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in all kind of literature, and of those there is not stand well assured (for the tenor and subject of now so much as one pamphlet (only some parcels your main discourse) you are not able to im panel of the Bible excepted) remaining to posterity. a jury in any university that will give up a verAs then there was not in like manner to be found dict to acquit you of error; yet it cannot be gainany footing of millions of authors that were long said, that all your treatise over doth abound with before Solomon, and yet we must give credit to choice conceit of the present state of learning, that which he aifirmed ; that whatsoever was then and with so worthy contemplations of the means or before, it could never be truly pronounced of to procure it, as may persuade with any student it, “ Behold, this is new.” Whereupon I must to look more narrowly to his business, not only for my final conclusion infer, seeing all the en- by aspiring to the greatest perfection, of that deavours, study, and knowledge of mankind, in which is now-a-days divulged in the sciences, whatsoever art or science, have ever been the but by diving yet deeper, as it were, into the same as they are at this present, though full of bowels and secrets of nature, and by enforcing of mutabilities, according to the changes and acci- the powers of his judgment and wit to learn of dental occasions of ages and countries, and clerks' St. Paul, “Consectari meliora dona:” which dispositions; which can never but be subject to course, would to God (to whisper so much into intention and remission, both in their devices and your ear) you had followed at the first, when practices of their knowledge. If now we should you fell to the study of such a study as was not accord in opinion with you ; first, to condemn worthy such a student. Nevertheless, being so our present knowledge of doubt and incertitude as it is, that you are therein settled, and your (which you confer but by averment) without country soundly served; I cannot but wish with other force of argument, and then to disclaim all | all my heart, as I do very often, that you may our axioms and maxims, and general assertions gain a fit reward to the full of your deserts, which that are left by tradition from our elders to us; I hope will come with heaps of happiness and which, (for so it is to be pretended) have passed honour. all probations of the sharpest wits that ever were

Yours to be used, and commanded, Abecedarii, by the frequent spelling of particulars,

Tro. BODLEY. to come to the notice of new generals, and so From Fulham, Feb. 19, 1607. afresh to create new principles of sciences, the end of all would be, that when we should be dis- Sir,—One kind of boldness doth draw on possessed of the learning which we have, all our another; insomuch as methinks I should offend consequent travail will but help us in a circle, to to signify, that before the transcript of your book conduct us to the place from whence we set for- be fitted for the press, it will be requisite for you wards, and bring us to the happiness to be to cast a censor's eye upon the style and the elorestored - in integrum,” which will require as cution; which, in the framing of some periods, many ages as have marched before us, to be per- and in divers words and phrases, will hardly go fectly achieved. And this I write, with no dis- for current, if the copy brought to me be just the like of increasing our knowledge with new-found same that you would publish. devices, (which is undoubtedly a practice of

Tho. Bodley. high commendation) in regard of the benefit they will yield for the present, that the world hath ever been, and will forever continue, very full of such devisers; whose industry that way hath been very obstinate and eminent, and hath pro


SENDING HIS WRITING INTITULED, COGITATA duced strange effects, above the reach and the hope of men's common capacities; and yet our notions and theorems have always kept in grace My very gooD LORD, buth with them, and with the rarest that ever Now, your lordship hath been so long in the were named among the learned.

church and the palace, disputing between kings By this you see to what boldness I am brought and popes, methinks you should take pleasure to by your kindness; that (if I seem to be too saucy look into the field, and refresh your mind with in this contradiction) it is the opinion that I hold some matter of philosophy; though that science of your noble disposition, and of the freedom in be now, through age, waxed a child again, and these cases, that you will afford your special left to boys and young men. And because you friend, that hath induced me to it. And although are wont to make me believe you took liking to I myself, like a carrier's horse, cannot baulk the my writings, I send you some of this vacation beaten way, in which I have been trained, yet fruits, and thus much more for my mind and pursince it is my censure of your Cogitata that I pose. “I hasten not to publish, perishing I must tell you, to be p.ain, you have very much would prevent." And I am forced to respect as wronged yourself and the world, to smother such well my times, as the matter; for with me it is a treasure so long in your coffer: for though Ilthus, and I think with all men, in my case: if I


