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give me grace to perform, which is, that if any idol may be offered to her majesty, since it is mixed with my particular, to inform her majesty truly, which I must do, as long as I have a tongue to speak, or a pen to write, or a friend to use. And farther I remember not of my letter, except it were that I writ, I hoped your lordship would do me no wrong, which hope I do still continue. For if it please your lordship but to call to mind from whom I am descended, and by whom, next to God, her majesty, and your own virtue, your lordship is ascended; I know you will have a compunction of mind to do me any wrong. And, therefore, good my lord, when your lordship favoureth others before me, do not lay the separation of your love and favour upon myself. For I will give no cause, neither can I acknowledge any, where none is; but humbly pray your lordship to understand things as they are. Thus, which is to me unpleasant, though necessary, I sorry to write to your lordship in an argument commend your lordship to God's good preservation.

IT MAY PLEASE YOUR LORDSHIP, There hath nothing happened to me in the course of my business more contrary to my expectation, than your lordship's failing me, and crossing me now in the conclusion, when friends are best tried. But now I desire no more favour of your lordship, than I would do if I were a suitor in the Chancery; which is this only, that you would do me right. And I, for my part, though I have much to allege, yet, nevertheless, if I see her majesty settle her choice upon an able man, such a one as Mr. Serjeant Fleming, I will make no means to alter it. On the other side, if I perceive any insufficient, obscure,‡ idol man offered to her majesty, then I think myself double bound to use the best means I can for myself; which I TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE THE LORD KEEPER, humbly pray your lordship I may do with your favour, and that you will not disable me farther than is cause. And so I commend your lordship to God's préservation,

That beareth your lordship all humble respect,

From Gray's Inn, the 28th of July, 1595.

Endorsed, in lord keeper's hand,
Mr. Bacon wronging me.

KEEPER, &c.)


I thought it became me to write to your lordship, upon that which I have understood from my Lord of Essex, who vouchsafed, as I perceive, to deal with your lordship of himself to join with

Your lordship's, in all humble respect,
From Twickenham Park, this 19th of August, 1595.



I am sorry the opportunity permitteth me not to attend your lordship as I minded. But I hope your lordship will not be the less sparing in using the argument of my being studied and prepared in the queen's causes, for my furtherance upon belief that I had imparted to your lordship my travels, which some time next week I mean to do. Neither have I been able to confer with Mr. Attorney, as I desired, because he was removing from one building to another. And, besides, he alleged his note book was in the country, at and so we respited it to some time next week. I think he will rather do me good offices than otherremembereth by the verse. wise, except it be for the township your lordship Thus I commend

your honourable lordship to God's good preserva


Your lordship's most humble

at your honourable commandment, FR. BACON. From Gray's Inn, this 25th of September, 1595.

him in the concluding of my business, and findeth your lordship hath conceived offence, as well upon my manner when I saw your lordship at Temple last, as upon a letter, which I did write to your lordship some time before. Surely, my lord, for my behaviour, I am well assured, I omitted no point of duty or ceremony towards your lordship. TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE MY GOOD LORD, But I know too much of the court to beg a countenance in public place, where I make account I shall not receive it. And for my letter, the principal point of it was, that which I hope God will

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My not acquainting your lordship hath proceeded of my not knowing any thing, and of my

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I am now

not knowing of my absence at Byssam with my Lady Russel, upon some important cause of her son's. And as I have heard nothing, so I look for nothing, though my Lord of Essex sent me word, he would not write till his lordship had good news. But his lordship may go on in his affection, which, nevertheless, myself have desired him to limit. But I do assure your lordship, I can take no farther care for the matter. at Twickenham Park, where I think to stay for her majesty placing a solicitor, my travel shall not need in her causes, though, whensoever her majesty shall like to employ me in any particular, I shall be ready to do her willing service. This I write lest your lordship might think my silence came of any conceit towards your lordship, which, I do assure you, I have not. And this needed I not to do, if I thought not so: for my course will not give me any ordinary occasion to use your favour, whereof, nevertheless, I shall ever be glad. So I commend your good lordship to God's holy preservation.

