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as may be seen in serpents, eels, and flies, whereof the liveless spirits, not that they are more flamy every of their parts move along after they are cut than air. asunder. Birds also leap a good while after their heads are pulled off, because they have little heads and little cells. But the nobler sort of creatures

have those ventricles larger, and man the largest of all. The other difference betwixt the spirits is, that the vital spirit hath a kind of enkindling, and is like a wind or breath compounded of flame and air, as the juices of living creatures have both oil and water. And this enkindling ministereth peculiar motions and faculties; for the smoke which is inflammable, even before the flame conceived, is hot, thin, and movable, and yet it is quite another thing after it is become flame; but the enkindling of the vital spirits is by many degrees gentler than the softest flame, as of spirit of wine, or otherwise; and, besides, it is in great part mixed with an aerial substance, that it should be a mystery or miracle, both of a flammeous and

aereous nature.


The natural actions are proper to the several parts, but it is the vital spirit that excites and sharpens them.


The actions or functions which are in the several members, follow the nature of the members themselves, (attraction, retention, digestion, assimilation, separation, excretion, perspiration, even sense itself,) according to the propriety of the several organs, (the stomach, liver, heart, spleen, gall, brain, eye, ear, and the rest,) yet none of these actions would ever have been actuated but by the vigour and presence of the vital spirit, and heat thereof; as one iron would not have drawn another iron, unless it had been excited by the loadstone; nor an egg would ever have brought forth a bird, unless the substance of the hen had been actuated by the treading of the cock.


The liveless spirits are next consubstantial to air; the vital spirits approach more to the substance of flame.



itself, the other of flying forth, and congregating The spirit hath two desires, one of multiplying itself with the connaturals.


The canon is understood of the liveless spirits; for as for the second desire, the vital spirit doth most of all abhor flying forth of the body, for it finds no connatural here below to join withal. Perhaps it may sometimes fly to the outward parts of the body, to meet that which it loveth; but the flying forth, as I said, it abhorreth. But in the liveless spirits each of these two desires holdeth. For to the former this belongeth, every spirit seated amongst the grosser parts dwelleth unhappily; and, therefore, when it finds not a like unto itself, it doth so much the more labour to create and make a like, as being in a great solitude, and endeavour earnestly to multiply itself, and to prey upon the volatile of the grosser parts, that it may be increased in quantity. As for the second desire of flying forth, and betaking itself to the air, it is certain, that all light things (which are ever movable) do willingly go unto their likes near unto them, as a drop of water is carried to a drop, flame to flame; but much more this is done in the flying forth of spirit into the air ambient, because it is not carried to a particle like unto itself, but also as unto the globe of the connaturals. Meanwhile this is to be noted, that the going forth, and flight of the spirit into air is a redoubled action, partly out of the appetite of the spirit, partly out of the appetite of the air, for the common air is a needy thing, and receiveth all things speedily, as spirits, odours, beams, sounds, and the like.


Spirit detained, if it have no possibility of begetting new spirits, intenerateth the grosser parts.


Generation of new spirit is not accomplished but upon those things which are in some degree near to the spirit, such as are humid bodies. And,

The explication of the precedent fourth canon is also a declaration of this present canon. But yet further, from hence it is, that all fat and oily therefore, if the grosser parts (amongst which the things continue long in their being. For neither doth the air much pluck them, neither do they much desire to join themselves with air. As for that conceit, it is altogether vain, that flame should be air set on fire, seeing flame and air are no less heterogeneal, than oil and water. But whereas it is said in the canon, that the vital spirits approach more to the substance of flame; It must be understood, that they do this more than

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spirit converseth) be in a remote degree, although the spirit cannot convert them, yet (as much as it can) it weakeneth, and softeneth, and subdueth them, that seeing it cannot increase in quantity, yet it will dwell more at large, and live amongst good neighbours and friends. Now, this aphorism is most useful to our end, because it tendeth to the inteneration of the obstinate parts by the detention of the spirit.

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less it preyeth; for dissolution ever beginneth at that part where the spirit is loser. And, therefore, both exercise and frications conduce much to long life, for agitation doth fineliest diffuse and commix things by small portions.


