colburn and Co. 1831.
THE Hudson's Bay Company, and the North-west Company, having for many years monopolized the whole of the trade in fur, a Mr. Astor conceived, in the year 1809, a project for getting some part of that profitable commerce to himself, by forming an establishment on the Columbia river, at the western side .# the American continent. He succeeded in organizing, at New York, an association which he called the “Pacific Fur Company,” and fitted out two vessels, one of which sailed in the autumn of 1810, the other in 1811, with the requisite number of clerks, mechanics, voyageurs, as the fur-collectors were called, and an abundant supply of everything that could contribute to the comfort of the crew and passengers. So seducing were the reports which were at first circulated with respect to the riches to be acquired by every body, who was engaged in this speculation, that many merchants of the first respectability solicited appointments for their sons under the new Company. The number of applications greatly exceeded that of the offices which were to be bestowed. The author of these volumes, to his infinite joy at the time, was among the successful candidates. Happening to be at New York, he was fascinated with the hope of realizing a splendid fortune in the northern El Dorado, for which he embarked on board the Beaver, in the October of 1811, full of the most sanguine hope. He soon had reason to repent of his ambition. Like many other projects which have since captivated men's minds, and vanished into air, after robbing them both of their health and money, this “Pacific Company” provided only the most severe miseries for its numerous servants. Instead of riches, many of them found sickness and death, and all of them ruin, in the land which was represented to them as overflowing with wealth “beyond the dream of avarice.”
Proceeding round Cape Horn, the Beaver touched at the Sandwich Islands for supplies, and for the purpose of engaging some of the natives for the Company’s service; thence the vessel sailed on the 6th of April, (1812,) made terra firma in latitude 41° N. on the 1st of May, and, coasting alongshore, approached on the 5th, the entrance of Columbia river, which empties itself into the Pacific in latitude 46° 19 N., and longitude 124°W. There being a dangerous bar across the mouth of the river, the Beaver found considerable difficulty in passing over it, to Baker's Bay, in which she at length dropped anchor, after a tedious voyage of six months and twentytwo days.
Some time being required for preparations, the party, consisting of three proprietors, nine clerks, fifty-five Canadians, and twenty Sandwich islanders, were not able to take their departure for the interior until the 29th of June. They proceeded in barges and light canoes up the Columbia, which is uninterrupted by rapids for about a hundred and seventy miles, and navigable for one hundred by vessels of three hundred tons. It is thus far a noble stream, being seldom less than a mile wide, but in many places varying in breadth from two to five miles. The shores are bold, and thickly wooded with pine in all its varieties, with white oak, and other trees. On arriving at the first fall, the country assumes a new aspect, being equally free from rising grounds and timber; nothing is to be seen but immense plains, stretching to a great distance north and south, the soil being dry and sandy, and covered with a loose parched grass, growing in tufts. ‘The natives reside solely on the northern side; they have plenty of horses, and are generally friendly. Here also rattlesnakes are first seen, and are found for four or five hundred miles farther on.’ The party now pursued their journey occasionally on land, and their provisions having been exhausted, they were obliged to feed on horses, which they bought for a trifle from the natives. We are afraid that they were also sometimes under the necessity of dispensing, after the Armenian fashion, with the luxury of cooking, inasmuch as they were often without wood or other materials to make a fire. The Indians hitherto behaved to them in so friendly a manner, that they threw off the armour which they had worn, by way of precaution, against treacherous hostility. The author speaks with particular satisfaction of the conduct of the Wallah Wallahs, as the most hospitable tribe he had seen on the river. They had an open air of unsuspecting confidence, and behaved themselves with a degree of natural politeness which, to foreign travellers, was more than commonly acceptable. ‘We visited,” says Mr. Cox, ‘several families in a village, and the moment we entered, the best place was selected for us, and a clean mat spread to sit on ; while the inmates, particularly the women and the children, remained at a respectful distance, without manifesting any of the obtrusive curiosity about our arms or clothing, by which we were so much annoyed amongst the lower tribes.’ He gives the females a high character for chastity, a virtue, unhappily, little known in general among the Indian savages. After leaving the territory of the Wallah Wallahs, the party subdivided themselves for the purpose of exploring and fixing trading posts upon the banks of several rivers, which are tributary to the Columbia. The author's division proceeded in a north-eastern direction, their destination being for the Spokan tribe of Indians. The country which they traversed was, for the most part, covered with a parched brown grass, swarming with rattlesnakes. They suffered dreadfully from heat and thirst, it being then the middle of August. On the 17th of that month, the author happened to separate himself from his party, by an odd accident, which might have put an end for ever to his wanderings, The face of the country having been much changed for the better, he, after a hearty breakfast, wandered some distance along the banks of a rivulet, and reached a little arbour formed by sumach and cherry trees. On the opposite bank was a wilderness of crimson haw, honeysuckles, wild roses, and currants; its resemblance to a friend’s summer-house, in which he had