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with this plainness and liberty represented to you, ' or in commending fit persons for service for wars will find out better expedients and remedies. I it had been in season. And here, my lord, I wish a cure applied to every of the five former impressions, which I will take not in order, but as I think they are of weight.
For the removing the impression of your nature to be opiniatre and not ruleable; first, and above all things I wish that all matters past, which cannot be revoked, your lordship would turn altogether upon insatisfaction, and not upon your nature or proper disposition. This string you cannot upon every apt occasion harp upon too much. Next, whereas I have noted you to fly and avoid (in some respect justly) the resemblance or imitation of my Lord of Leicester and my Lord Chancellor Hatton; yet I am persuaded (howsoever I wish your lordship as distant as you are from them in points of favour, integrity, magnanimity and merit,) that it will do you much good between the queen and you to allege them (as oft as you find occasion) for authors and patterns. For I do not know a readier mean to make her majesty think you are in your right way. Thirdly, when at any time your lordship upon occasion happen in speeches to do her majesty right, (for there is no such matter as flattery amongst you all,) I fear you handle it, "magis in speciem adornatis verbis, quam ut sentire videaris." So that a man may read formality in your countenance; whereas your lordship should do it familiarly, "et oratione fida." Fourthly, your lordship should never be without some particulars afoot, which you should seem to pursue with earnestness and affection; and then let them fall upon taking knowledge of her majesty's opposition and dislike. Of which the weightiest sort may be if your lordship offer to labour in the behalf of some that you favour for some of the places now void; choosing such a subject as you think her majesty is like to oppose unto: and if you will say, that this is "Conjunctum cum alienâ injurià;" I will not answer, "hæc non aliter constabunt ;" but I say, commendation from so good a mouth doth not hurt a man, though you prevail not. A less weighty sort of particulars may be the pretence of some journeys which at her majesty's request your lordship might relinquish; as if you would pretend a journey to see your living and estate towards Wales or the like; for as for great foreign journeys of employment and service, it standeth not with your gravity to play or stratagem with them. And the lightest sort of particulars, which yet are not to be neglected, are in your habits, apparel, wearings, gestures, and the like.
The impression of greatest prejudice next, is that of a military dependence. Wherein I cannot sufficiently wonder at your lordship's course, that you say, the wars are your occupation, and go in that course; whereas, if I might have advised your lordship, you should have left that person at Plymouth; more than when in counsel
pray mistake me not. I am not to play now the part of a gown-man, that would franie you best to Imine own turn. I know what I owe you: I am infinitely glad of this last journey, now it is past: the rather, because you may make so honourable a full point for a time. You have property good enough in that greatness. There is none can of many years ascend near you in competition. Besides, the disposing of the places and affairs both concerning the wars (you increasing in other greatness) will of themselves flow to you; which will preserve that dependence in full measure. It is a thing that of all things I would have you retain, the times considered. And the necessity of the service, for other reason I know none. But, I say, keep it in substance, but abolish it in shows to the queen. For her majesty loveth peace. Next, she loveth not charge. Thirdly, that kind of dependence maketh a suspected greatness. Therefore, "Quod instat agamus." Let that be a sleeping honour a while, and cure the queen's mind on that point. Therefore, again, whereas I heard your lordship designing to yourself the earl marshal's place, or place of master of the ordnance, I did not in my mind so well like of either; because of their affinity with a martial greatness. But of the places now void, in my judgment and discretion, I would name you to the place of lord privy seal. For, first, it is the third person of the great officers of the crown. Next, it hath a kind of superintendence over the secretary. It hath also an affinity with the court of wards, in regard of the fees from the liveries. And it is a fine honour, quiet place, and worth a thousand pounds by year. And my lord admiral's father had it, who was a martial man. And it fits a favourite to carry her majesty's image in seal, who beareth it best expressed in heart. But my chief reason is, that which I first alleged, to divert her majesty from this impression of a martial greatness. In concurrence whereof, if your lordship shall not remit any thing of your former diligence at the Star Chamber; if you shall continue such intelligences as are worth the cherishing; if you shall pretend to be as bookish and contemplative as ever you were; all these courses have both their advantages and uses in themselves otherwise, and serve exceeding aptly to this purpose. Whereunto I add one expedient more stronger than all the rest; and for mine own confident opinion, void of any prejudice or danger of diminution of your greatness; and that is, the bringing in of some martial man to be of the council, dealing directly with her majesty in it, as for her service and your better assistance; choosing, nevertheless, some person that may be known not to come in against you by any former division. I judge the fittest to be my Lord Mountjoy, or my Lord Willoughby. And if
your lordship see deeplier into it than I do, that you would not have it done in effect, yet, in my opinion, you may serve your turn by the pretence of it, and stay it nevertheless.
