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with this plainness and liberty represented to you,' or in commending fit persons for service for wars will find out better expedients and remedies. I it had been in season. And here, my lord, I wish a cure applied to every of the five foriner pray mistake me not. I am not to play now the impressions, which I will take not in order, but as part of a gown-man, that would frame you best to I think they are of weight.

mine own turn.

I know what I owe you: 1 an For the removing the impression of your nature infinitely glad of this last journey, now it is past: to be opiniatre and not ruleable; first, and above the rather, because you may make so honourable all things I wish that all matters past, which can- a full point for a time. You have propery good not be revoked, your lordship would turn alto- enough in that greatness. There is none can of gether upon insatisfaction, and not upon your many years ascend near you in competition. Benature or proper disposition. This string you sides, the disposing of the places and affairs both cannot upon every apt occasion harp upon too concerning the wars (you increasing in other much. Next, whereas I have noted you to fly greatness) will of themselves flow to you; which and avoid (in some respect justly) the resem- will preserve that dependence in full measure. It blance or imitation of my Lord of Leicester and is a thing that of all things I would have you my Lord Chancellor Hatton; yet I am persuaded retain, the times considered. And the necessity (howsoever I wish your lordship as distant as you of the service, for other reason I know none. are from them in points of favour, integrity, But, I say, keep it in substance, but abolish it in magnanimity and merit,) that it will do you much shows to the queen. For her majesty loveth good between the queen and you to allege them peace. Next, she loveth not charge. Thirdly, (as oft as you find occasion) for authors and that kind of dependence maketh a suspected patterns. For I do not know a readier mean to greatness. Therefore, “Quod instat agamus." make her majesty think you are in your right way. Let that be a sleeping honour a while, and cure Thirdly, when at any time your lordship upon the queen's mind on that point. Therefore, again, occasion happen in speeches to do her majesty whereas I heard your lordship designing to yourright, (for there is no such matter as flattery self the earl marshal's place, or place of master amongst you all,) I fear you handle it, “ magis in of the ordnance, I did not in my mind so well speciem adornatis verbis, quam ut sentire videaris.” like of either; because of their affinity with a So that a man may read formality in your coun- martial greatness. But of the places now void, in tenance; whereas your lordship should do it my judgment and discretion, I would name you familiarly, “et oratione fida.” Fourthly, your to the place of lord privy seal. For, first, it is the lordship should never be without some particulars third person of the great officers of the crown. afoot, which you should seem to pursue with Next, it hath a kind of superintendence over the earnestness and affection; and then let them fall secretary. It hath also an affinity with the court upon taking knowledge of her majesty's opposition of wards, in regard of the fees from the liveries. and dislike. Of which the we tiest sort may And it is a fine honour, quiet place, and worth a be if your lordship offer to labour in the behalf of thousand pounds by year. And my lord admisome that you favour for some of the places now ral's father had it, who was a martial man. And void; choosing such a subject as you think her it fits a favourite to carry her majesty's image in majesty is like to oppose unto: and if you will seal, who beareth it best expressed in heart. say, that this is “Conjunctum cum alienâ injurià;" But my chief reason is, that which I first alleged, I will not answer, “hæc non aliter constabunt;" to divert her majesty from this impression of a but I say, commendation from so good a mouth martial greatness. In concurrence whereof, if doth not hurt a man, though you prevail not. A your lordship shall not remit any thing of your less weighty sort of particulars may be the pre- former diligence at the Star Chamber; if you shall tence of some journeys which at her majesty's continue such intelligences as are worth the request your lordship might relinquish ; as if you cherishing; if you shall pretend to be as bookish would pretend a journey to see your living and and contemplative as ever you were; all these estate towards Wales or the like; for as for great courses have both their advantages and uses in foreign journeys of employment and service, it themselves otherwise, and serve exceeding aptly standeth not with your gravity to play or stratagem to this purpose. Whereunto I add one expedient with them. And the lightest sort of particulars, more stronger than all the rest; and for mine which yet are not to be neglected, are in your own confident opinion, void of any prejudice or habits, apparel, wearings, gestures, and the like. danger of diminution of your greatness; and that