bind myself to an argument, it loadeth my mind; (as for any impediment it might be to the applause but if I rid my mind of the present Cogitation, it and celebrity of my work, it moveth me not) but is rather a recreation : this hath put me into these as it may hinder the fruit and good which may miscellanies, which I purpose to suppress, if God come of a quiet and calm passage to the good give me leave to write a just and perfect volume port to which it is bound, I hold it a just respect, of philosophy, which I go on with, though slowly. so as to fetch a fair wind I go not too far about. I send not your lordship too much, lest it may But troth is, I shall have no occasion to meet glut you. Now, let me tell you what my desire them in the way, except it be, as they will needs is. If your lordship be so good now as when confederate themselves with Aristotle, who, you you were the good Dean of Westminster, my know, is intemperately magnified with the schoolrequest to you is, that not by pricks, but by notes, men, and is also allied (as I take it) to the Jesuits you would mark unto me whatsoever shall seem by Faber, who was a companion of Loyola, and unto you either not current in the style, or harsh a great Aristotelian. I send you at this time, the to credit and opinion, or inconvenient for the per- only part which hath any harshness, and yet I son of the writer, for no man can be judge and framed to myself an opinion, that whosoever party; and when our minds judge by reflection allowed well of that preface, which you so much on ourselves, they are more subject to error. And commend, will not dislike, or at least ought not though, for the matter itself, my judgment be in to dislike, this other speech of preparation; for it is some things fixed, and not accessible by any written out of the same spirit, and out of the same man's judgment that goeth not my way, yet even necessity. Nay, it doth more fully lay open, that in those things the admonition of a friend may the question between me and the ancients is not make me express myself diversely. I would have of the virtue of the race, but of the rightness of come to your lordship, but that I am hastening to the way. And, to speak truth, it is to the other my house in the country, and so I commend your but as Palma to Pugnus, part of the same thing, lordship to God's goodness.

more large. You conceive aright, that in this, and the other, you have commission to impart and communicate them to others, according to your

discretion; other matters I write not of. Myself SIR FRANCIS BACON TO SIR THOMAS BODLEY, am like the miller of Huntingdon, that was wont

AFTER HE HAD IMPARTED TO HIM A WRITING to pray for peace among the willows; for, while INTITULED, “COGITATA ET VISA."

the winds blew the wind-mills wrought, and the Sir,

water-mill was less customed. So I see that In respect of my going down to my house in controversies of religion must hinder the advancethe country, I shall have miss of my papers,

ment of sciences. Let me conclude with my which, I pray you, therefore, return unto me. perpetual wish towards yourself, that the approYou are, I bear you witness, slothful, and

bation of yourself by your own discreet and tem

you help me nothing; so as I am half in conceit that perate carriage, may restore you to your country, you affect not the argument; for myself, I know and your friends to your society. And so I comwell you love and affect. I can say no more to

mend you to God's goodness. you, but, “non canimus surdis, respondent omnia Gray's Inn, this 10th of October, 1609. silvæ." If

you be not of the lodgings chalked up, (whereof I speak in my preface,) I am but to pass by your door. But if I had you but a fort- siR FRANCIS BACON TO MR. MATTHEW, TOUCHnight at Gorhambury, I would make you tell me another tale, or else I would add a cogitation

MR. MATTHEW, I heartily thank you for against libraries, and be revenged on you that letter of the 10th of February, and I am glad to

your way: I pray you send me some good news of Sir receive from you matter both of encouragement Thomas Smith, and commend me very kindly to and advertisement, touching my writings. For him. So I rest.

my part, I do wish that, since there is almost no “ lumen siccumu" in the world, but all madidum,

maceratum," infused in the affections, and hloods, SIR FRANCIS BACON TO MR. MATTIEW, UPON or humours, that these things of mine bad those

separations that might make them more acceptaMR. MATTHEW,

ble; so that they claim not so much acquaintance I plainly perceive by your affectionate writing of the present times, as they be there by the less touching my work, that one and the same thing like to last. Anil to show you that I have some affecteth us both, which is the good end to which purpose to new inould them, I send you a le if or it is dedicated: for as to any ability of mine, it two of the prelice, carrying some fuuse of the cannot merit that degree of approbation. For whole work; wherein I purpose tn take th twhich your caution for church men, and church matters, is real and effectual of both writings, and chiefly





