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At present I will support the wishes of my impatient desire, with hope of seeing, one day, those [issues] which being committed to faithful privacy, wait the time till they may safely see the light, and not be stifled in their birth.

Now, the gift is by so much the greater, by how much the more benefit I reaped by diligent reading of those papers, and by comparing them with some of the Lord Bacon's works, which I myself had formerly published. For, to you we owe the more enlarged history de denso et raro, as also many other things contained in that

I wish, in the mean time, I could have a sight of the copy of the epistle to Sir Henry Savil, concerning the helps of the intellectual powers: volume, which saw not the light before. One for I am persuaded, as to the other Latin remains, that I shall not obtain, for present use, the removal of them from the place in which they now are. Farewell.

Maestricht, March 20,
New Style, 1655.

To the reverend and most learned William
Rawley, D. D., Isaac Gruter wisheth much


How much I hold myself honoured by your present of the Lord Bacon's Posthumous Works, published lately by you in Latin, my thanks immediately returned had let you understand, if ill fortune in the passage (which is, for divers causes, uncertain) had not deluded the care of a friend, who did here with much readiness undertake the conveyance of them.

paper I wonder I saw not amongst them, the epistle of the Lord Bacon to Sir Henry Savil, about the helps of the intellectual powers, spoken of long ago in your letters, under that or some such title, if my memory does not deceive me. If it was not forgotten, and remains among your private papers, I should be glad to see a copy of it, in the use of which my faithfulness shall not be wanting. But perhaps it is written in the English tongue, and is a part of that greater volume, which contains only his English works. If you will please to let me understand so much, and likewise give me assurance of obtaining that book, in which the speeches, and it may be the letters of the Lord Bacon, written by him in English, are digested, you will render your memory sacred in my mind, in the veneration of which, the cheerfulness of a most devoted affection shall never be weary. Farewell.

From Maestricht, from whence, after two or three months, I remove to Nimmeghen, nigher to Holland. But you may convey to me any thing you desire, by Mr. Smith.

July 1st, New Style, 1659.






have had no serious speech with him, nor do I yet know whether any of the doubles of my letter have been delivered to the king. It may, perhaps, have proved your luck to be the first.

SIR, I was heartily glad to hear that you had passed so great a part of your journey in so good health. My aim was right in my address of let- Things are here in good quiet. The king acts ters to those persons in the court of Scotland, excellently well; for he puts in clauses of reserwho were likeliest to be used for the affairs of vation to every proviso. He saith, he would be England; but the pace they held was too swift, sorry to have just cause to remove any. He for the men were come away before my letters saith, he will displace none who hath served the could reach them. With the first, I have renewed queen and state sincerely, &c. The truth is, acquaintance, and it was like a bill of revivor, by here be two extremes, some few would have no way of cross-suits; for he was as ready to have change, no, not reformation. Some many would begun with me. The second did this day arrive, have much change, even with perturbation. God, and took acquaintance with me instantly in the I hope, will direct this wise king to hold a mean Council Chamber, and was willing to entertain between reputation enough, and no terrors. In me with further demonstrations of confidence, my particular I have many comforts and assuthan I was willing at that time to admit. But, I rances; but, in my own opinion the chief is, that


the canvassing world is gone, and the deserving wishes of your company here, that so you might world is come. And, withal, I find myself as use the same liberty concerning my actions, one awaked out of sleep; which I have not been which now you exercise concerning my writings. this long time, nor could, I think, have been now For that of Queen Elizabeth, your judgment of without such a great noise as this, which yet is the temper, and truth of that part, which concerns in aurâ leni. I have written this to you in haste, some of her foreign proceedings, concurs fully my end being no more than to write, and thereby with the judgment of others, to whom I have to make you know that I will ever continue the communicated part of it; and as things go, I same, and still be sure to wish you as heartily suppose they are more likely to be more and more well as to myself. justified, and allowed. And, whereas you say, for some other part, that it moves and opens a fair occasion and broad way into some field of contradiction; on the other side, it is written to me from the Leiger at Paris, and some others also, that it carries a manifest impression of truth SIR, Two letters of mine are now already with it, and it even convinces as it goes. These walking towards you; but so that we might meet, are their very words; which I write not for mine it were no matter though our letters should lose own glory, but to show what variety of opinion their way. I make a shift in the mean time to rises from the disposition of several readers. be glad of your approaches, and would be more And, I must confess my desire to be, that my glad to be an agent for your presence, who have writings should not court the present time, or been a patient for your absence. If your body by some few places in such sorts as might make indisposition make you acknowledge the health- them either less general to persons, or less perful air of your native country, much more do I manent in future ages. As to the Instauration, assure myself that you continue to have your your so full approbation thereof, I read with much mind no way estranged. And, as my trust with comfort, by how much more my heart is upon it; the state is above suspicion, so my knowledge, and by how much less I expected consent and both of your loyalty and honest nature, will ever concurrence in matter so obscure. Of this I can make me show myself your faithful friend, with- assure you, that though many things of great out scruple: you have reason to commend that hope decay with youth, (and multitude of civil gentleman to me by whom you sent your last, businesses is wont to diminish the price, though although his having travelled so long amongst the not the delight, of contemplations,) yet the prosadder nations of the world make him much the ceeding in that work doth gain with me upon my less easy upon small acquaintance to be under- affection and desire, both by years and businesses. stood. I have sent you some copies of my book | And, therefore, I hope, even by this, that it is of the Advancement, which you desired, and a well pleasing to God, from whom and to whom little work of my recreation, which you desired all good moves. To him I most heartily comnot. My Instauration I reserve for our confer- mend you. ence; it sleeps not. These works of the alphabet are in my opinion of less use to you where you are now, than at Paris; and therefore I conceived that you had sent me a kind of tacit countermand of your former request. But, in regard that some friends of yours have still insisted here, I send them to you; and, for my part, I value your own reading more than your publishing them to others. Thus, in extreme haste, I have scribbled to you I know not what, which, therefore, is the less affected, and for that very reason will not be esteemed the less by you.