Also, this canon pertaineth to the solving of the knot aforesaid, but it is of a much larger exNot only abundance of spirits, in respect of the tent, for it setteth down of what temperament the whole, is hurtful to the duration of things, but heat in the body ought to be for the obtaining of also the same abundance, unevenly placed, is, in long life. Now, this is useful, whether the spirits like manner, hurtful; and, therefore, the more the be detained, or whether they be not. For, how-spirit is shred and inserted by small portions, the soever, the heat of the spirits, must be such, as it may rather turn itself upon the hard parts, than waste the soft; for the one desiccateth, the other intenerateth. Besides, the same thing is available to the well perfecting of assimilation; for such a heat doth excellently excite the faculty of assimilation, and withal doth excellently prepare the matter to be assimilated. Now, the properties of this kind of heat ought to be these. First, that it be slow, and heat not suddenly. Secondly, that it be not very intense, but moderate. Thirdly, that it be equal, not incomposed; namely, intending and remitting itself. Fourthly, that if this heat meet any thing to resist it, it be not easily suffocated or languish. The operation is exceeding subtile; but seeing it is one of the most useful, it is not to be deserted. Now, in those remedies which we propounded to invest the spirits with a robust heat, or that which we call operative, not predatory, we have in some sort satisfied this matter.


The condensing of the spirits in their substance is available to long life.


This canon is subordinate to the next precedent; for the spirit condensed receiveth all those four properties of heat whereof we speak; but the ways of condensing them are set down in the first of the ten operations.

The inordinate and subsultory motion of the spirits doth more hasten to going forth, and doth prey upon the body more than the constant and equal.


The inanimates this canon holds for certain, for inequality is the mother of dissolution; but in animates (because not only the consumption is considered, but the reparation, and reparation proceedeth by the appetites of things, and appetite is sharpened by variety) it holdeth not rigorously; but it is so far forth to be received, that this variety be rather an alternation or interchange, than a confusion; and, as it were, constant in inconsistency.


The spirit in a body of a solid composure is de tained, though unwillingly.


All things do abhor a solution of their continuity, but yet in proportion to their density or rarity; for the more rare the bodies be, the more do they suffer themselves to be thrust into small and narrow passages; for water will go into a passage which

dust will not go into, and air which water will not go into; nay, flame and spirit which air will not go into. Notwithstanding, of this thing there are some bounds, for the spirit is not so much transported with the desire of going forth, that it will suffer itself to be too much discontinued, or be driven into over-straight pores and passages; and, therefore, if the spirit be encompassed with a hard body, or else with an unctuous and tenacious, (which is not easily divided,) it is plainly bound, and, as I may say, imprisoned, and layeth down the appetite of going out; wherefore we see that metals and stones require a long time for their spirit to go forth, unless either the spirit be excited by the fire, or the grosser parts be dissevered with corroding and strong waters. The like reason is there of tenacious bodies, such as are gums, save only that they are melted by a more gentle heat; and therefore the juices of the body hard, a close and compact skin, and the like, (which are procured by the dryness of the aliment, and by exercise, and by the coldness of the air,) are good for long life, because they detain the spirit in close prison, that it goeth not forth.



Air excluded conferreth to long life, if other inconveniences be avoided.


We said a little before, that the flying forth of the spirit is a redoubled action, from the appetite of the spirit, and of the air; and, therefore, it either of these be taken out of the way, there is not a little gained. Notwithstanding, divers in conveniences follow hereupon, which how they may be prevented we have showed in the second of our operations.


Youthful spirits inserted into an old body, might soon turn nature's course back again.


The nature of the spirits is as the uppermost wheel, which turneth about the other wheels in the body of man; and therefore in the intention of long life, that ought to be first placed. Hereunto may be added, that there is an easier and more expedite way to alter the spirits, than to other operations. For the operation upon the

In oily and fat things the spirit is detained wil- spirits is twofold; the one by aliments, which is lingly, though they be not tenacious.


The spirit, if it be not irritated by the antipathy of the body enclosing it, nor fed by the over-much likeness of that body, nor solicited nor invited by the external body, it makes no great stir to get out; all which are wanting to oily bodies, for they are neither so pressing upon the spirits as hard bodies, nor so near as watery bodies, neither have they any good agreement with the air am



The speedy flying forth of the watery humour conserves the oily the longer in his being.