to add pledge, if not payment to my promise. I lords, and towards the end of the last term, the send you, also, a memorial of Queen Elizabeth, manner, also, in particular, was spoken of; that is, to reguite your Eulogy of the late Duke of Flo- that Mr. Solicitor should be made your majesty's rence's felicity. Of this, when you were here, I sergeant, and I solicitor, for so it was thought showed you some model, though, at that time, best, to sort with both our gifts and faculties, for methought you were as willing to hear Julius the good of your service. And of this resolution Cæsar as Queen Elizabeth commended. But this both court and country took knowledge. Neither which I send is more full, and hath more of the was this any invention or project of mine own, narrative; and farther hath one part that I think but moved from my lords; and I think, first, from will not be disagreeable, either to you, or that my lord chancellor. Whereupon resting, your place, being the true tracts of her proceeding majesty well knoweth, I never opened my mouth towards the Catholics, which are infinitely mis- for the greater place, though I am sure I had two taken. And though I do not imagine they will circumstances, that Mr. Attorney now is, could pass allowance there, yet they will gain upon ex- not allege. The one, nine years' service of the

I find Mr. Lezure to use you well, (I mean crown; the other, being cousin-german to the Lord his tongue, of you,) which shows you either of Salisbury, whom your majesty seemeth and honest or wise. But this I speak merely; for, in trusteth so much. But for less place, I conceived, good faith, I conceive hope, that you will so it was meant me. But after that Mr. Attorney govern yourself, as we may take you as assuredly Hubbert was placed, I heard no more of my prefor a good subject, and patriot, as you take your- ferment, but it seemed to be at a stop, to my great self for a good Christian; and so we may enjoy disgrace and discouragement. For, (gracious your company, and you your conscience, if it may sovereign,) if still when the waters are stirred, no otherwise be. For my part, assure yourself another shall be put before me, your majesty had that, as we say in the law, “ mutatis mutandis," need work a miracle, or else I shall be still a lame my love and good wishes to you are diminished. man to do your majesty service. And, therefore, And so I remain.

my most humble suit to your majesty is, that this which seemed to me was intended, may speedily be performed. And I hope my former service

shall be but beginnings to better, when I am better SIR FRANCIS BACON TO THE KING, TOUCHING

strengthened. For sure I am, no man's heart is

fuller (I say not but many have greater hearts, How honestly ready I have been, most gracious but I say, not fuller) of love and duty towards sovereign, to do your majesty humble service to

your majesty, and your children, as I hope time the best of my power, and in a manner beyond will manifest against envy and detraction, if any my power, (as I now stand,) I am not so unfor- be. To conclude, I most humbly crave pardon tunate but your majesty knoweth. For, both in

for my boldness, and restthe commission of union, (the labour whereof, for men of my profession, rested most upon my hand,) and this last parliament in the bill of the subsidy, (both body and preamble,) in the bill of attain- sir FRANCIS BACON TO THE KING, HIS SUIT TO ders of Tresham, and the rest, in the matter of purveyance, in the ecclesiastical petitions, in the grievances, and the like; as I was ever careful IT MAY PLEASE your MAJESTY, (and not without good success) sometimes to put Your great and princely favours towards me in forward that which was good, sometimes to keep advancing me to place, and that which is to me back that which was not so good ; so your majesty of no less comfort, your majesty's benign and was pleased to accept kindly of my services, and gracious acceptation from time to time of my poor

say to me, such conflicts were the wars of peace, services, much above the merit and value of them, and such victories, the victories of peace; and, hath almost brought me to an opinion, that I may therefore, such servants that obtained them were, sooner perchance be wanting to myself in not by kings that reign in peace, no less to be esteemed asking, than find your majesty's goodness wantthan services of commanders in the wars. In all ing to me, in any my reasonable and modest which, nevertheless, I can challenge to myself no desires. And, therefore, perceiving how at this sufficiency, but that I was diligent and reasonably time preferments of law fly about my ears, to some happy to execute those directions which I received above me, and to some below me, I did conceive either immediately from your royal mouth, or from your majesty may think it rather a kind of dulness, my Lord of Salisbury ; at which time it pleased or want of faith, than modesty, if I should not your majesty to promise and assure me, that upon come with my pitcher to Jacob's Well, as others the remove of the then attorney, I should not be do. Wherein I shall propound to your majesty, forgotten, but brought into ordinary place. And that which tendeth not so much to the raising my this was after confirmed to me by many of my fortune, as to the settling of my mind, being



