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in a dove, and confide in the meek Jesus, are athirst (1) for our blood, and prowl (2) around the castle like wolves. It is therefore my advice that we elude their tortures, that we ourselves should be our own executioners; and that we voluntarily surrender our lives to our Creator. We trace the invisible Jehovah in his acts; God seems to call for us, but let us not be unworthy of that call. Suicide on occasions like the present, is both rational (3) and lawful (4); we have many examples among our forefathers (5): they have acted on similar occasions, as I now advise


men of Israel!" After this heroic and touching address, the old man sat down-and wept.

The assembly was divided in their opinions. Men of fortitude applauded the advice, but the pusillanimous murmured that it was a dreadful counsel.

Again the venerable Rabbin rose and spoke the following words in a firm and decisive tone. "My children! since we are not unanimous in our opinions, let those who do not approve of my advice depart from this assembly. ” – Some departed, but the greater number attached themselves to their venerable priest.

They now employed themselves in consuming their valuables (6) by fire; and every man, fearful of trust

(1) Athirst ou thirsly, altéré.
(2) To prowl, rôder.
(3) Rational, raisonnable.
(4) Lawful , légal.
(5) Forefathers, ancêtres.
(6) Their valuables, leurs choses précieuses.



ing (1) the act of self-destruction to the timid and irresolute hands of the women, first sacrificed his wife and children, and then himself. Jocenus and the Rabbin alone remained. Their lives were protracted to the last, that they might see every thing performed according to their orders. Jocenus, being the next (2) in dignity after the Rabbin, was distinguished by the last mark of human respect, in receiving his death from the consecrated hand of the aged Haham, who immediately after performed the melancholy duty on himself, and thus consummated this memorable and glorious sacrifice, caused by intolerance and superstition.

All this was transacted in the night. In the morning, the walls of the castle were enveloped in flames, and the few miserable beings whose courage had not been equal to the task of self-destruction were seen on the battlements (3) pointing to (4) the dead bodies of their heroic brethren (5). The prediction of their late venerable Rabbin was soon verified; for no sooner were the gates of the castle opened, ihan the multitude bursting through the solitary courts, and finding themselves de frauded (6) of their hopes of plunder, in a moment avenged themselves on the feeble wretches (7) who knew not how to die with honour. History informs us that

(1) To trust, confier, se fier.
(2) The next, le suivant.
(3) Batllements, créneaux.
(4) To point to, montrer du doigt.
(5) Brethren, frères, fraternité, confrères.
(6) Defrauded, trompé.
(7) Wretches, malheureux.

not less than five hundred were self-immolated on this melancholy occasion.



William I, may be said to have been crowned in character of a conqueror. Christmas-day 1066 being appointed for his coronation, at Westminster, he was sur. rounded by his Norman Barons, and a full attendance (1) of the English nobles and prelates. — Aldred , archbishop of York, then put the questions of the recognition (2) to his new subjects, and the bishop of Constance, who was in his train, to the Normans.

The assent of both nations was given with loud acclamation. So boisterous indeed was their loyalty at this part of the ceremony, that the Norman soldiers of William, who were on the outside of the Abbey church, affected to consider the shouts as the signal of insurrection, and immediately set fire to the houses of the neighbourhood (a singular remedy for a riot), and began the work of plunder, to the great mortification of the king. All now became confusion in the interior of the Abbey : the Norman Barons prepared for battle; the native nobles regarded themselves as victims selected for slaughter, and the king is said to have been left alone with the ecclesiastics to conclude the ceremony.

(1) Full attendance, une grande ou nombreuse suite.

(2) Questions of recognition, questions de confirmation, pour demander si on le reconnaissait pour roi.



That the shouts were but the pretext for a preconcerted attack and plunder of the people, appears but too clearly from the subsequent remontrances of the king with the barons, whom he warned (1) against the certain result of oppressing the English; while he strictly prohibited (2) the soldiers from appearing at taverns, or molesting the private abode of the citizens, and appointed a commission (3) to enforce his regulations.


At the coronation of the kings of England, a singular and imposing ceremony takes place. Between the first and second course (4) of the banquet , the champion of England on horseback, in complete armour, attented by his pages, al., challenges (5) any one to dispute the right of the sovereign to the crown. The polished armour and waving (6) plumes of the champion , and the rich trappings (7) of his noble charger, produce a fine effect in the ancient abbey (8), and surrounded as they

(1) To warn , averlir, prévenir.
(2) To prohibit, défendre.
(3) A commission, un conseil.
(4) First and second course , premier et second service.
(5) To challenge, provoquer, appeler en duel.
(6) Waving , flottant.
(7) Trappings, housses, harnais,

(8) Westminster abbey, à Londres, sont couronnés les rois d'Angleterre.

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are by fair dames and noble lords, bring back (1) to the imagination the times of chivalry.

At the entrance into the hall, the trumpets sound thrice, and the passage to the king's table being cleared by the knight marshal, the herald (2) with a loud voice proclaims the champion's challenge in the following words :

6. If any person of what degree soever (3), high or low, shall deny or gainsay (4) our sovereign Lord King

- of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland , Defender of the Faith, Son and next Heir to our sovereign Lord King-(the last King), deceased, to be right heir (3) to the imperial Crown of this United Kingdom; or that he ought not to enjoy the same, here is (6) his champion, who saith (7) that he lieth, and is a false trai. tor; being ready in person to combat with him, and in this quarrel will adventure his life against him, on what day soever that shall be appointed.

The champion then throws down (8) his iron glove or gauntlet, which having lain for a short time upon

(1) To bring back , ramener, rappeler.

(2) Herald , héraut d'armes , officier chargé des proclamations.

(3) Whatsoever, quel que soit.
(4) To gainsay, contredire.
(5) Heir, héritier.
(6) Here is , voici.

(7) Saith et lieth pour says et lies. Le th est l'ancienne terminaison des verbes à la troisième personne du singulier au présent de l'indicatif, remplacé à présent par s. La terminaison th est conservée dans le langage de la chaire et par les poëtes.

(8) To throw down , jeter à terre.

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