We said before, that the watery humours, as being consubstantial to the air, fly forth soonest; the oily later, as having small agreement with the air. Now, whereas these two humours are in most bodies, it comes to pass that the watery doth in a sort betray the oily, for that issuing forth insensibly carrieth this together with it. Therefore, there is nothing more furthereth the conservation of bodies, than a gentle drying of them, which causeth the watery humour to expire, and inviteth not the oily; for then the oily enjoyeth the proper nature. And this tendeth not only to the inhibiting of putrefaction, (though that also followeth,) but to the conservation of greenness. Hence it is, that gentle frications, and moderate exercises, causing rather perspiration than sweating, conduce much to long life.

slow, and as it were, about; the other, (and that twofold,) which is sudden, and goeth directly to the spirits, namely, by vapours, or by the affections.


Juices of the body hard and roscid are good for long life.


The reason is plain, seeing we showed before, that hard things, and oily or roscid, are hardly dissipated; notwithstanding, there is difference, (as we also noted in the tenth operation,) that juice somewhat hard is indeed less dissipable, but then it is withal less reparable; therefore, a convenience is interlaced with an inconvenience, and for this cause no wonderful matter will be

achieved by this. But roscid juice will admit both operations; therefore this would be principally endeavoured.


Whatsoever is of thin parts to penetrate, and yet hath no acrimony to bite, begetteth roscid juices.


This canon is more hard to practise than to understand. For it is manifest, whatsoever penetrateth well, but yet with a sting or tooth, (as do all sharp and sour things,) it leaveth behind it, wheresoever it goeth, some mark or print of dryness and cleaving, so that it hardeneth the juices, and chappeth the parts; contrarily, whatsoever things penetrate through their thinness merely,


as it were by stealth, and by way of insinuation
without violence, they bedew and water in their
Of which sort we have recounted imprinters, and by closers up.
many in the fourth and seventh overations.

Malacissation is wrought by consubstantials, by



The reason is manifest, for that consubstantials

Assimilation is best done when all local motion is do properly supple the body, imprinters do carry expended.


in, closers up do retain and bridle the perspiration, which is a motion opposite to malacissation. And, therefore, (as we described in the ninth

This canon we have sufficiently explained in operation,) malacissation cannot well be done at our discourse upon the eighth operation.


Alimentation from without, at least some other way than by the stomach, is most profitable for long life, if it can be done.


We see that all things which are done by nutrition ask a long time, but those which are done by embracing of the like (as it is in infusions) require no long time. And, therefore, alimentation from without would be of principal use; and so much the more, because the faculties of concoction decay in old age; so that if there could be some auxiliary nutritions by bathing, unctions, or else by clysters, these things in conjunction might do much, which single are less available.


Where the concoction is weak to thrust forth the aliment, there the outward parts should be strengthened to call forth the aliment.


That which is propounded in this canon, is not the same thing with the former, for it is one thing for the outward aliment to be attracted inward, another for the inward aliment to be attracted outward; yet herein they concur, that they both help the weakness of the inward concoctions, though by divers ways.


All sudden renovation of the body is wrought either by the spirit, or by malacissations.


There are two things in the body, spirits and parts; to both these the way by nutrition is long and about; but it is a short way to the spirits by vapours, and by the affections, and to the parts by malacissations. But this is diligently to be noted, that by no means we confound alimentation from without with malacissation; for the intention of malacissation is not to nourish the parts, but only to make them more fit to be nourished.

once, but in a course or order. First, by excluding the liquor by thickness; for an outward and gross infusion doth not well compact the body; that which entereth must be subtile, and a kind of vapour. Secondly, by intenerating by the consent of consubstantials: for bodies upon the touch of those things which have good agreement with them, open themselves, and relax their pores. Thirdly, imprinters are convoys, and insinuate into the parts the consubstantials, and the mixture of gentle astringents doth somewhat restrain the perspiration. But then, in the fourth place, follows that great astriction and closure up of the body by emplasteration, and then afterwards by inunction, until the supple be turned into solid, as we said in the proper place.


Frequent renovation of the parts reparable, watereth and reneweth the less reparable also.


We said in the preface to this history, that the way of death was this, that the parts reparable died in the fellowship of the parts less reparable; so that in the reparation of these same less reparable parts, all our forces would be employed. And, therefore, being admonished by Aristotle's observation touching plants, namely, that the putting forth of new shoots and branches refresheth the body of the tree in the passage; we conceive the like reason might be, if the flesh and blood in the body of man were often renewed, that thereby the bones themselves, and membranes, and other parts, which in their own nature are less reparable, partly by the cheerful passage of the juices, partly by that new clothing of the young flesh and blood, might be watered and renewed.