Your lordship's humble, &c.

This 11th of October, 1595.


acquaintance. And because I conceive the gentleman to be every way sortable with the service, I am bold to commend him to your lordship's good favour. And even so, with remembrance of my most humble duty, I rest Your lordship's affectionate to do you humble service, FR. BACON.

Twickenham Park, July 3, 1595.


MY LORD,-In my last conference with your lordship, I did entreat you both to forbear hurting of Mr. Fr. Bacon's cause, and to suspend your judgment of his mind towards your lordship, till I had spoken with him. I went since that time to Twickenham Park to confer with him, and had signified the effect of our conference by letter ere this, if I had not hoped to have met with your lordship, and so to have delivered it by speech. I told your lordship when I last saw you, that this manner of his was only a natural freedom, and plainness, which he had used with me, and in my knowledge with some other of his best friends, than any want of reverence towards your lordship; and therefore I was more curious to look

TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE THE LORD KEEPER, into the moving cause of his style, than into the



I conceive the end already made, which will, I trust, be to me a beginning of good fortune, or at least of content. Her majesty, by God's grace, shall live and reign long, she is not running away, I may trust her. Or whether she look towards me or no, I remain the same, not altered in my intention. If I had been an ambitious man, it would have overthrown me, but minded as I am, Revertet benedictio mea in sinum meum. If I had made any reckoning of any thing to be stirred, I would have waited on your lordship, and will be at any time ready to wait on you to do you service. So I commend your good lordship to God's holy preservation.

Your lordship's most humble,

at your honourable commandment, FR. BACON. From Twickenham Park, this 14th of October. Endorsed, 14th October, 95.

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form of it; which now I find to be only a diffidence of your lordship's favour and love towards him, and no alienation of that dutiful mind which he hath borne towards your lordship. And therefore I am fully persuaded, that if your lordship would please to send for him, there would grow so good satisfaction, as hereafter he should enjoy your lordship's honourable favour in as great a measure as ever, and your lordship have the use of his service, who, I assure your lordship, is as strong in his kindness, as you find him in his jealousy. I will use no argument to persuade your lordship, that I should be glad of his being restored to your lordship's wonted favour; since your lordship both knoweth how much my credit is engaged in his fortune, and may easily judge how sorry I should be, that a gentleman whom I love so much, should lack the favour of a person whom I honour so much. And thus commending your lordship to God's best protection, I rest Your lordship's very assured,

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the suit of this other gentleman, Mr. Temple,* should have been moved in my name. For 1 should have been unwilling to have moved his majesty for more than one at once, though many times in his majesty's courts of justice, if we move once for our friends, we are allowed to move again for our fee.

industrious myself, and the more earnest in soli- | and to tell you truly, my meaning was not that citing mine own friends. Upon me the labour must lie of his establishment, and upon me the disgrace will light of his being refused. Therefore I pray your lordship, now account me not as a solicitor only of my friend's cause, but as a party interested in this; and employ all your lordship's favour to me, or strength for me, in procuring a short and speedy end. For though I know, it will never be carried any other way, yet I hold both my friend and myself disgraced by this protraction. More I would write, but that I know to so honourable and kind a friend, this which I have said is enough. And so I commend your lordship to God's best protection, resting, At your lordship's commandment,

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But indeed my purpose was, that you might have been pleased to have moved it as for myself. Nevertheless, since it is so far gone, and that the gentleman's friends are in some expectation of success, I leave it to your kind regard what is farther to be done, as willing to give satisfaction to those which have put me in trust, and loath on the other side to press above good manners. And so, with my loving commendations, I remain Yours, &c.