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sometimes assailed with this cogitation, that by book that endeavoured to verify, “ Misera fæmina” reason of my slowness to sue and apprehend! (the addition of the pope's bull) upon Queen sudden occasions, keeping on one plain course of Elizabeth ; I did write a few lines in her memorial, painful service, I may (in fine dierum) be in danger which I thought you would be well pleased to to be neglected and forgotten. And if that should read, both for the argument, and because you be, then were it much better for me now while I were wont to bear affection to my pen. “ Verum, stand in your majesty's good opinion, (though ut aliud ex alio,” if it came handsomely to pass, I unworthy,) and have some reputation in the would be glad the President De Thou (who hath world, to give over the course I am in, and to written a history, as you know, of that fame and make proof to do you some honour by my pen; diligence) saw it; chiefly because I know not, either by writing some faithful narrative of your whether it may not serve him for some use in his happy (though not untraduced) times, or by re- story ; wherein I would be glad he did right to compiling your laws, which,' I perceive, your the truth, and to the memory of that lady, as 1 majesty laboureth with, and hath in your head, perceive by that he hath already written, he is (as Jupiter had Pallas,) or some other the like well inclined to do; I would be glad also, it were work, (for without some endeavour to do you some occasion (such as absence may permit) of honour I would not live,) than to spend my wits some acquaintance or mutual notice between us. and time in this laborious place, wherein now I For though he hath many ways the precedence, serve, if it shall be deprived of those outward (chiefly in worth,) yet this is common to them ornaments, and inward comforts, which it was both, that we may serve our sovereigns in places wont to have in respect of an assured succession of law eminent, and not ourselves only, but that to some place of more dignity and rest, which our fathers did so before us; and, lastly, that both seemeth now to be a hope altogether casual, if of us love learning, and liberal sciences, which was not wholly intercepted. Wherefore, (not to hold ever a bond of friendship, in the greatest distances your inajesty long,) my suit (than the which I of places. But of this I make no farther request, think I cannot well go lower) is, that I may than your own occasions and respects (to me unobtain your royal promise to succeed (if I live) known) may further or limit, my principal purinto the attorney's place, whensoever it shall be pose being to salute you, and to send you this void, it being but the natural, and immediate step token, whereunto I will add my very kind comand rise, which the place I now hold hath ever mendations to my lady. And so commit you both (in sort) made claim to, and almost never failed to God's holy protection. of. In this suit I make no friends to your majesty, but rely upon no other motive than your grace, nor any other assurance but your word, whereof I had good experience when I came to the solicitor's place, that they were like to the two great lights, which in their motions are never retro- MAY IT PLEASE your most EXCELLENT MAJESTY, grade. So, with my best prayer for your majesty's It is observed, upon a place in the Canticles by happiness, I rest

some, “ Ego sum Flos Campi, et Lilium Convallium;" that it is not said, “ Ego sum fios horti, et lilium montium:" because the majesty of that person is not enclosed for a few, nor appropriate

to the great. And yet, notwithstanding, this royal FRANCE, UPON SENDING HIM HIS WRITING, « IN virtue of access, which nature and judgment hath

placed in your majesty's mind, as the portal of

all the rest, could not of itself (my imperfections My very good LORD,

considered) have animated me to have ade oblaBeing asked the question by this bearer, an old tion of niyself immediately to your majesty, had servant of my brother Anthony Bacon, whether I it not been joined to a habit of like liberty which would command him any service into France, and I enjoyed with my late dear sovereign mistress, being at better leisure than I would, in regard of a princess happy in all things, but most happy in sickness, I began to remember, that neither your such a successor. And yet, farther, and more business nor mine (though great and continual) nearly, I was not a little encouraged, not only can be, upon an exact account, any just occa- upon a supposal, that unto your majesty's sacred sion why so much good-will as hath passed ears (open to the air of all virtues) there might between us should be so much discontinued as it have come some small breath of the good memory hath been. And, therefore, because one must of my father, so long a principal counsellor in begin, I thought to provoke your remembrance of your kingdom, but also, by the particular know me, by my letter. And thinking how to fit it with ledge of the infinite devotion, and incessant ensomewhat besides salutations, it came to my mind, deavours, beyond the strength of his body, and that this last summer, by occasion of a factious the nature of the times, which appeared in my