The impression of greatest prejudice next, is is, the bringing in of some martial man to be of that of a military dependence. Wherein I can- the council, dealing directly with her majesty in not sufficiently wonder at your lordship's course, it

, as for her service and your better assistance; that you say, the wars are your occupation, and choosing, nevertheless, some person that may be go in that course; whereas, if I might have ad- known not to come in against you by any former vised your lordship, you should have left that division. I judge the fittest to be my Lord person at Plymouth; inore than when in counsel Mountjoy, or my Lord Willoughby. And if

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your lordship see deeplier into it than I do, that

TO SIR ROBERT CECIL. you would not have it done in effect, yet, in my Sir,—I forbear not to put in paper as much as opinion, you may serve your turn by the pretence I thought to have spoken to your honour to-day, of it, and stay it nevertheless.

if I could have stayed, knowing that if you The third impression is of a popular reputa- honour should make other use of it than is due to tion; which, because it is a thing good in itself, good meaning, and then I am persuaded you will; being obtained as your lordship obtaineth it, that yet to persons of judgment, and that know me is, "bonis artibus,” and besides well governed, otherwise, it will rather appear (as it is) a preis one of the flowers of your greatness both pre- cise honesty, and this same, “ suum cuique trisent and to come; it would be handled tenderly. buere,” than any hollowness to any. It is my The only way is, to quench it verbis and not luck still to be akin to such things as I neither rebus; and therefore to take all occasions to the like in nature, nor would willingly meet with in queen, to speak against popularity and popular my course, but yet cannot avoid, without show of courses vehemently, and to tax it in all others : base timorousness, or else of unkind, or suspibut, nevertheless, to go on in your honourable cious strangeness. commonwealth courses as you do. And, there

Some hiatus in the copy. fore, I will not advise you to cure this by dealing And I am of one spirit still. I ever liked the in monopolies or any oppressions. Only if in Galenists that deal with good compositions, and parliament your lordship be forward for treasure not the Paracelsians, that deal with these fine in respect to the wars, it becometh your person separations: and in music, I ever loved easy airs, well. And if her majesty object popularity to that go full all the parts together; and not those you at any time, I would say to her, a parliament strange points of accord and discord. This I will show that, and so feed her with expectation. write not, I assure your honour officiously, except

The fourth impression of the inequality be- it be according to Tully's offices, that is, honestly tween your estate of means and your greatness and morally. For though, I thank God, I acof respects, is not to be neglected; for, believe it, count upon the proceeding in the queen's service, my lord, that till her majesty find you careful of or not proceeding both ways, and therefore neither your estate, she will not only think you more mean to fawn or retire, yet I naturally desire good like to continue chargeable to her, but also have opinion with any person which for fortune or a conceit that you have higher imaginations. spirit is to be regarded, much more with a secreThe remedies are, first, to profess it in all speeches tary of the queen’s, and a cousin-german, and one to her; next, in such suits wherein both honour, with whom I have ever thought myself to have gift, and profit may be taken to communicate some sympathy of nature, though accidents have freely with her majesty, by way of inducing her not suffered it to appear. Thus not doubting of to grant that it will be this benefit to you. Last- your honourable interpretation and usage of that ly, to be plain with your lordship, for the gentle. I have written, I commend you to the Divine premen are such as I am beholding to, nothing can servation. From Gray's Inn. make the queen or the world think so much that you are come to a provident care of your estate as the altering of some of your officers; who though they be as true to you as one hand to the other, yet, 6 opinio veritate major.” But if, in IT MAY PLEASE YOUR GOOD LORDSHIP, respect of the bonds, they may be entered into I pray God her majesty's weighing be not like for your lordship, you cannot so well dismiss the weight of a balance, “gravia deorsum, levia yourself of them, this cannot be done but with sursum.” But I am as far from being altered in time.

