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things.] Those Essays will be increased in their number, and enlarged in the handling of them.

Also that tome will contain the book of the Wisdom of the Ancients. And this tome (as I said) doth, as it were interlope, and doth not stand in the order of the Instauration.

After these shall follow the Organum Novum, to which a second part is yet to be added which I have already comprised and measured in the idea of it. And thus the second part of my Instauration will be finished.

As for the third part of the Instauration, that is to say, the Natural History, it is plainly a work for a king or a pope, or for some college or order; and cannot be by personal industry performed as it ought.

Those portions of it, which have already seen the light, to wit, concerning winds, and touching life and death, they are not pure history, by reason of the axioms and larger observations which are interposed. But they are a kind of mixed writings, composed of natural history, and a rude and imperfect instrument, or help, of the understanding.

And this is the fourth part of the Instauration. Wherefore that fourth part shall follow, and shall contain many examples of that instrument, more exact, and much more fitted to rules of induction. Fifthly, there shall follow a book to be entitled by us, Prodromus Philosophia Secundæ, [the forerunner of Secondary Philosophy.] This shall contain our inventions about new axioms to be raised from the experiments themselves, that they which were before as pillars lying uselessly along may be raised up. And this we resolve on for the fifth part of our Instauration.

Lastly, there is yet behind the Secondary Philosophy itself, which is the sixth part of the Instauration. Of the perfecting this I have cast away all hopes; but in future ages perhaps the design may bud again. Notwithstanding, in our Prodromie, [or prefatory works,] such I mean only, which touch almost the universals of nature, there will be laid no inconsiderable foundations of this matter.

Our meanness, you see, attempteth great things; placing our hopes only in this, that they seem to proceed from the providence and immense goodness of God.

Secondly, I am thus persuaded because of its infinite usefulness; for which reason it may be ascribed to divine encouragement.

I pray your fatherhood to commend me to that most excellent man, Signor Molines, to whose most delightful and prudent letters I will return answer shortly, if God permit. Farewell, most reverend father. Your most assured friend, FRANCIS ST. ALBAN.




Seeing that your excellency makes and treats of marriages, not only betwixt the princes of France and England, but also betwixt their languages, (for you have caused my book of the Advancement of Learning to be translated into French,) I was much inclined to make you a present of the last book which I published, and which I had in readiness for you.

I was sometimes in doubt whether I ought to have sent it to you, because it was written in the English tongue. But now, for that very reason I send it to you. It is a recompilement of my Essays, Moral and Civil; but in such manner enlarged and enriched both in number and weight, that it is in effect a new work. I kiss your hands, and remain Your most affectionate and

most humble servant, etc.


Most noble, and -) MOST LEARNED VISCOUNT,

Your honour could have given nothing more agreeable, and the University could have received nothing more acceptable than the sciences. And those sciences which she formerly sent forth poor, of low stature, unpolished, she hath received elegant, tall, and, by the supplies of your wit, by And I am by two arguments thus persuaded. which alone they could have been advanced, most First, I think thus, from that zeal and con- rich in dowry. She esteemeth it an extraordinary stancy of my mind, which has not waxed old in favour to have a return with usury, made of that this design, nor after so many years grown cold by a stranger, if so near a relation may be called and indifferent. I remember that about forty a stranger, which she bestows as a patrimony years ago I composed a juvenile work about these things, which with great confidence and a pompous title, I called Temporis Partum Maximum,* [or the most considerable birth of time.]

*Or, it may be Masculum, as I find it read elsewhere. VOL. III.-9

upon her children. And she readily acknowledgeth, that though the muses are born in Oxford they grow elsewhere. Grown they are, and under your pen, who, like some mighty Hercules, in learning have by your own hand further advanced those pillars in the learned world, which

F 2

by the rest of that world were supposed immo- was slain before all worlds; without which etervable. nal counsel of his, it was impossible for him to have descended to any work of creation; but he should have enjoyed the blessed and individual society of Three Persons in Godhead, only, forever."