TO SIR ROBERT CECIL.
SIR, I forbear not to put in paper as much as I thought to have spoken to your honour to-day, if I could have stayed, knowing that if your honour should make other use of it than is due to good meaning, and then I am persuaded you will; yet to persons of judgment, and that know me otherwise, it will rather appear (as it is) a precise honesty, and this same, "suum cuique tribuere," than any hollowness to any. It is my luck still to be akin to such things as I neither like in nature, nor would willingly meet with in my course, but yet cannot avoid, without show of base timorousness, or else of unkind, or suspiSome hiatus in the copy.
The third impression is of a popular reputation; which, because it is a thing good in itself, being obtained as your lordship obtaineth it, that is, "bonis artibus," and besides well governed, is one of the flowers of your greatness both present and to come; it would be handled tenderly. The only way is, to quench it verbis and not rebus; and therefore to take all occasions to the queen, to speak against popularity and popular courses vehemently, and to tax it in all others: but, nevertheless, to go on in your honourable cious strangeness. commonwealth courses as you do. And, therefore, I will not advise you to cure this by dealing in monopolies or any oppressions. Only if in parliament your lordship be forward for treasure in respect to the wars, it becometh your person well. And if her majesty object popularity to you at any time, I would say to her, a parliament will show that, and so feed her with expectation. The fourth impression of the inequality between your estate of means and your greatness of respects, is not to be neglected; for, believe it, my lord, that till her majesty find you careful of your estate, she will not only think you more like to continue chargeable to her, but also have a conceit that you have higher imaginations. The remedies are, first, to profess it in all speeches to her; next, in such suits wherein both honour, gift, and profit may be taken to communicate freely with her majesty, by way of inducing her to grant that it will be this benefit to you. Lastly, to be plain with your lordship, for the gentlemen are such as I am beholding to, nothing can make the queen or the world think so much that you are come to a provident care of your estate as the altering of some of your officers; who though they be as true to you as one hand to the other, yet, "opinio veritate major." But if, in respect of the bonds, they may be entered into for your lordship, you cannot so well dismiss yourself of them, this cannot be done but with time.
For the fifth and last, which is of the advantage of a favourite, as severed from the rest it cannot hurt; so joined with them it maketh her majesty more fearful and shadowy, as not knowing her own strength. The only remedy to this is, to give way to some other favourite, as in particular you shall find her majesty inclined, so as the subject hath no ill, nor dangerous aspect towards yourself; for, otherwise, whosoever shall tell me that you may not have singular use of a favourite at your devotion, I will say he understandeth not the queen's affection, nor your lordship's condition. And so, I rest.
October 4, 1596.
And I am of one spirit still. I ever liked the Galenists that deal with good compositions, and not the Paracelsians, that deal with these fine separations: and in music, I ever loved easy airs, that go full all the parts together; and not those strange points of accord and discord. This I write not, I assure your honour officiously, except it be according to Tully's offices, that is, honestly and morally. For though, I thank God, I account upon the proceeding in the queen's service, or not proceeding both ways, and therefore neither mean to fawn or retire, yet I naturally desire good opinion with any person which for fortune or spirit is to be regarded, much more with a secretary of the queen's, and a cousin-german, and one with whom I have ever thought myself to have some sympathy of nature, though accidents have not suffered it to appear. Thus not doubting of your honourable interpretation and usage of that I have written, I commend you to the Divine preservation. From Gray's Inn.