SIR,-I thank you for your last, and pray you to believe, that your liberty in giving opinion of those writings which I sent you, is that which I sought, which I expected, and which I take in exceeding good part; so good, as that it makes me recontinue, or rather continue my hearty


SIR,-Coming back from your invitation at Eton, where I had refreshed myself with company, which I loved; I fell into a consideration of that part of policy whereof philosophy speaketh too much, and laws too little; and that is, of education of youth. Whereupon fixing my mind awhile, I found straightways, and noted, even in the discourses of philosophers, which are so large in this argument, a strange silence concerning one principal part of that subject. For, as touching the framing and seasoning of youth to moral virtues, (as tolerance of labours, continency from pleasures, obedience, honour, and the like,) they handle it; but touching the improvement and helping of the intellectual powers, as of conceit, memory, and judgment, they say nothing; whether it were, that they thought it to be a matter wherein nature only prevailed, or that

they intended it, as referred, to the several and proper arts, which teach the use of reason and speech. But, for the former of these two reasons, howsoever it pleaseth them to distinguish of habits and powers; the experience is manifest enough, that the motions and faculties of the wit and memory may be not only governed and guided, but also confirmed and enlarged, by customs and exercise daily applied: as, if a man exercise shooting, he shall not only shoot nearer the mark, but also draw a stronger bow. And, as for the latter, of comprehending these precepts, within the arts, of logic and rhetoric; if it be rightly considered, their office is distinct altogether from this point; for it is no part of the doctrine, of the use or handling of an instrument, to teach how to whet or grind the instrument, to give it a sharp edge; or, how to quench it, or otherwise, whereby to give it a stronger temper. Wherefore, finding this part of knowledge not broken, I have, but "tanquam aliud agens,' entered into it, and salute you with it; dedicating it, after the ancient manner, first as to a dear friend, and then as to an apt person; forasmuch as you have both place to practise it, and judgment and leisure to look deeper into it than I have done. Herein you must call to mind, "Apisev av ip. Though the argument be not of great height and dignity, nevertheless, it is of great and universal use. And yet I do not see why, to consider it rightly, that should not be a learning of height which teacheth to raise the highest and worthiest part of the mind. But, howsoever that be, if the world take any light and use by this writing, I will, the gratulation be to the good friendship and acquaintance between us two. And so recommend you to God's divine protec



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SIR,-There is a particular wherein I think you may do yourself honour, which, as I am informed, hath been laboured by my Lady of Bedford, and put in good way by the Bishop of Bath and Wells, concerning the restoring to preach of a famous preacher, one Doctor Burgesse, who, though he hath been silenced a great time, yet he hath now made such a submission touching his conformity, as giveth satisfaction. It is much desired also by Gray's Inn, (if he shall be free from the state,) to choose him for their preacher: and certainly it is safer to place him there, than in another auditory, because he will be well watched, if he should any ways fly forth in his sermons beyond duty. This may seem a trifle; but I do assure you, in opening this man's mouth to preach, you shall open very many mouths to speak honour of you; and I confess I would have a full cry of Puritans, of

Papists, of all the world to speak well of you; and besides, I am persuaded (which is above all earthly glory) you shall do God good service in it. I pray deal with his majesty in it. I rest Your devoted and bounden servant, FRA. BACON.

June 13, 1616.


IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY, First, from the bottom of my heart I thank the God of all mercy and salvation, that he hath preserved you from receiving any hurt by your fall; and I pray his Divine Majesty ever to preserve you, on horseback and on foot, from hurt and fear of hurt.