devotion towards her as I am from distrust that For the fifth and last, which is of the advantage she will be altered in opinion towards me when of a favourite, as severed from the rest it cannot she knoweth me better. For myself, I have lost hurt; so joined with them it maketh her majesty some opinion, some time, and some means; this more fearful and shadowy, as not knowing her is my account: but then for opinion it is a blast own strength. The only remedy to this is, to that goeth and cometh; for time, it is true, it give way to some other favourite, as in particular goeth and cometh not; but yet I have learned you shall find her majesty inclined, so as the that it may be redeemed. subject hath no ill, nor dangerous aspect towards For means, I value that most; and the rather, yourself; for, otherwise, whosoever shall tell me because I am purposed not to follow the practice that you may not have singular use of a favourite of the law: if her majesty command me in any at your devotion, I will say he understandeth not particular, I shall be ready to do her willing serthe queen's affection, nor your lordship’s condi- vice; and my reason is only because it drinketh tion. And so, I rest.

too much time, which I have dedicated to better October 4, 1596.

purposes. But, even for that point of estate and





means, I partly lean to Thales' opinion, “ that a facta placebunt:" be it so, yet remember, that
pliilosopher may be rich if he will." Thus your the signing of your name is nothing unless it be
lordship seeth how I comfort myself; to the in- to some good patent or charter, whereby your
crease whereof I would fain please myself to country may be endowed with good and benefit;
believe that to be true which my lord treasurer which I speak both to move you to preserve your
writetlı, which is, that it is more than a philoso- person, for further merit and service of her
pher morally can digest; but without any such majesty and your country, and likewise to refer
high conceit, I esteem it like the pulling out of this action to the same end. And so, in most
an aching tooth, which I remember when I was true and fervent prayers, I commend your lord-
a child, and had little philosophy, I was glad of ship, and your work in hand, to the preservation
when it was done. For your lordship, I do think and conduct of the Divine Majesty; so much the
myself more beholding to you than to any man; more watchful, as these actions do more mani-
and I say, I reckon myself as a common, (not po- festly in show, though alike in truth, depend
pular but common,) and as much as is lawful to upon his Divine providence.
be enclosed as a common, so much your lordship
shall be sure to have.

Your lordship's to obey your honourable
commands more settled than ever.

IT MAY PLEASE your Grace,

I have considered the objections, perused the statutes, and framed the alterations, which I

send, still keeping myself within the brevity MY SINGULAR GOOD LORD,

of a letter and form of a narration, not entering Your lordship's so honourable minding my poor into a form of argument or disputation; for, in fortune the last year in the very entrance into my poor conceit, it is somewhat against the that great action, (which is a time of less leisure,) majesty of princes' actions to ma too curious and in so liberal an allowance of your care as to and striving apologies; but rather to set them write three letters to stir me up friends in your forth plainly, and so as there may appear an absence; doth, after a sort, warrant me not to harmony and constancy in them, so that one part object to myself your present quantity affairs, upholdeth another. And so I wish your grace whereby to silence myself from petition of the all prosperity. From my poor lodging, this, etc. like favour. I brake with your lordship myself

Your grace's most dutiful at the Tower, and I take it my brother hath since

pupil and servant. renewed the same motion touching a fortune I was in thought to attempt “in genere economi

“ In genere politico," certain cross winds have blown contrary. My suit to your lordship is for your several letters to be left with me dor- My SINGULAR GOOD Lord, mant, to the gentlewoman, and either of the The message it pleased your lordship to send parents; wherein I do not doubt but as the me was to me delivered doubtfully; whether beams of your favour have often dissolved the your lordship said you would speak with me at coldness of my fortune, so in this argument your the Star Chamber or with Mr. Philip. If with lordship will do the like with your pen. My me, it is needless, for gratitude imposeth upon desire is also, that your lordship would vouch safe me satisfaction; if with Mr. Philip, it will be too unto me, as out of your care, a general letter to late, because somewhat must, perchance, be done my lord keeper for his lordship’s holding me, that day. This doubt not solved, maketh me from you recommended, both in the course of write again; the rather, because I did liberally, my practice, and in the course of my employment but yet privately affirm, your lordship would in her majesty's service. Wherein, if your lord- write ; which, if I make not good, it may be a ship shall in any antithesis or relation, affirm that discouragement. Your lordship's letter, though his lordship shall have no less hope of me than it have the subject of honour and justice, yet it of any other whom he may cherish, I hope your shall have the secrecy of a thing done upon affecJordship shall engage yourself for no impossibi- tion. I shall ever, in a firm duty, submit my lity. Lastly and chiefly, I know not whether I occasions, though great, to your lordship’s shall attain to see your lordship before your noble respects, though small; and this is my resolujourney; for ceremonies are things infinitely tion, that when your lordship doth for me, you inferior to my love and to my zeal; this let me, shall increase my obligation; when you refuse to with your

