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From the several sorts of winds let the inquisition pass to those things which contribute towards the winds (for we will so express it, because the word efficient signifies more, and the word concomitant less than we mean), and to those things which seem to raise, or to appease the winds.
Things contributing or making for the winds, and raising and appeasing them.
11. Inquire sparingly concerning astrological considerations of winds, neither care thou for the over curious schemes of the heaven, only do not neglect the more manifest observations of winds rising, about the rising of some stars, or about the eclipses of the luminaries, or conjunctions of planets; nor much less on those which depend on the courses of the sun and moon.
12. What meteors of several sorts do contribute or make for winds, what the earthquakes, what rain, what the skirmishing of winds one with another? for these things are linked together, and one draws on the other.
13. What the diversity of vapours and exhalations contributes towards the winds? and which of them do most engender winds; and how far the nature of winds doth follow these its materials.
14. What those things which are here upon the earth, or are there done do contribute towards the winds; what the hills and the dissolutions of snow upon them; what those masses of ice which swim upon the sea, and are carried to some place; what the differences of soil and land (so it be of some large extent); what ponds, sands, woods, and champion ground; what those things which we men do here, as burning of heath, and the like, doth contribute to the manuring of land, the firing of towns in time of war, the drying up of ponds and lakes; the continual shooting off of guns, the ringing of many bells together in great cities, and the like? These things and acts of ours are but as small straws, yet something they may do.
15. Inquire concerning all manner of raisings, or allayings of winds, but be sparing in fabulous and superstitious
From those things which make for the winds, let the inquisition proceed to inquire of the bounds of the winds, of their height, extension, and continuance.
The bounds of winds.
16. Inquire carefully of the height or elevation of winds, and whether there be any tops of mountains to which the winds do not reach; or whether clouds may be seen some
times to stand still, and not move, when the winds at the same time blow strongly upon the earth.
17. Inquire diligently of the spaces or rooms which the winds take up at once, and within what bounds they blew? As for example, if the south wind blew in such a place, whether it be known certainly, that at the same time the north wind blew ten miles off? And, contrariwise, into how narrow and straight bounds the winds may be reduced, so that winds may pass, as it were, through channels, which seems to be done in some whirlwinds.
18. Inquire for how long time, very much, ordinary, or little time, winds use to continue, and then slack, and, as it were, expire and die. Likewise how the rising and beginning of winds useth to be; what their languishing or cessation is, whether suddenly, or by degrees, or how?
From the bounds of the winds let your inquisition pass over to the succession of winds, either amongst themselves, or in respect of rain and showers; for when they lead their rings it were pretty to know the order of their dancing.
Successions of winds.
19. Whether there be any more certain rule or observation concerning the successions of winds one to another, or whether it have any relation to the motion of the sun, or otherwise; if it have any, what manner of one it is?
20 Inquire concerning the succession and the alteration, or taking turns of the winds and rain, seeing it is ordinarily and often seen, that rain lays the wind, and the wind doth disperse the rain.
21. Whether after a certain term and period of years the succession of winds begin anew; and if it be so, what that period is and how long?
From the succession of the winds, let the inquisition pass to their motions; and the motions of winds are comprehended in seven inquisitions; whereof three are contained in the former articles, four remain as yet untouched. For we have inquired of the motion of winds divided into the several regions of the heaven; also of the motion upon three lines, upward, downward, and laterally. Likewise of the accidental motion of compressions or restraints. There remain the fourth of progressions or going forward; the fifth of undulation, or waving; the sixth of conflict or skirmish; the seventh in human instruments and engines.
Divers motions of the winds.
- 22. Seeing progression is always from some certain place or bound, inquire diligently, or as well as thou canst, con
cerning the place of the first beginning, and, as it were, the spring of any wind. For winds seem to be like unto fame, for though they make a noise and run up and down, yet they hide their heads amongst the clouds; so is their progress; as for example, if the vehement northern wind, which blew at York such a day, do blow at London two days after.