Refrigeration, or cooling of the body, which passeth some other ways than by the stomach, is useful for long life.


The reason is at hand; for seeing a refrigeration not temperate, but powerful, (especially of the blood,) is above all things necessary to long life; this can by no means be effected from within as

much as is requisite, without the destruction of the stomach and bowels.


That intermixing, or entangling, that as well consumption as reparation are the works of heat, is the greatest obstacle to long life.


Almost all great works are destroyed by the natures of things intermixed, when as that which helpeth in one respect, hurteth in another; therefore men must proceed herein by a sound judgment, and a discreet practice. For our part, we have done so far as the matter will bear, and our memory serveth us, by separating benign heats from hurtful, and the remedies which tend to both.


Curing of diseases is effected by temporary medicines; but lengthening of life requireth observation| of diets.



The living spirit is instantly extinguished, if it be deprived either of motion, or of refrigeration, or of aliment.


Namely, these are those three which before we called the porches of death, and they are the proper and immediate passions of the spirit. For all the organs of the principal parts serve hereunto, that these three offices be performed; and again, all destruction of the organs which is deadly brings the matter to this point, that one or more of these three fail. Therefore all other things are the divers ways to death, but they end in these three. Now, the whole fabric of the parts is the organ of the spirit, as the spirit is the organ of the reasonable soul, which is incorporeous and divine.


Flame is a momentary substance, air a fixed; the living spirit in creatures is of a middle nature.


Those things which come by accident, as soon This matter stands in need both of a higher as the causes are removed, cease again: but the indagation, and of a longer explication than is continual course of nature, like a running river, pertinent to the present inquisition. Meanwhile requires a continual rowing and sailing against we must know this, that flame is almost every the stream, therefore we must work regularly by moment generated and extinguished; so that it is diets. Now, diets are of two kinds; set diets, continued only by succession; but air is a fixed which are to be observed at certain times, and body, and is not dissolved; for though air begets familiar diet, which is to be admitted into our new air out of watery moisture, yet, notwithstanddaily repast. But the set diets are the more ing, the old air still remains; whence cometh that potent, that is, a course of medicines for a time; superoneration of the air whereof we have spoken for those things which are of so great virtue that in the title De Ventis. But spirit is participant they are able to turn nature back again, are, for of both natures, both of flame and air, even as the the most part, more strong, and more speedily nourishments thereof are, as well oil, which is altering, than those which may without danger be homogeneous to flame, as water, which is homoreceived into a continual use. Now, in the reme-geneous to air; for the spirit is not nourished dies set down in our intentions, you shall find only three set diets, the opiate diet, the diet malacissant or supplying, and the diet emaciant and renewing. But amongst those which we prescribed for familiar diet, and to be used daily, the most efficacious are these that follow, which also come not far short of the virtue of set diets. Nitre, and the subordinates to nitre; the regiment of the affections, and course of our life; refrigerators which pass not by the stomach; drinks roscidating, or engendering oily juices; besprinkling of the blood with some firmer matter, as pearls, certain woods, competent unctions to keep out the air and to keep in the spirit. Heaters from without, during the assimilation after sleep; avoiding of those things which inflame the spirit, and put it into an eager heat, as wine and spices. Lastly, a moderate and seasonable use of those things which endue the spirits with a robust heat, as saffron, crosses, garlic, elecampane, and compound opiates.

either of oily alone, or of watery alone, but of both together; and though air doth not agree well with flame, nor oil with water, yet in a mixed body they agree well enough. Also the spirit hath from the air his easy and delicate impressions and yieldings, and from the flame his noble and potent motions and activities. In like manner the duration of spirit is a mixed thing, being neither so momentary as that of flame, nor so fixed as that of air. And so much the rather it followeth not the condition of flame, for that flame itself is extinguished by accident, namely, by contraries, and enemies environing it; but spirit is not subject to the like conditions and necessities. Now, the spirit is repaired from the lively and florid blood of the small arteries which are inserted into the brain; but this reparation is done by a peculiar manner, of which we speak not now.


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