allowance, say unto you by pen. It is do for me, you shall increase my merit. So, true that, in my well meaning advices, out of my leaving the matter wholly to your lordship's love to your lordship, and perhaps out of the state pleasure, I commend your lordship to the preserof mine own mind, I have sometimes persuaded vation of the Divine Majesty.' From Gray's Inn. 2 course differing : “ac tibi pro tutis insignia! Your lordship's ever most humbly bounden.







TRANSLATION OF THE ANSWER OF THE LORD in heaven. It was at a time when the great deso

BACON, THEN ATTORNEY-GENERAL, TO THE lation of the plague was in the city, and when SWORN OF THE PRIVY COUNCIL TO THE KING. myself was ill of a dangerous and tedious sick

The first time that I found any degree of Your letters were very acceptable to me; and health, nothing came sooner to my mind than to I give myself joy, upon your congratulation. acknowledge your majesty's great favour by my The thing itself will (I suppose) conduce to my most humble thanks. And because I see your mahonour and satisfaction, if I remain in the mind I

jesty taketh delight in my writings, and, to say now am in; by unwearied study, and perpetual truth, they are the best fruits I now yield, I presume watchfulness, and pure affection, to promote the to send your majesty a little discourse of mine, public good. Now, among the parts of the com

touching a war with Spain, which I writ about monwealth, there are none dearer to me than the two years since, which the king, your brother, universities and learning. And this, my manner liked well. It is written without bitterness or of life hitherto, and my writings do both declare. invective, as kings' affairs ought to be carried : If, therefore, any good fortune befalls me, you but, if I be not deceived, it hath edge enough. I may look upon it as an accession to yourselves. have yet some spirits left, and remnant of expeNeither are you to believe, that my patronage is rience, which I consecrate to the king's service either quite removed from you, or so much as and your majesty's; for whom I pour out my daily diminished. For that part of an advocate which

prayers to God, that he would give your majesty concerneth the giving of counsel in causes

a fortune worthy your rare virtues; which some remaineth entire. Also, (if any thing more good spirit tells me will be in the end. I do in weighty and urgent falleth out,) the very office all reverence kiss your majesty's hands, ever of pleading (the king's leave being obtained) is

resting still allowed me. And whatsoever shall be

Your majesty's most humble found wanting in my juridical patronage will be

and devoted servant, compensated by my inore ample authority. My

FRANCIS ST. ALBAN. wishes are, that as I am translated from the business of private men and particular clients, to the government of the commonwealth; so the translation Of A LETTER OF THE LORD BA. latter part of my age (if my life be continued to me) may, from the public cares, be translated to leisure and study.

HIS BOOK OF THE ADVANCEMENT OF LEARNING. Also, this thought comes often into my mind, Francis, Baron of Verulam, and Viscount of St. amidst so many businesses and of such moment,

Albans, to the Indulgent Mother, the famous every year to lay aside some days to think on

University of Cambridge, health. you: that so, having the greater insight into your matters, I may the better consult your

I here repay you, according to my ability, the advantage.

debts of a son. I exhort you, also, to do the same Your most faithful and kind friend,

thing with myself: that is, to bend your whole Fr. Bacon.

might towards the advancement of the sciences, July the 5th, 1616.

and to retain freedom of thought, together with humility of mind; and not to suffer the talent

which the ancients have deposited with you, to THE LORD CHANCELLOR BACON'S LETTER to lie dead in a napkin. Doubtless, the favour of THE QUEEN OF BOHEMIA,* IN ANSWER TO ONE the Divine light will be present and shine amongst FROM HER MAJESTY, AND UPON SENDING TO

you, if, philosophy being submitted to religion, HER HIS BOOK ABOUT A WAR WITH SPAIN.

you lawfully and dexterously use the keys of IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MAJESTY,

I have received your majesty's gracious letter sense; and if, all study of opposition being laid from Mr. Secretary Morton, who is now a saint

aside, every one of you so dispute with another as if he were arguing with himself. Fare ye well.



