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claim to the industry of each individual, and that he was sent into the world to advance the felicity of it.

The duke De La ROCHEFOUCAULT calls Honour the good sense of pride. But it surely is giving it a much higher encomium to say it is the picture of RELIGION; a transcript of her excellencies without her name affixed, and whose value is alone derived from its resemblance to that ori. ginal ;-a beam of her light which will penetrate into hearts not purified enough to imbibe all he rays ; a polish which prepares the human breast for reflecting her power more strongly when it shall be more enlarged. That Honour in a word is a well cut jewel which exhibits different dyes, but all beautiful, in different positions ; but that RELIGION is the sun which gives every one of them its colour and radiancy.

New Experiments concerning the TORPEDO.

To the STUDEN T. $ I Rs THE various and contradictory accounts, which authors.

I have given of the Torpedo or Cramp-Fish, induce me to send you a faithful description of this animal; with the wonderful effects it has on human bodies. I had an opportunity of trying the experiments at Surinam, a colony once belonging to the English, but exchanged with the Dutch fome years since for New York, situated in South America about six degrees north latitude.

TN the month of January 1745, I arrived at Surinam,

I being sent for by his Excellency Mr. J. J. MAURICIUS from Barbadors ; his lady and himself at that time labouring under a disorder, which required my asistance as a surgeon


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in concert with others of that colony. While I was there, some Indians came one evening to Paramaribo, which is the chief city, and brought with them a living Torpedo. This animal was about an ell long, in shape not much unlike'a large eel, but more flat, with a head considerably bigger, and a dark lift down his back. He was kept in a wide shallow tub, and covered with about three inches of water. On my coming to the side of the vessel, he presently dropp'd down clofe to the bottom, and seemed to contract himself, as if he was enraged.

I then attempted to touch him with my fore finger, having stretched out my arm, and at the same time I steadfastly kept my eyes fixed upon him to observe what motions he might make. Immediately. to my great surprize and confufion, as quick as lightning, my elbow received such a strong repelling force accompanied with such anguish that I thought my fore arm would have fallen off. But what is very wonderful, the fish never stirr’d, and my finger was scarce within an inch of touching him. It is proper to mention, that the painful sensation did not last above a minute, because fome have asserted that the anguish continues many hours.

The next experiment I made with an iron hoop taken off from an old Madeira wine pipe. When streighten'd it was near six feet long. With this I attempted flowly at arms length to touch the Torpedo ; but before I could reach him, the iron twirled out of my hand with a resistless force, as when a learner is in fencing disarmed of his foil by aii master of that science.

An accident like this happen'd some years ago to the Honourable Admiral Fitzroy Lee, who was then on the coast of Guinea. As he was returning to his boat, on a sudden one of the boat's crew fell backward, and the oar leapt out of its hold with a considerable fpring. The poor failor complained of a pain in his elbow, and every one was greatly surprized at so uncommon an accident. On examining what could be the cause of this Phänomenon, it appeared, that the failor


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fome few days before had split the blade of his oar, and had mended it with a piece of old iron hoop.

These two cases overthrow the false notions of those who assert, that the Torpedo can have no effect on the human frame, where there is an intervening body. Several gentlemen planters have assured me, that in angling the rod has frequently leaped out of their hands. As the hook is made of iron, this may easily be accounted for from what has been before related. · I tried the same experiment with a common stick, but my arm felt no pain, though I moved the fish about the tub with it. *

What is something more extraordinary and worth our notice is, that if a woman under her natural healthy evacuations should by accident touch this fish, they immediately cease, and the person falls into great anxiety fucceeded by a jaundice or dropsy, and sometimes both, frequently terminating in a short time in death. Mr. MAURIČIUS had an Indian woman, who languished some weeks and at last died by such an accident. · Notwithstanding this fish can thus disturb and shock the -animal machine, it is, when drest, very delicious food, and frequently to be met with at the tables of planters, especially those on Commowini river. Indeed they take out a slice down each side the back bone, before they dress it.

On enquiring what was the method used in taking these

* Mr. Walter in his relation of Lord Anson's voyage, Speaking of the Torpedo, says, .that the same effect (i. e. numbness) will be in some degree produced by touching the fish with any “ thing held in the hand; since I myself had a considerable digree As of numbness convey'd to my right arm through a walking cane, " which I rested on the body of the fish." Book II. chap. xii. page 362. octavo edition. This account, tho' seemingły corrtradictory, may be reconciled with the above, if we consider that Mr. W alter's walking cane had doubtless an iron spike or socket ferrel at the end of it.

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animals, animals, I was told, that the Indians, as soon as they discover
where they are, immediately seize them by their back and
grasp them with great force, which defeats all their electrical
energy or spring.

• To conclude; if observations on different animals &c.
agree with the design of your Miscellany, and the many
avocations, which my profession subjects me to, will give
leave, you shall be welcome to draw out of my journals thro'
many nations whatever may be of service to you or amuse-
ment to the publick,

I am, fir, yours, &c.

February 6, 1750


We are greatly obliged to Mr. INGRAM for the favour
of his letter, and shall think ourselves honoured by the
continuance of his correspondence. Just accounts of any
thing new and uncommon, when given by persons of un-
doubted veracity, cannot but excite the attention of the sead-
er, and are of real service to the publick,

- The Curious may see a distinct concise account of the
Torpedo from different writers, together with the causes of its
its surprizing effects variously enumerated, in CHAMBERS's stop
Diktionary under the word TORPEDO: to which we rather Botiga
chufe to refer our readers, than stuff our Miscellany with the
extracts from other authors.


Tradesmen and College Servants.

From my ground-floor in


T Cannot but be sensible how gracious a reception I have

I met with from the learned, not only in the University, but also in this City. There is not a tradesman, I dare say, of any note among us, who has the least connection with the gown, but is a subscriber to my monthly labours. As selfadoration is an idolatry peculiar to scribblers, I cannot help feeling some emotions of transport, when I hear the town men whisper one another, as I go by, That's HE, that's the STUDENT.

This respect I have the vanity to attribute to that profound learning diffused from the colleges into every quarter of the town. A tradesman of OXFORD is no more like another common tradesman than some collegians are like other men. Our yery scouts and bed-makers have a knowledge superiour to ordinary servants : our menials are dignified with latin appellations : our butler must be promus, our cook coquus, the porter at our gate janitor; in short our whole domus is diftinguished by fuch very learned titles.

To return to the tradesmen, the very fign-posts express their taste for learning and superiour education. Our mercers, milliners, taylors, &c. &c. &c. have shewn their nice judge ment in the art of designing, by the many curious emblematical devices that so eminently adorn the entrance to their Ihops. How sublime are the signs of our innkeepers ! the angel, the cross, the mitre, the maidenhead, with many others, are too well known to need mentioning. A toothdrawer amongst us denotes his occupation by an excellent poetical diffich; a second with great propriety stiles himself operator for the teeth : and my printer who sells


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