Now, touching the clothing business; for that I perceive the cloth goeth not off as it should, and that Wiltshire is now come in with complaint, as well as Gloucestershire and Worcestershire, so that this gangrene creepeth on; I humbly pray your majesty to take into your majesty's princely consideration a remedy for the present stand, which certainly will do the deed; and for any thing that I know, will be honourable and convenient, though joined with some loss in your majesty's customs, which I know, in a business of this quality, and being but for an interim, till you may negotiate, your majesty doth not esteem. And it is this:

That your majesty by your proclamation do forbid (after fourteen days, giving that time for suiting men's selves) the wearing of any stuff made wholly of silk, without mixture of wool, for the space of six months. So your majesty shall supply outward vent with inward use, specially for the finer cloths, which are those wherein the stand principally is, and which silk wearers are likest to buy; and you shall show a most princely care over thousands of the poor people; and, besides, your majesty shall blow a horn, to let the Flemings know your majesty will not give over the chase. Again, the winter season coming on, is fittest for wearing of cloth, and there is scope enough left for bravery and vanity by lacing and embroidery, so it be upon cloth or stuffs of wool. I thought it my duty to offer and submit this remedy, amongst others, to your majesty's great wisdom, because it pleased you to lay the care of this business upon me; and indeed my care did fly to it before, as it shall always do to any knots and difficulties in your business, wherein hitherto I have been not unfortunate. God ever have you in his most precious custody.

Your majesty's most faithful
and most bounden servant,

Sept. 13, 1616.



It was my opinion from the beginning, that this company will never overcome the business of the cloth; and that the impediments are as much or more in the persons which are instrumenta animata than in the dead business itself.

I have therefore sent unto the king here enclosed my reasons, which I pray your lordship to show his majesty.

The new company and the old company are but the sons of Adam to me, and I take myself to have some credit with both, but it is upon fear rather with the old, and upon love rather with the new, and yet with both upon persuasion that I understand the business.

Nevertheless I walk in via regia, which is not absolutely acceptable to either. For the new company would have all their demands granted, and the old company would have the king's work given over and deserted.

My opinion is, that the old company be drawn to succeed into the contract, (else the king's honour suffereth;) and that we all draw in one way to effect that. If time, which is the wisest of things, prove the work impossible or inconvenient, which I do not yet believe, I know his majesty and the state will not suffer them to perish.

the direction touching the conveniency. And,
therefore, I send your lordship a form of warrant
for the king's signature, whereby the framing of
the business, and that which belongeth to it,
may be referred to myself, with Serjeant Mon-
tague and Serjeant Finch; and though Montague
should change his place, that alteration hurteth
not the business, but rather helpeth it. And
because the inquiry and survey touching inns,
will require much attendance and charge, and the
making of the licenses, I shall think fit (when
that question cometh to me) to be to the justice
of assize, and not to those that follow this busi-
ness: therefore, his majesty may be pleased to
consider what proportion or dividend shall be
allotted to Mr. Mompesson, and those that shall
follow it at their own charge, which useth in
like cases to be a fifth. So I ever rest
Your lordship's true and most devoted servant,

Nov. 13, 1616.



I think his majesty was not only well advised, but well inspired, to give order for this same wicked child of Cain, Bertram, to be examined before he was further proceeded with. And I, for my part, before I had received his majesty's pleasure by my lord chamberlain, went thus far; that I had appointed him to be further ex

I wish what shall be done were done with resolution and speed, and that your lordship (because it is a gracious business) had thanks of it next the king; and that there were some commis-amined, and also had taken order with Mr. Solision under his majesty's sign manual, to deal with some selected persons of the old company, and to take their answers and consent under their hands, and that the procuring the commission, and the procuring of their offers to be accepted, were your lordship's work.

In this treaty my lord chancellor must by no means be left out, for he will moderate well, and aimeth at his majesty's ends.

citor that he should be provided to make some declaration at his trial, in some solemn fashion, and not to let such a strange murder pass as if it had been but a horsestealing.

But upon his majesty's pleasure signified, I forthwith caused the trial to be stayed, and examined the party according to his majesty's questions; and also sent for the principal counsel in the cause, whereupon Sir John Tyndal's report

Mr. Solicitor is not yet returned, but I look for was grounded, to discern the justice or iniquity him presently. I rest of the said report, as his majesty likewise commanded.

Your lordship's true and

most devoted servant,

Monday, 14th of October, at 10 of the clock.


Now, that the king has received my opinion, with the judge's opinion unto whom it was referred, touching the proposition for inns in point of law; it resteth that it be moulded and carried in that sort, as it may pass with best contentment and conveniency. Wherein I, that ever love good company, as I was joined with others in the legal points, so I desire not to be alone in VOL. III.-10

I send therefore, the case of Bertram, truly stated and collected, and the examination taken before myself and Mr. Solicitor; whereby it will appear to his majesty that Sir John Tyndal (as to this cause) is a kind of a martyr; for if ever he made a just report in his life, this was it.