* A. D. 1625

I find that the ancients (as Cicero, Demosthenes,
TRANSLATION OF A LETTER OF THE LORD BA. Plinius Secundus, and others) have preserved

CON'S TO THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE, both their orations and their epistles. In imitation
UPON HIS SENDING TO THEIR PUBLIC LIBRARY of whom, I have done the like to my own, which,

nevertheless, I will not publish while I live; but Seeing I am your son, and your disciple, it I have been bold to bequeath them to your lordwill much please me to repose in your bosom the ship, and Mr. Chancellor of the Duchy. My issue which I have lately brought forth into the speeches, perhaps, you will think fit to publish. world; for, otherwise, I should look upon it as an The letters, many of them, touch too much upon exposed child. Let it not trouble you that the late matters of state to be published ; yet, I way in which I go is new : such things will, of was willing they should not be lost. I have, necessity, happen in the revolutions of several also, by my will, erected two lectures in perpeages. However, the honour of the ancients is tuity, in either university; one with an endowsecured: that, I mean, which is due to their wit. ment of £200 per annum, apiece. They are to For, faith is only due to the word of God, and to be for natural philosophy, and the sciences thereexperience. Now, for bringing back the sciences

upon depending; which foundations I have reto experience is not a thing to be done : but to quired my executors to order by the advice and raise them anew from experience, is indeed a very direction of your lordship, and my Lord Bishop difficult and laborious, but not a hopeless under- of Coventry and Litchfield. These be my thoughts taking. God prosper you and your studies.

now. I rest
Your most loving son,

Your lordship's most
Francis VERULAM, Chancel.

affectionate to do you service.

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Francis, Baron of Verulam, Viscount of St. Al- TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH BY THE PUBLISHER.

bans, to the most famous College of the Holy Most REVEREND Father,
and Undivided Trinity in Cambridge, health. I must confess myself to be a letter in your

The progress of things, together with them- debt; but the excuse which I have, is too, too
selves, are to be ascribed to their originals. just. For I was kept from doing you right by
Wherefore, seeing I have derived from your foun- a very sore disease, from which I am not yet per-
tains my first beginnings in the sciences, I thought fectly delivered.
fit to repay to you the increases of them. I hope, I am now desirous to communicate to your
also, it may so happen that these things of ours fatherhood the designs I have touching those
may the more prosperously thrive among you, writings which I form in my head, and begin;
being replanted in their native soil. Therefore, I not with hope of bringing them to perfection, but
likewise exhort you that ye yourselves, so far as out of desire to make experiment, and because I
is consistent with all due modesty and reverence am a servant to posterity; for these things require
to the ancients, be not wanting to the advance- some ages for the ripening of them.
ment of the sciences: but that, next to the study I judged it most convenient to have them trans-
of those sacred volumes of God, the holy Scrip- lated in the Latin tongue, and to divide them into
tures, ye turn over that great volume of the works certain tomes.
of God, his creatures, with the utmost lligence, The first tome consisteth of the books of the
and before all other books, which ought to be Advancement of Learning, which, as you under-
looked on only as commentaries on those texts. stand, are already finished and published; and

contain the Partition of Sciences, which is the first part of my Instauration.

The Novum Organum should have immediately
THE LORD CHANCELLOR BACON'S LETTER TO followed, but I interposed my moral and political

DR. WILLIAMS, THEN LORD BISHOP OF LINCOLN, writings, because they were more in readiness.

And for them, they are these following. The
My very good Lord,

first is, The History of Henry the 7th, King of I am much bound to your lordship for your England. Then follows that book which you honourable promise to Dr. Rawley. He chooseth have called in your tongue, “Saggi Morali." rather to depend upon the same in general than to But I give a graver name to that book; and it is pitch upon any particular; which modesty of to go under the title of Sermones Fideles, (faithchoice I commend.

ful sayings,] or Interiora Rerum, [the inside of

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