We congratulate you, you most accomplished combatant, who, by your most diligent patronage of the virtues of others, have overcome other patrons; and, by your own writings, yourself. For, by the eminent height of your honour, you advanced only learned men, now at last, O ravishing prodigy! you have also advanced learning itself.

The ample munificence of this gift lays a burden upon your clients, in the receiving of which we have the honour; but, in the enjoying of it, the emolument will descend to late posterity. If, therefore, we are not able of ourselves to return sufficient and suitable thanks, our nephews of the next age ought to give their assistance, and pay the remainder, if not to yourself, to the honour of your name. Happy they, but we, how much more happy, &c., to whom you have pleased to do the honour of sending a letter, written by no other than by your own hand. To whom you have pleased to send the clearest instructions for reading [your works,] and for concord in our studies, in the front of your book; as if it were a small thing for your lordship to enrich the muses out of your own stock, unless you taught them also a method of getting wealth. Wherefore this most accurate pledge of your understanding has been, with the most solemn reverence, received | in a very full congregation, both by the doctors and masters; and that which the common vote hath placed in our public library, every single person has gratefully deposited in his memory. Your lordship's most devoted servant, The University of Oxford.

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SIR,-I have, at your command, surveyed this deep and devout tract of your deceased lord, and send back a few notes upon it.

In the first page, line 7,* are these words: "I believe that God is so holy, pure, and jealous, that it is impossible for him to be pleased in any creature, though the work of his own hands; so that neither angel, man, nor world,

could stand, or can stand, one moment in his eyes, without beholding the same in the face of a Mediator; and, therefore, that before him, with whom all things are present, the Lamb of God

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This point I have heard some divines question, whether God, without Christ, did pour his love upon the creature? and I had sometime a dispute with Dr. Sharp,* of your university, who held, that the emanation of the Father's love to the creature, was immediate. His reason, amongst others, was taken from that text, "So God loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son." Something of that point I have written amongst my papers, which on the sudden I cannot light upon. But I remember that I held the point in the negative; and that St. Austin, in his comment on the fifth chapter to the Romans, gathered by Beda, is strong that way.

In page 2, line the 9th to the 13th,† are these words:


God, by the reconcilement of the Mediator, turning his countenance towards his creatures, (though not in equal light and degree,) made way unto the dispensation of his most holy and secret will, whereby some of his creatures might stand and keep their state; others might, possibly, fall and be restored; and others might fall, and not be restored in their estate, but yet remain in being, though under wrath and corruption, all with respect to the Mediator; which is the great mystery, and perfect centre of all God's ways with his creatures, and unto which all his other works and wonders do but serve and refer." Here absolute reprobation seems to be defended, in that the will of God is made the reason of the non-restitution of some; at leastwise his lordship seems to say, that 'twas God's will that some should fall; unless that may be meant of voluntas permissiva, [his will of permission.]

In page the second, at the end, where he saith, "Amongst the generations of men, he elected a small flock," if that were added, "of fallen men," it would not be amiss; lest any should conceive that his lordship had meant, the decree had passed on massa incorrupta, [on mankind considered before the fall.]

In page the 4th, lines the 13th and 14th,§ are these words:

"Man made a total defection from God, presuming to imagine, that the commandments and prohibitions of God were not the rules of good and evil, but that good and evil had their own principles and beginnings."

*The same, I think, who was committed to the Tower, having taught Hoskins his Allusion to the Sicilian Vespers. See Reliqu. Wootton, p. 434.

†That is, in Resuscitatio, p. 118, 1. 9, to "refer."
That is, ibid, p. 118, 1. 24, &c.
That is, ibid. p. 119, 1. 36, &c.

Consider whether this be a rule universal, that the commands and prohibitions of God are the rules of good and evil: for, as St. Austin saith, many things are prohibita quia mala, [for that reason forbidden because they are evil,] as those sins which the schools call specifical.

serving you upon all occasions, and in performing towards you all offices, either of friendship or observance.