I have thought good by this my letter to renew this my ancient acquaintance which hath passed between us, signifying my good mind to you, to perform to you any good office, for your particular and my expectation, and a firm assurance of the like on your part towards me: wherein I confess you may have the start of me, because occasion hath given you the precedency in investing you with opportunity to use my name well, and by your loving testimony to further a good opinion of me in his majesty, and the court.

But I hope my experience of matters here will, with the light of his majesty's favour, enable me speedily both to requite your kindness, and to acquit and make good your testimony and report. So not doubting to see you here with his majesty, considering that it belongeth to your art to feel pulses, and I assure you Galen doth not set down greater variety of pulses than do vent here in men's hearts, I wish you all prosperity, and remain Yours, &c.

From my Chamber at Gray's Inn, &c., 1603.


SIR,—I perceive you have some time when you can be content to think of your friends; from whom, since you have borrowed yourself, you do well, not paying the principal, to send the interest at six months' day. The relation, which here I send you enclosed, carries the truth of that which is public: and though my little leisure might have required a briefer, yet the matter would have endured and asked a larger.

I have now, at last, taught that child to go, at the swaddling whereof you were. My work touching the Proficiency and Advancement of Learning I have put into two books; whereof the former, which you saw, I cannot but account as a page of the latter. I have now published them both; whereof I thought it a small adventure to send you a copy, who have more right to it than any man, except Bishop Andrews, who was my inquisitor.

The death of the late great judge concerned not me, because the other was not removed. I write this in answer to your good wishes, which I return not as flowers of Florence,‡ but as you mean them; whom I conceive place cannot alter, no more than time shall me, except it be for the better.



It is very true that his majesty most graciously, at my humble request, knighted the last Sunday my brother-in-law, a towardly young gentleman;† for which favour I think myself more bound to his majesty, than for the benefit of ten knights: * He had held a correspondence with Mr. Anthony Bacon, and was employed to find intelligence from Scotland to the Earl of Essex.-See Memoirs of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, from the year 1581 till her death, vol. i. p. 79. 109. 116.

To this Sir John Constable, Sir Francis Bacon dedicated the second edition of his Essays, published at London, 1612,

in octavo.


MADAM, You shall with right good will be made acquainted with any thing that concerneth

*Probably Mr. William Temple, who had been educated in King's College, Cambridge, then master of the free school at Lincoln, next successively secretary to Sir Philip Sidney, Secretary Davison, and the Earl of Essex, made provost of Dublin College in 1609, and at last knighted, and appointed one of the masters in chancery in Ireland. He died about 1626, at the age of 72.

Sir Tobie Matthew's Collection of Letters, p. 11. Mr. Matthew wrote an elegy on the Duke of Florence's felicity.

From an old copy of Sir Francis Bacon's Letters.

your daughters, if you bear a mind of love and concord, otherwise you must be content to be a stranger unto us; for I may not be so unwise as to suffer you to be an author or occasion of dissension between your daughters and their husbands, having seen so much misery of that kind in yourself.

And above all things I will turn back your kindness, in which you say, you will receive my wife if she be cast off; for it is much more likely we have occasion to receive you being cast off, if you remember what is passed. But it is time to make an end of those follies, and you shall at this time pardon me this one fault of writing to you; for I mean to do it no more till you use me and respect me as you ought. So, wishing you better than it seemeth you will draw upon yourself, I rest,



finely, somewhat after the manner of my late lord privy seal;* not all out so sharply, but as elegantly. Sir Thomas Lake, who is also new in that court, did very well, familiarly and counsellor-like. My lord of Pembroke, who is likewise a stranger there, did extraordinary well, and became himself well, and had an evident applause. I meant well also; and because my information was the ground; having spoken out of a few heads which I had gathered, for I seldom do more, I set down, as soon as I came home, cursorily, a frame of that I had said; though I persuade myself I spake it with more life. I have sent it to Mr. Murray sealed; if your majesty have so much idle time to look upon it, it may give some light of the day's work: but I most humbly pray your majesty to pardon the God preserve you ever. Your majesty's most humble subject, and devoted servant, FR. BACON.