good bro:her towards your majesty's service, and 'the other side, I will not omit to desire humbly were on your majesty's part, through your singular your lordship’s favour, in furthering a good conbenignities, by many most gracious and lively ceit and impression of my most humble duty, and significations and favours accepted and acknow- true zeal towards the king, to whose majesty ledged, beyond the thought of any thing he could words cannot make me known, neither mine own effect: all which endeavours and duties, for the nor others, but time will, to no disadvantage of most part, were common to myself with him, any that shall forerun his majesty's experience, though my design between brethren dissembled. by their humanity and commendations.

And so And, therefore, most high and mighty king, my I commend your lordship to God's protection. most dear and dread sovereign lord, since now

Your, etc. the corner-stone is laid of the mightiest monarchy

Fr. Bacon. in Europe, and that God above, who is noted to From Gray's Inn, etc. have a mighty hand in bridling the floods and fluctuations of the seas, and of people's hearts, hath by the miraculous and universal consent, (the more strange, because it proceedeth from SIR FRANCIS BACON TO THE EARL OF NORTHUMsuch diversity of causes,) in your coming in,

BERLAND, CONCERNING A PROCLAMATION UPON given a sign and token, what he intendeth in the continuance; I think there is no subject of your IT MAY PLEASE YOUR LORDSHIP, majesty, who loveth this island, and is not hollow I do hold it a thing formal and necessary, for and unworthy, whose heart is not on fire, not only the king to forerun his coming, be it never so to bring you peace-offerings to make you propiti- speedy, with some gracious declaration for the ous; but to sacrifice himself as a burnt-offering cherishing, entertaining, and preparing of men's to your majesty's service : amongst which number, affections. For which purpose I have conceived

I no man's fire shall be more pure and fervent; but a draught, it being a thing to me familiar, in my how far forth it shall blaze out, that resteth in mistress her times, to have used my pen in politic your majesty's employment: for, since your for writings of satisfaction. The use of this may be tune, in the greatness thereof, hath for a time in two sorts : First, properly, if your lordship debarred your majesty of the fruitful virtue which think convenient to show the king any such one calleth the principal, “ Principis est virtus draught, because the veins and pulses of this maxima nosse suos,” because your majesty hath state cannot but be known here; which if your inany of yours, which are unknown unto you, I lordship should, then I would desire your lordship must leave a'l to the trial of farther time; and, to withdraw my name, and only signify that you thirsting after the happiness of kissing your gave some heads of direction of such a matter to royal hand, continue ever

one of whose style and pen you had some opinion. Your, etc.

The other collateral, that though your lordship Fr. Bacon. make no other use of it, yet it is a kind of portrai

ture of that which I think worthy to be advised

by your lordship to the king, to express himself BIR FRANCIS BACON, TO THE LORD Kinloss, according to those points which are therein con

ceived, and perhaps more compendious and signi

ficant than if I had set them down in articles. I MY LORD,

would have attended your lordship, but for som The present occasion awakeneth in me a remer- little physic I took. To morrow morning I will brance of the constant amity and mutual good wait on you. So I ever continue, etc. offices which passed between my brother deceased

Fr. Bacon. and your lordship, whereunto I was less strange, than in respect of the time I had reason to pretend; and withal I call to mind the great opinion my brother (who seldom failed in judgment of a per

SIR FRANCIS BACON TO SIR EDWARD COKE son) would often express me of your lordship's great wisdom and soundness, both in head and MR. ATTORNEY, heart, towards the service and affairs of our sove- I thought best, once for all, to let you know in reign lord the king. The one of those hath bred plainness, what I find of you, and what you shall in me an election, and the other a confidence, to find of me. You take to yourself a liberty to disaddress my good will and sincere affection to grace and disable my law, experience, and disyour good lordship, not doubting, in regard my cretion; what it pleases you I pray think of me course of life hath wrought me not to be alto- I am one that know both mine own wants and gether unseen in the matters of the kingdom, that other men's; and it may be, perchance, that mine I may be in some use, both in points of service to may mend when others stand at a stay: And, ihe king, and your lordship's particular: And, on surely, I may not in public place endure to be



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