I will, to the utmost of my power, take care to publish the [remaining] labours of that illustrious hero, the Lord Verulam, esteeming it my

In page 7, lines the 23d and 24th,* are these greatest happiness to have formerly served him, words:

"The three heavenly unities exceed all natural unities; that is to say, the unity of the three Persons in Godhead; the unity of God and man in Christ, and the unity of Christ and the church, the Holy Ghost being the worker of both these latter unities; for, by the Holy Ghost was Christ incarnate, and quickened in flesh; and by the Holy Ghost is man regenerate, and quickened in spirit."

Here two of the unities are ascribed to the Holy Ghost. The first seems excluded; yet divines say, that "Spiritus Sanctus est amor, et vinculum Patris et Filii;" [the Holy Ghost is the love and the bond of the Father and the Son.]

In page 3, line the 13th,† are these words: "Christ accomplished the whole work of the redemption and restitution of man, to a state superior to the angels."

This [superior] seems to hit upon that place, oάyyeλo, which argues but equality. Suarez (De Angelis, lib. 1, cap. 1) saith, that angels are superior to men, “Quod gradum intellectua

and still to do so. And that I may avoid all suspicion of being worse than my word, I will perform my promise with all convenient speed. I desire that this friendship and mutual inwardness begun betwixt us may always continue, and, if you please, live and flourish by letters, the badges and nourishers of it, even when you are at Paris; a place which, if ever I be so happy, I will see for your sake, as well as for other reasons. Pray think not that I am free of my words and frugal of my deeds, but rather that my thick and very troublesome occasions, whilst I was in the city, would not suffer me to kiss your hands. It remains that I heartily honour you, and retaliate your love, and wish you all the good in the world, as being,

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lem, et quoad immediatam habitationem ad TRANSLATION OF A LETTER WRITTEN BY MONDeum," [both in respect of the degree of their intellectual nature, and of the nearness of their habitation to God.] Yet, St. Austin affirmeth, “Naturam humanam in Christo perfectiorem esse angelicâ," [that the human nature in Christ is more perfect than the angelical.] Consider of this. And thus far, not as a critic or corrector, but as a learner; for,

"Corrigere, res est tanto magis ardua, quanto Magnus, Aristarcho, major Homerus erat." In haste,

Your servant,



To the reverend his most honoured friend, William Rawley, Doctor of Divinity, and Chaplain to the King's Majesty.


A few days ago, I received your most acceptable and most desired letter, in which, to confort me for the loss of your most agreeable company, (of which I was deprived by your sudden leaving the town,) you make me a new promise of a near and lasting friendship. Nothing could have happened to me more pleasing than this kindness, (which I shall diligently endeavour, to the utmost of my power, by all ways of love and observance, to deserve;) so much I value your own worth and

ING HIS PUBLISHING OF THE LORD BACON'S the ever estimable memory of our most illustrious hero, a portion of whose spirit resides in your breast.


MOST NOBLE and dear Sir,

I am now at last in the country, the spring and Lent coming on. I am sorry that I had not the opportunity of waiting on you before I left the town; but I am sure I shall never be wanting in

* That is, in Resuscitatio, p. 120, 1. 40, 41, &c. That is, ibid, p. 121, lines 8 & 9.

‡ Luke xx. 36.

I so greedily expect the speedy edition of his works, which you have promised, that I have already almost devoured the whole of it in my hopes. Suffer not, I beseech you, any delay by any means to obstruct this my earnest desire: seeing, especially, it much concerns yourself, as you confess, upon many accounts, to promote it with all expedition.

My design of a translation of the Natural History has not succeeded so happily as I could wish, as you will perceive by the specimen which I send to you. Wherefore I desired him who had undertaken the work to desist from it, he having done only that little which you will see in a few leaves; whereas, he undertook the doing of the whole two years ago. I am not yet resolved about the time of my returning into France. I will let you know it ere I go, and tell you by whom our letters may be conveyed to one another. Farewell.