SIR, In respect of my going down to my house in the country, I shall have miss of my papers, which I pray you therefore to return unto me. You are, I bear you witness, slothful, and you help me nothing: so as I am half in conceit that you affect not the argument, for myself, I know well, you love and affect. I can say no more to you, but non canimus surdis, respondent omnia sylva. If you be not of the lodgings chalked up, whereof I speak in my preface, I am but to pass by your door. But if I had you a fortnight at Gorhambury, I would make you tell me another tale; or else I would add a cogitation against libraries, and be revenged on you that way. I pray you send me some good news of Sir Thomas Smith, and commend me very kindly to him.

So I rest.



IT MAY PLEASE YOUR EXCELLENT MAJESTY, Mr. St. John his day is past, and well past. I hold it to be Janus Bifrons; it hath a good aspect to that which is past, and to the future; and doth both satisfy and prepare. All did well; my lord chief justice delivered the law for the benevolence strongly; I would he had done it timely. Mr. Chancellor of the Exchequer‡ spake

Rawley's Resuscitatio. + Ibid.

The chancellor of the exchequer here meant, was Sir Fulke Greville, who, being early initiated into the court of Queen Elizabeth, became a polite and fine gentleman; and, in the 18th of King James, was created Lord Brooke. He erected a noble monument for himself on the north side of Warwick church, which hath escaped the late desolation, with this well known inscription: "Fulke Greville, servant

April 29, 1615.

SIR FRANCIS BACON TO KING JAMES. IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY, It pleased your majesty to commit to my care and trust for Westminster Hall three particulars; that of the rege inconsulto, which concerneth Murray; that of the commendams, which con

to Queen Elizabeth, counsellor to King James, and friend to Sir Philip Sidney." Nor is he less remembered by the monument he has left in his writings and poems, chiefly composed in his youth, and in familiar exercises with the gentleman I have before mentioned.-Stephens.

*Late Earl of Northampton.

+ Sir Thomas Lake was about this time made one of the

principal secretaries of state, as he had been formerly Latin under Sir Francis Walsingham. But, in the year 1618, falling into the king's displeasure, and being engaged in the quarrels with his wife and daughter, the Lady Roos, with

secretary to Queen Elizabeth, and, before that time, bred

the Countess of Exeter, he was at first suspended from the execution of his place, and afterwards removed, and deeply censured and fined in the Star Chamber; although it is said the king then gave him, in open court, this public eulogy, that he was a minister of state fit to serve the greatest prince in Europe. Whilst this storm was hanging over his head, he writ many letters to the king and the Marquis of Buckingham, which I have seen, complaining of his misfortune, that his ruin was likely to proceed from the assistance he gave to

his nearest relations.-Stephens.

William, Earl of Pembroke, son to Henry Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, Lord President of the Council in the marches

of Wales, by Mary his wife, a lady in whom the muses and graces seemed to meet; whose very letters, in the judgment of one who saw many of them, declared her to be mistress of a pen not inferior to that of her brother, the admirable Sir Philip Sidney, and to whom he addressed his Arcadia. Nor

did this gentleman degenerate from their wit and spirit, as

his poems, his great patronage of learned men, and resolute opposition to the Spanish match, did, among other instances, fully prove. In the year 1616, he was made lord chamberlain, and chosen chancellor of the university of Oxford. He died suddenly on the 10th of April, 1630, having just com pleted fifty years. But, his only son deceasing, a child, before him, his estate and honours descended upon his younger brother, Philip, Earl of Montgomery, the lineal ancestor of the present noble and learned earl.—Stephens.

Sir David Dalrymple's Memorials and Letters, p. 46.

cerneth the Bishop of Lincoln; and that of the habeas corpus, which concerneth the Chancery.