But the event since all this is, that this Bertram being, as it seemeth, indurate or in despair, hath hanged himself in prison; of which accident, as I am sorry, because he is taken from example and public justice, so yet I would not for any thing it had been before his examination. So that there may be otherwise some occasion taken, either by some declaration in the King's Bench upon the return of the coroner's inquest, or by some printed book of the fact, or by some G

other means (whereof I purpose to advise with | kept as a secret in the deck, (and was not only of my lord chancellor) to have both his majesty's Hartington, but also of most of the other particuroyal care, and the truth of the fact, with the lars in your book,) I caused to be thoroughly circumstances manifested and published.

For the taking a tie of my lord chief justice before he was placed, it was done before your letter came, and on Tuesday Heath and Shute shall be admitted and all perfected.

My lord chancellor purposeth to be at the hall
to-morrow, to give my lord chief justice his oath;
I pray God it hurt him not this cold weather.
God ever prosper you.

Your true and most devoted servant,

Sunday night, the 17th of November, 1616.



looked into and provided for; without which your assurance had been nothing worth; and yet I handled it so, and made the matter so well understood, as you were not put to be a suitor to the prince, for his good will in it, as others ignorantly thought you must have done.

Fifthly, The annexation,* (which nobody dreamt of, and which some idle, bold lawyer would perhaps have said had been needless, and yet is of that weight, that there was never yet any man that would purchase any such land from the king, except he had a declaration to discharge it;) I was provident to have it discharged by declaration.

Sixthly, Lest it should be said, that your lordship was the first, (except the queen and the prince) that brake the annexation, upon a mere gift; for that others had it discharged only upon sale, which was for the king's profit and neces

I am glad to find your lordship mindful of your own business, and if any man put you in mind of it, I do not dislike that neither; but your lord-sity; I found a remedy for that also; because I ship may assure yourself in whatsoever you commit to me, your lordship's further care shall be needless. For I desire to take nothing from my master and my friend, but care, and therein I am so covetous, as I will leave them as little as may be.

Now, therefore, things are grown to a conclusion, touching your land and office, I will give your lordship an account of that which is passed; and acquaint your judgment (which I know to be great and capable of any thing) with your own business; that you may discern the difference between doing things substantially, and between shuffling and talking: and first for your patent.

First, It was my counsel and care that your book should be fee-farm and not fee-simple; whereby the rent of the crown in succession is not diminished, and yet the quantity of the land which you have upon your value is enlarged; whereby you have both honour and profit.

Secondly, By the help of Sir Lyonel Cranfield I advanced the value of Sherbourn from 26,000l. (which was thought and admitted by my lord treasurer and Sir John Deccomb as a value of great favour to your lordship, because it was a thousand pounds more than it was valued at to Somerset) to thirty-two thousand pounds, whereby there was six thousand pounds gotten and yet justly.

Thirdly, I advised the course of rating Hartington at a hundred years' purchase, and the rest at thirty-five years' purchase fee-farm, to be set down and expressed in the warrant; that it may appear, and remain of record, that your lordship had no other rates made to you in favour than such as purchasers upon sale are seldom drawn unto; whereby you have honour.

have carved it in the declaration, as that this was not gift to your lordship, but rather a purchase and exchange (as indeed it was) for Sherbourn.

Seventhly and lastly, I have taken order (as much as in me was) that your lordship in these things which you have passed be not abused, if you part with them; for I have taken notes in a book of their values and former offers. Now for your office.

First, Whereas my Lord Teynham at the first would have had your lordship have had but one life in it, and he another; my lord treasurer, and the solicitor and Deccombe were about to give way to it; I turned utterly that course, telling them that you were to have two lives in it, as well as Somerset had.

Secondly, I have accordingly, in the assurance from your deputies, made them acknowledge the trust and give security not only for your lordship's time, but after: so as you may dispose (if you should die, which I would be sorry to live to) the profits of the office by your will or otherwise to any of your friends, for their comfort and advancement.

Thirdly, I dealt so with Whitlocke as well as Heath as there was no difficulty made of the surrender.

Lastly, I did cast with myself, that if your lordship's deputies had come in by Sir Edward Coke, who was tied to Somerset, it would have been subject to some clamour from Somerset, and some question what was forfeited by Somerset's attainder (being but of felony) to the king: but now they coming in from a new chief justice, all is without question or scruple.

*The anneration by which lands, &c. were united or an

Fourthly, That lease to the feoffees, which was nexed to the Duchies of Cornwall and Lancaster.

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