Reverend sir,

Your most humble servant,

London, April 4, 1633.



To the Reverend and most Learned William Rawley, Isaac Gruter wisheth much health. REVEREND SIR,

By reason of the immature death of my brother, to whom we owe the Latin translation of the Lord Bacon's Natural History, I have been forced to stay a long while in our native country of Zealand, in order to the settling of the domestic affairs of the person deceased. Returning home to Holland, I found your letter, which, I assure you, was most acceptable to me; yet, at this I was concerned, that my necessary absence from the Hague had occasioned so late an answer to it. He deserves pardon who offends against his will: and who will endeavour to make amends for this involuntary delay, by the study of such kindness as shall be vigilant in offices of friendship, as often as occasion shall be offered.

The design of him who translated into French the Natural History of the Lord Bacon, of which I gave account in my former letters, is briefly exhibited in my brother's preface, which I desire you to peruse; as, also, in your next letter, to send me your judgment concerning such errors as may have been committed by him.

That edition of my brother's, of which you write that you read it with a great deal of pleasure, shall shortly be set forth with his amendments, together with some additions of the like argument to be substituted in the place of the New Atlantis, which shall be there omitted. These additions will be the same with those in the version of the forementioned Frenchman, put into Latin; seeing we could not find the English originals from which he translates them, unless you, when you see the book, shall condemn those additions as adulterate.

from one not a native, in his first essay, and growing in knowledge together with his years, if they be many, no man needs wonder on it, who understands the physiological variety of an argument of such extent, and rendered difficult by such an heap of things of which it consists, and for the expressing of which there is not a supply of words from the ancients, but some of a new stamp, and such as may serve for present use, are required.) I entreat you not to deny me the sight of them, that so I may compare them with the corrections which my brother (now with God) did make with a very great deal of pains. But, whether the truth of them answers his diligence, will be best understood by yourself, and those few others by whom such elegancies can be rightly judged of.

I send you here a catalogue of these writings* which I had in MS. out of the study of Sir William Boswel, and which I now have by me, either written by the Lord Bacon himself, or by some English amanuensis, but by him revised; as the same Sir William Boswel (who was pleased to admit me to a most intimate familiarity with him) did himself tell me. Among my copies (as the catalogue which comes with this letter shows) you will find the History of Rare and Dense Bodies, but imperfect, though carried on to some length.

I had once in my hands an entire and thick volume concerning heavy and light bodies, but consisting only of a naked delineation of the model, which the Lord Bacon had framed in his head, in titles of matters, without any description of the matters themselves. There is here enclosed a copy of that contexture,† containing only the heads of the chapters, and wanting a full handling from that rude draught, which supplement I. despair of.

For the book of dense and rare bodies which you have by you, perfected by the author's last hand, as likewise the Fragments, which are an appendix to it, I could wish that they might be here published in Holland, together with those hitherto unpublished philosophical papers copied by me, out of MSS. of Sir William Boswel; seeing, if they come out together, they will set off and commend one another.

I have begun to deal with a printer, who is a man of great diligence and curiosity. I will so order the matter, that you shall have no reason to complain of my fidelity and candour, if you leave that edition to me. Care shall be taken by me, that it be not done without honourable mention of yourself; but be it what it will, you shall resolve upon; it shall abate nothing of the offices of our

These were the papers which I. Gruter afterwards published, under the title of Scripta Philosophica.

This letter came to my hands without that copy. See, in lieu of it, Topica de Gravi et Levi, in lib. v. cap. 3. De

For your observations on those places, either not rightly understood, or not accurately turned out of the English by you published, (which, Augm. Scien.

friendship, which, from this beginning of it, shall still further be promoted upon all occasions.