These causes, although I gave them private additions, yet, they are merely, or at least chiefly, yours; and the die runneth upon your royal prerogative's diminution, or entire conservation. Of these it is my duty to give your majesty a short


For that of the rege inconsulto, I argued the same in the King's Bench on Thursday last. There argued on the other part Mr. George Crook, the judge's brother, an able bookman, and one that was manned forth with all the furniture that the bar could give him, I will not say the bench, and with the study of a long vacation. I was to answer, which hath a mixture of the sudden; and of myself I will not, nor cannot say any thing, but that my voice served me well for two hours and a half; and that those that understood nothing could tell me that I lost not one auditor that was present in the beginning, but stayed till the later end. If I should say more, there were too many witnesses, for I never saw the court more full, that might disprove me.

of fourteen several patents, part in Queen Elizabeth's time, some in your majesty's time, which depend upon the like question; but chiefly because this writ is a mean provided by the ancient law of England, to bring any case that may concern your majesty, in profit or power, from the ordinary benches, to be tried and judged before your Chancellor of England, by the ordinary and legal part of his power and your majesty knoweth your chancellor is ever a principal counsellor, and instrument of monarchy, of immediate dependence upon the king: and, therefore, like to be a safe and tender guardian of the royal rights.

For the case of the commendams, a matter likewise of great consequence, though nothing near the first, this day I was prepared to have argued it before all the judges; but, by reason of the sickness of the sergeant which was provided to argue on the other side, although I pressed to have had some other day appointed this term; yet it pleased divers of the judges to do me the honour, as to say it was not fit any should argue against me, upon so small time of warning, it is adjourned to the first Saturday next term.

For the matter of the habeas corpus, I perceive this common employment of my lord chancellor, and my lord chief justice, in these examinations, is such a vinculum, as they will not square while these matters are in hand, so that there is altum silentium of that matter. God ever preserve your majesty.

My Lord Coke was pleased to say, that it was a famous argument; but withal, he asked me a politic and tempting question: for, taking occasion by a notable precedent I had cited, where, upon the like writ brought, all the judges in England assembled, and that privately, lest they should seem to dispute the king's commandment, and, upon conference, with one mind agreed, that the writ must be obeyed. Upon this hold, my lord asked me, whether I would have all the rest of the judges called to it. I was not caught; but knowing well that the judges of the Common Pleas were most of all others interested in respect of the prothonotaries, I answered, civilly, that I could advise of it; but that I did not distrust the court; and, besides, I thought the case so clear, TO SIR GEORGE VILLIERS, ON SENDING HIS BILL, as it needed not.

Sir, I do perceive, that I have not only stopped, but almost turned the stream; and I see how things cool by this, that the judges that were wont to call so hotly upon the business, when they had heard, of themselves, took a fortnight day to advise what they will do, by which time the term will be near at an end; and I know they little expected to have the matter so beaten down with book-law, upon which my argument wholly went; so that every mean student was satisfied. Yet, because the times are as they are, I could wish, in all humbleness, that your majesty would remember and renew your former commandment which you gave my lord chief justice in Michaelmas term, which was, that after he had heard your attorney, which is now done, he should forbear further proceeding till he had spoke with your majesty.

It concerneth your majesty threefold. First, in this particular of Murray; next, in consequence

Your majesty's most humble
and bounden subject and servant,

January 27, 1615.


SIR-I send you the bill for his majesty's signature, reformed according to his majesty's amendments, both in the two places, which, I assure you, were both altered with great judgment, and in the third place, which his majesty termed a question only. But he is an idle body that thinks his majesty asks an idle question; and therefore his majesty's questions are to be answered by taking away the cause of the question, and not by replying.

For the name, his majesty's will is law in those things; and to speak truth, it is a well sounding and noble name, both here and abroad; and being your proper name, I will take it for a good sign that you shall give honour to your dignity, and not your dignity to you. Therefore I have made it Viscount Villiers: and for your barony, I will keep it for an earldom; for,

* Stephens's second Collection, p. 10.

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