23. Omit not the inquisition of undulation of winds. We call undulation of winds that motion by which the wind in or for a little space of time rises and abates, as the waves of the water; which turns may easily be apprehended by the hearing of them in houses; and you must so much the rather mark the differences of undulation, or of furrowing between the water and the air, because in the air and winds there wants the motion of gravity or weight, which is a great part of the cause of the waves rising in the
24. Inquire carefully concerning the conflict and meeting of winds, which blow at one and the same time: first, whether at the same time there blow several original winds (for we do not speak of reverberated winds)? which if it comes to pass, what windings they engender and bring forth in their motion, and also what condensations, and alterations they produce in the body of the air?
25. Whether one wind blow above at the same time as another blows here below with us? For it hath been observed by some, that sometimes the clouds are carried one way, when the weathercock upon a steeple stands another. Also, that the clouds have been driven by a strong gale, when we here below have had a great calm.
26. Make an exact particular description of the motion of the winds in driving on ships with their sails.
27. Let there be a description made of the motion of the winds in the sails of ships, and the sails of windmills, in the flight of hawks and birds; also in things that are ordinary, and for sport, as of displayed colours, flying dragons, duels with winds, &c.
From the motions of winds, let the inquisition pass to the force and power of them.
Of the power of winds.
28. What winds do or can do concerning currents or tides of waters, in their keeping back, putting forth, or inlets and overflowings.
29. What they do concerning plants and insects, bringing in of locusts, blastings, and mildews.
30. What they effect concerning purging or clearing, and infecting of the air, in plagues, sicknesses, and diseases of beasts.
31. What they effect concerning the conveying to us things (which we call) spiritual, as sounds, rays, and the like.
From the powers of winds let the inquisition pass to the prognostics of winds, not only for the use of predictions, but because they lead us on to the causes: for prognostics do either show us the preparations of things, before they be brought into action; or the beginnings before they appear to the sense.
Prognostics of winds.
32. Let all manner of good prognostics of winds be carefully gathered together (besides astrological ones, of which we set down formerly how far they are to be inquired after), and let them either be taken out of meteors, or waters, or instincts of beasts, or any other way.
Lastly, close up the inquisition, with inquiring after the imitations of winds, either in natural or artificial things.
Imitations of winds.
33. Inquire of the imitations of winds in natural things; such as breaths inclosed within the bodies of living creatures, and breaths within the receptacles of distilling vessels.
Inquire concerning made gales, and artificial winds, as bellows, refrigeratories, or coolers in parlours, or dining rooms, &c.
Let the heads or articles be such. Neither is it unknown to me that it will be impossible to answer to some of these according to the small quantity of experience that we have. But as in civil causes, a good lawyer knows what interrogatories the cause requires to have witnesses examined upon; but what the witnesses can answer he knows not. The same thing is incident to us in natural history. Let those who come after us endeavour for the rest.
The Names of Winds.
To the first article.
WE give names to winds rather as they are numbered in their order and degrees than by their own antiquity; this we do for memory's and perspicuity's sake. But we add the old words also, because of the assenting voices or opinions of old authors; of which having taken (though with somewhat a doubtful judgment) many things, they will hardly be known, but under such names as themselves have used. Let the general division be this: let cardinal winds be those which blow from corners or angles of the world; semicardinal, those which blow in the half-wards of those; and median winds, those which blow between these halfwards likewise of those which blow betwixt these halfwards; let those be called major medians which blow in a quadrant or fourth part of these divisions: the lesser medians are all the rest. Now the particular division is that
North and by east. South and by west. Med. Maj. North-north-east, or aqui- Med. Maj. South-south-west, or libolo. South-west and by south. Semicard. South-west, or libs. South-west and by west. Med. Maj. West-south-west, or afri
North-east, and by north,
North-east and by east.
West and by south.
South-east and by east. Semicard. South-east.
South-east and by south. Med. Maj. South-south-east, or phanicias.
South and by east.
North-west and by west.
North-west and by north,
North and by west.
There are also other names of winds. Apeliotes, the east wind, argestes, the south-west, olympias, the north-west, scyron, the south-east, hellespontius, the east-north-east, for these we care not. Let it suffice that we have given