Lewis Elzevir wrote me word lately, from Amsterdam, that he was designed to begin shortly an edition in quarto of all the works of the Lord Bacon, in Latin or English; but not of the English without the translation of them into Latin: and he desired my advice, and any assistance I could give him by manuscripts or translations, to the end that, as far as possible, those works might come abroad with advantage, which have been long received with the kindest eulogies, and with the most attested applause of the learned world. If you have any thing in your mind, or your hands, whence we may hope for assistance in so famous a design, and conducing so much to the honour of those who are instrumental in it, pray let me know it, and reckon me henceforth amongst the devout honourers of the name of the Lord Bacon, and of your own virtues.


friend, and to whose care, in my matters, I owe all regard and affection, yet without diminution of that part (and that no small one neither) in which Dr. Rawley hath place: so that the souls of us three so throughly agreeing, may be aptly said to have united in a triga.

Though I thought that I had already sufficiently showed what veneration I had for the illustrious Lord Verulam, yet I shall take such care for the future, that it may not possibly be denied, that I endeavoured most zealously to make this thing known to the learned world.

But neither shall this design, of setting forth in one volume all the Lord Bacon's works, proceed without consulting you, and without inviting you to cast in your symbol, worthy such an excellent edition: that so the appetite of the reader, provoked already by his published works, may be further gratified by the pure novelty of so considerable an appendage.

For the French interpreter, who patched together his things I know not whence,* and tacked that motley piece to him; they shall not have place in this great collection. But yet I hope to obtain your leave to publish apart, as an appendix to the Natural History, that exotic work, gathered together from this and the other place [of his Latin. For seeing the genuine pieces of the Lord lordship's writings] and by me translated into Bacon are already extant, and in many hands, it is necessary that the foreign reader be given to understand of what threads the texture of that

I expect from you what you know about the ancestors of the Lord Bacon, especially concerning his father, Nicholas Bacon, concerning his youth, his studies in Cambridge, his travels, his honours, his office of chancellor, and his deposal from it by sentence of parliament. The former I will undertake in a more florid and free style, expatiating in his just praises; the latter, with a wary pen, lest out of my commentary of the life of this most learned man, matter be offered of pernicious prating, to slanderers and men of dis-book consists, and how much of truth there is in

honest tempers.

From the Hague, May 29, 1652.


that which that shameless person does, in his preface to the reader, so stupidly write of you.

My brother, of blessed memory, turned his words into Latin, in the first edition of the Natural History, having some suspicion of the fidelity of an unknown author. I will, in the second edition, repeat them, and with just severity animadvert upon them: that they, into whose hands

To the Reverend William Rawley, D. D., Isaac that work comes, may know it to be supposititious,

Gruter wisheth much health.

REVEREND SIR,-It is not just to complain of the slowness of your answer, seeing that the difficulty of the passage, in the season in which you wrote, which was towards winter, might easily cause it to come no faster: seeing likewise there is so much to be found in it which may gratify desire, and perhaps so much the more the longer it was ere it came to my hands. And although I had little to send back, besides my thanks for the little index,* yet that seemed to me of such moment that I would no longer suppress them especially because I accounted it a crime to have suffered Mr. Smith to have been without an answer: Mr. Smith, my most kind

* A note of some papers of the Lord Bacon's in D. R.'s hands.

Of Christ's College, in Cambridge, and keeper of the public library there.

or rather patched up of many distinct pieces; how much soever the author bears himself upon the specious title of Verulam.

Unless, perhaps, I should particularly suggest in your name, that these words were there inserted, by way of caution; and lest malignity and rashness should any way blemish the fame of so eminent a person.

Si me, fata, meis, paterentur ducere vitam aus. piciis-(to use the words of Virgil.) If my fate would permit me to live according to my wishes, I would fly over into England, that I might behold whatsoever remaineth in your cabinet of the Verulamian workmanship, and at least make my eyes witnesses of it, if the possession of the merchandise be yet denied to the public.

* Certain spurious papers added to his translation of the Advancement of Learning.

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