TO MY LORD OF ESSEX.
IT MAY PLEASE YOUR GOOD Lordship,
I pray God her majesty's weighing be not like the weight of a balance, "gravia deorsum, levia sursum." But I am as far from being altered in devotion towards her as I am from distrust that she will be altered in opinion towards me when she knoweth me better. For myself, I have lost some opinion, some time, and some means; this is my account: but then for opinion it is a blast that goeth and cometh; for time, it is true, it goeth and cometh not; but yet I have learned that it may be redeemed.
For means, I value that most; and the rather, because I am purposed not to follow the practice of the law: if her majesty command me in any particular, I shall be ready to do her willing service; and my reason is only because it drinketh too much time, which I have dedicated to better purposes. But, even for that point of estate and
means, I partly lean to Thales' opinion, "that a
Your lordship's to obey your honourable
TO MY LORD OF ESSEX.
MY SINGULAR GOOD LORD,
Your lordship's so honourable minding my poor fortune the last year in the very entrance into that great action, (which is a time of less leisure,) and in so liberal an allowance of your care as to write three letters to stir me up friends in your absence; doth, after a sort, warrant me not to object to myself your present quantity of affairs, whereby to silence myself from petition of the like favour. I brake with your lordship myself at the Tower, and I take it my brother hath since renewed the same motion touching a fortune I was in thought to attempt "in genere economi
"In genere politico," certain cross winds have blown contrary. My suit to your lordship is for your several letters to be left with me dormant, to the gentlewoman, and either of the parents; wherein I do not doubt but as the beams of your favour have often dissolved the coldness of my fortune, so in this argument your lordship will do the like with your pen. My desire is also, that your lordship would vouchsafe unto me, as out of your care, a general letter to my lord keeper for his lordship's holding me, from you recommended, both in the course of my practice, and in the course of my employment in her majesty's service. Wherein, if your lordship shall in any antithesis or relation, affirm that his lordship shall have no less hope of me than of any other whom he may cherish, I hope your lordship shall engage yourself for no impossibility. Lastly and chiefly, I know not whether I shall attain to see your lordship before your noble journey; for ceremonies are things infinitely inferior to my love and to my zeal; this let me, with your allowance, say unto you by pen. It is true that, in my well meaning advices, out of my love to your lordship, and perhaps out of the state of mine own mind, I have sometimes persuaded 2 course differing: "ac tibi pro tutis insignia!
facta placebunt:" be it so, yet remember, that the signing of your name is nothing unless it be to some good patent or charter, whereby your country may be endowed with good and benefit; which I speak both to move you to preserve your person, for further merit and service of her majesty and your country, and likewise to refer this action to the same end. And so, in most true and fervent prayers, I commend your lordship, and your work in hand, to the preservation and conduct of the Divine Majesty; so much the more watchful, as these actions do more manifestly in show, though alike in truth, depend upon his Divine providence.
TO MY LORD OF CANTERBURY.
I have considered the objections, perused the
TO MY LORD OF ESSEX.
MY SINGULAR GOOD Lord,
The message it pleased your lordship to send me was to me delivered doubtfully; whether your lordship said you would speak with me at the Star Chamber or with Mr. Philip. If with me, it is needless, for gratitude imposeth upon me satisfaction; if with Mr. Philip, it will be too late, because somewhat must, perchance, be done that day. This doubt not solved, maketh me write again; the rather, because I did liberally, but yet privately affirm, your lordship would write; which, if I make not good, it may be a discouragement. Your lordship's letter, though it have the subject of honour and justice, yet it shall have the secrecy of a thing done upon affection. I shall ever, in a firm duty, submit my occasions, though great, to your lordship's respects, though small; and this is my resolution, that when your lordship doth for me, you shall increase my obligation; when you refuse to do for me, you shall increase my merit. So, leaving the matter wholly to your lordship's pleasure, I commend your lordship to the preservation of the Divine Majesty. From Gray's Inn. Your lordship's ever most humbly bounden.