spent many happy days, brought back recollections of home, which occupied him so pleasantly, that he fell first into a reverie, and next into a sleep, from which he did not awake till five o'clock in the evening. “All was calm and silent as the grave. I hastened to the spot where we had breakfasted: it was vacant. I ran to the place where the men had made their fire: all, all were gone, and not a vestige of man or horse appeared in the valley. My senses almost failed me. I called out in vain, in every direction, until I became hoarse; and I could no longer conceal from myself the dreadful truth that I was alone in a wild, uninhabited country, without horse or arms, and destitute of covering !” This, it must be confessed, was rather an unpleasant situation for a man who had undertaken such an expedition for the purpose of acquiring a princely fortune. The valley, though full of fruits and flowers, was still not his much looked for El Dorado. What was our hero now to do 2 In order to ascertain the direction which his party had taken, he set about examining the ground, and was able to follow the tracks of the horses’ feet for some time; but he soon lost them again in a gravelly bottom, upon which their hoofs made no impression. He next ascended the highest of the hills, from which he had an extended view for many miles around; but he perceived no sign of his friends, or the slightest indication of human habitations. The night, with its heavy dew, was approaching fast: on account of the heat of the season, he had no clothes on save a gingham shirt, nankin trowsers, and a pair of light leather mocassins (gaiters) much worn. He had in the morning taken off his coat, and thrown it over the back of one of the loaded horses, intending to put it on again in the evening; and in the agitation of his mind, on awaking in his arbour, he forgot to put on his hat, and it was now too late to think of going back
for it. Finding near him a field of long grass, he buried himself in ,
it for the night, and arose with the sun wet to the skin from the dew. He wandered the whole day in a northerly course, and late in the evening his heart was ready to burst with joy, when he beheld, at about a mile distant, two horsemen galloping, whom he knew from their dresses to be of his party. He instantly ran to a
hillock, and called out to them, ‘in a voice to which hunger had
imparted a supernatural shrillness; but they galloped on 1’ He then took off his shirt, which he waved in a conspicuous manner over his head, accompanied by the most frantic cries; still they continued their course without perceiving him. He ran towards them on the wings of despair, but they soon were out of sight, and
he lay down quite exhausted upon the ground. In this miserable situation, a new terror awaited him in the shape of an enormous rattlesnake, which he heard rustling behind him; but he succeeded in killing it with a stone, and again found a resting place for the might in a bed of long grass. The next day he was, as before, without food; his only nourishment was water. The sun blazed so intensely upon his naked head, that he felt sometimes as if his brain were on fire. He passed the banks of a lake which abounded with water fowl and fish, but alas! he had no means of appropriating them to his own use. On the 20th, he discovered some wild cherries, upon which he feasted sumptuously; but before he lighted upon them, he was obliged to chew grass in order to appease his hunger. On the 21st, he found out a cavern, which he resolved to make his abode for the present, as its neighbourhood abounded with wild cherries, his plan being to make short journies for two or three days all round this spot, with the view of ascertaining whether or not he was in the neighbourhood of any path. His first excursion from his cavern was unsuccessful, and he returned to it for the night plunged deeper than ever in the pond of despair.
“I collected a heap of stones from the water-side; and just as I was lying down, observed a wolf emerge from the opposite cavern, and thinking it safer to act on the offensive, lest he should imagine I was afraid, I threw some stones at him, one of which struck him on the leg: he retired yelling into his den; and after waiting some time in fearful suspense to see if he would reappear, I threw myself on the ground, and fell asleep; but, like the night before, it was broken by the same unsocial moise, and for upwards of two hours I sat up, waiting in anxious expectation the return of day-light. The vapours from the lake, joined to the heavy dew, had penetrated my frail covering of gingham ; but as the sun rose, I took it off, and stretched it on a rock, where it quickly dried. My excursion to the southward having proved abortive, I now resolved to try the east, and after eating my simple breakfast, proceeded in that direction; and on crossing the two small streams, had to penetrate a country “full of dark woods and rankling wilds,” through which, owing to the immense quantities of underwood, my progress was slow. My feet too were uncovered, and, from the thorns of the various prickly plants, were much lacerated, in consequence of which, on returning to my late bivouack, I was obliged to shorten the legs of my trowsers to procure bandages for them. The wolf did not make his appearance; but during the night I got occasional starts from several of his brethren of the forest. ‘ I anticipated the rising of the sun on the morning of the 23d, and having been unsuccessful the two preceding days, determined to shape my course due north, and if possible not return again to the lake. During the day I skirted the wood, and fell on some old tracks which revived my hopes a little. The country to the westward was chiefly plains covered with parched grass, and occasionally enlivened by savannahs of refreshing green, full of wild flowers and aromatic herbs, among which the bee and humming bird banqueted. I slept this evening by a small brook, where I collected cherries and haws enough to make a hearty supper. I was obliged to make further encroachments on the legs of my trowsers for