LETTERS FROM THE BACONIANA.
TRANSLATION OF THE ANSWER OF THE LORD in heaven. It was at a time when the great desoBACON, THEN ATTORNEY-GENERAL, TO THE lation of the plague was in the city, and when
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE, WHEN HE WAS
myself was ill of a dangerous and tedious sickness. The first time that I found any degree of health, nothing came sooner to my mind than to acknowledge your majesty's great favour by my most humble thanks. And because I see your majesty taketh delight in my writings, and, to say truth, they are the best fruits I now yield, I presume to send your majesty a little discourse of mine, touching a war with Spain, which I writ about two years since, which the king, your brother, liked well. It is written without bitterness or invective, as kings' affairs ought to be carried: but, if I be not deceived, it hath edge enough. I have yet some spirits left, and remnant of experience, which I consecrate to the king's service and your majesty's; for whom I pour out my daily prayers to God, that he would give your majesty a fortune worthy your rare virtues; which some good spirit tells me will be in the end. I do in all reverence kiss your majesty's hands, ever resting
YOUR letters were very acceptable to me; and I give myself joy, upon your congratulation. The thing itself will (I suppose) conduce to my honour and satisfaction, if I remain in the mind I now am in; by unwearied study, and perpetual watchfulness, and pure affection, to promote the public good. Now, among the parts of the commonwealth, there are none dearer to me than the universities and learning. And this, my manner of life hitherto, and my writings do both declare. If, therefore, any good fortune befalls me, you may look upon it as an accession to yourselves. Neither are you to believe, that my patronage is either quite removed from you, or so much as diminished. For that part of an advocate which concerneth the giving of counsel in causes remaineth entire. Also, (if any thing more weighty and urgent falleth out,) the very office of pleading (the king's leave being obtained) is still allowed me. And whatsoever shall be found wanting in my juridical patronage will be compensated by my inore ample authority. My wishes are, that as I am translated from the business of private men and particular clients, to the government of the commonwealth; so the TRANSLATION OF A LETTER OF THE LORD BAlatter part of my age (if my life be continued to me) may, from the public cares, be translated to leisure and study.
Also, this thought comes often into my mind, amidst so many businesses and of such moment, every year to lay aside some days to think on you: that so, having the greater insight into your matters, I may the better consult your advantage.
Your most faithful and kind friend,
July the 5th, 1616.
THE LORD CHANCELLOR BACON'S LETTER TO
FROM HER MAJESTY, AND UPON SENDING TO
IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MAJESTY,
I have received your majesty's gracious letter from Mr. Secretary Morton, who is now a saint
* A. D. 1625
Your majesty's most humble
CON'S TO THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE
Francis, Baron of Verulam, and Viscount of St.
I HERE repay you, according to my ability, the debts of a son. I exhort you, also, to do the same thing with myself: that is, to bend your whole might towards the advancement of the sciences, and to retain freedom of thought, together with humility of mind; and not to suffer the talent which the ancients have deposited with you, to lie dead in a napkin. Doubtless, the favour of the Divine light will be present and shine amongst you, if, philosophy being submitted to religion, you lawfully and dexterously use the keys of sense; and if, all study of opposition being laid aside, every one of you so dispute with another as if he were arguing with himself. Fare ye well.
TRANSLATION OF A LETTER OF THE LORD BACON'S TO THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE, UPON HIS SENDING TO THEIR PUBLIC LIBRARY
HIS NOVUM ORGANUM.
SEEING I am your son, and your disciple, it will much please me to repose in your bosom the issue which I have lately brought forth into the world; for, otherwise, I should look upon it as an exposed child. Let it not trouble you that the way in which I go is new: such things will, of necessity, happen in the revolutions of several ages. However, the honour of the ancients is secured that, I mean, which is due to their wit. For, faith is only due to the word of God, and to experience. Now, for bringing back the sciences to experience is not a thing to be done: but to raise them anew from experience, is indeed a very difficult and laborious, but not a hopeless undertaking. God prosper you and your studies. Your most loving son,
FRANCIS VERULAM, Chancel.
I find that the ancients (as Cicero, Demosthenes, Plinius Secundus, and others) have preserved both their orations and their epistles. In imitation of whom, I have done the like to my own, which, nevertheless, I will not publish while I live; but I have been bold to bequeath them to your lordship, and Mr. Chancellor of the Duchy. My speeches, perhaps, you will think fit to publish. The letters, many of them, touch too much upon late matters of state to be published; yet, I was willing they should not be lost. I have, also, by my will, erected two lectures in perpetuity, in either university; one with an endowment of £200 per annum, apiece. They are to be for natural philosophy, and the sciences thereupon depending; which foundations I have required my executors to order by the advice and direction of your lordship, and my Lord Bishop of Coventry and Litchfield. These be my thoughts now. I rest
Your lordship's most
affectionate to do you service.
TRANSLATION OF A LETTER OF THE LORD BA
CON'S, WRITTEN TO TRINITY COLLEGE, IN CAMBRIDGE, UPON HIS SENDING TO THEM HIS BOOK OF THE ADVANCEMENT OF LEARNING,
Francis, Baron of Verulam, Viscount of St. Albans, to the most famous College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity in Cambridge, health. THE progress of things, together with themselves, are to be ascribed to their originals. Wherefore, seeing I have derived from your fountains my first beginnings in the sciences, I thought fit to repay to you the increases of them. I hope, also, it may so happen that these things of ours may the more prosperously thrive among you, being replanted in their native soil. Therefore, I likewise exhort you that ye yourselves, so far as is consistent with all due modesty and reverence to the ancients, be not wanting to the advancement of the sciences: but that, next to the study of those sacred volumes of God, the holy Scriptures, ye turn over that great volume of the works of God, his creatures, with the utmost diligence, and before all other books, which ought to be looked on only as commentaries on those texts. Farewell.
THE LORD CHANCELLOR BACON'S LETTER TO DR. WILLIAMS, THEN LORD BISHOP OF LINCOLN, CONCERNING HIS SPEECHES, &c.
MY VERY GOOD LORD,
I am much bound to your lordship for your honourable promise to Dr. Rawley. He chooseth rather to depend upon the same in general than to pitch upon any particular; which modesty of choice I commend.
A LETTER WRITTEN IN LATIN BY THE LORD VERULAM, TO FATHER FULGENTIO, THE VENETIAN, CONCERNING HIS WRITINGS; AND NOW TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH BY THE PUBLISHER.
Most REVEREND Father,
I must confess myself to be a letter in your debt; but the excuse which I have, is too, too just. For I was kept from doing you right by a very sore disease, from which I am not yet perfectly delivered.
I am now desirous to communicate to your fatherhood the designs I have touching those writings which I form in my head, and begin; not with hope of bringing them to perfection, but out of desire to make experiment, and because I am a servant to posterity; for these things require some ages for the ripening of them.
I judged it most convenient to have them translated in the Latin tongue, and to divide them into certain tomes.
The first tome consisteth of the books of the Advancement of Learning, which, as you understand, are already finished and published; and contain the Partition of Sciences, which is the first part of my Instauration.
The Novum Organum should have immediately followed, but I interposed my moral and political writings, because they were more in readiness.
And for them, they are these following. The first is, The History of Henry the 7th, King of England. Then follows that book which you have called in your tongue, "Saggi Morali." But I give a graver name to that book; and it is to go under the title of Sermones Fideles, [faithful sayings,] or Interiora Rerum, [the inside of