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I write now only a letter of thanks to his majesty, for that I hear in my absence, he was pleased to express towards me, (though unwor thy,) a great deal of grace and good opinion before his lords; which is much to my comfort, whereunto I must ever impute your lordship as accessary. I have also written to him what signification I received from Secretary Naunton, of

his majesty's will and pleasure, lest in so great a business, there should be any mistaking.

The pain of my foot is gone, but the weakness doth a little remain, so as I hope, within a day or two, to have full use of it. I ever remain Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful servant,

October 2d, 1620.




I thought myself an unfortunate man, that I could not attend you at Theobald's. But I hear that your majesty hath done, as God Almighty useth to do, which is to turn evil into good, in that your majesty hath been pleased upon that occasion to express, before your lords, your gracious opinion and favour towards me, which I most humbly thank your majesty for, and will aspire to deserve.

Secretary Naunton this day brought me your pleasure in certain notes: that I should advise with the two chief justices, (old Parliament men,) and Sir Edward Coke, (who is also their senior in that school,) and Sir Randall Crewe, the last speaker, and such other judges as we should think fit, touching that which might in true policy, without packing or degenerate arts, prepare to a Parliament, in case your majesty should resolve of one to be heid, and withal he signified to me some particular points, which your majesty very wisely had deduced.

All your majesty's business is super cor meum, for I lay it to heart, but this is a business secundum cor meum; and yet, as I will do your majesty all possible good services in it, so I am far from seeking to impropriate to myself the thanks, but shall become omnibus omnia, (as St. Paul saith,) to attain your majesty's ends.

As soon as I have occasion, I will write to your majesty touching the same, and will have special care to communicate with my lords in some principal points, though all things are not at first fit for the whole table. I ever rest Your majesty's most bounden

October 2d, 1620.

and most devoted servant, FR. VERULAM, Canc.

Your majesty needeth not to doubt but I shall carry the business with that secrecy which appertaineth.


MY LORD:-I have acquainted his majesty with

your letter, and labour in his service, for which he commandeth me to give you thanks, and to let your lordship know, that he liketh exceeding well your method held by the judges, which could not be amended, and concurreth with you in your opinions. First, touching the proclamation, that it should be monitory and persuasive rather than compulsive: and, secondly, that the point concerning the persons, who should be admitted and who avoided, is fit to be kept from the knowledge of the council table, and to be carried with all secrecy.

For the business of Ireland, his majesty had heard of it before, and gave commandment to the master of the wards, that it should be hastened and set in hand with all speed, which his majesty doubteth not but is done by this time. Touch

ing your advice for a treasurer, his majesty is very mindful of it, and will let you know as much at his return, when he will speak further with your lordship of it: and so I rest Yours, &c.

Royston, Oct. 9th, 1620.




I have showed your letter and the proclamation to his majesty, who expecting only, according as his meaning was, directions therein for the well ordering of the elections of the burgesses, findeth a great deal more, containing matter of state, and the reasons of calling the Parliament; whereof neither the people are capable, nor is it fit for his majesty to open unto them, but to reserve to the time of their assembling, according to the course of his predecessors, which his majesty intendeth to follow. The declaring whereof, in the proclamation, would cut off the ground of his majesty's and your lordship's speech at the proper time; his majesty hath, therefore, extracted somewhat of the latter part of the draught you have sent, purposing to take a few days' space to set down himself what he thinketh fit, and to make it ready against his return hither, or to Theobald's at the furthest, and then to communicate it to your lordship, and the rest of the lords. And so I rest Yours, &c.

Royston, Oct. 19th, 1620.




This might have been made more manifest as to the presence and acts of the prince in days of sitting, if, through the negligence of officers, the journal books of the Upper House of Parliament, before the reign of King Henry VIII., were not all missing.

We thought it our duty to impart to his majesty, by your lordship, one particular of Parliament business, which we hold it our part to relate, though it be too high for us to give our opinion of it. All which we thought it appertained to our care The officers that make out the writs of Parlia- to look through, and faithfully to represent to his ment, addressed themselves to me, the chancellor, majesty. And having agreed secrecy amongst to know whether they should make such a writ ourselves, and enjoined it to the inferior offiof summons to the prince, giving me to under-cers, we humbly desire to know his majesty's stand that there were some precedents of it, which pleasure, whether he will silence the question I, the chancellor, communicated with the rest of altogether, or make use of it for his service, or the committees for Parliament business, in whose refer it to his council, or what other course he assistance I find so much strength, that I am not will be pleased to take, according to his great willing to do any thing without them. Where- wisdom and good pleasure. upon, we, (according to his majesty's prudent and constant rule, for observing in what reigns the precedents were,) upon diligent search, have

found as followeth:

That King Edward I. called his eldest son Prince Edward, to his Parliament, in the thirtieth year of his reign, the prince then being about the age of eighteen years; and to another Parliament, in the four-and-thirtieth year of his reign.

Edward III. called the Black Prince, his eldest son, to his Parliament in the five-and-twentieth, eight-and twentieth, and two-and-fortieth years of his reign.

Henry IV. called Prince Henry to his Parliaments in the first, third, eighth, and eleventh years of his reign, the prince being under age in the three first Parliaments; and we find in particular, that the eighth year, the prince sat in the Upper House in days of business, and recommended a bill to the lords.

King Edward IV. called Prince Edward, his son, to his Parliament, in anno 22 of his reign, being within age.

King Henry VII. called Prince Arthur to his Parliament in the seventh year of his reign, being within age.

Of King Edward VI. we find nothing; his years were tender, and he was not created Prince of Wales.

And for Prince Henry, he was created Prince of Wales during the last Parliament at which he lived. We have thought it our duty to relate to his majesty what we have found; and, withal, that the writs of summons to the prince are not much differing from the writs to the peers; for they run in fide et ligeancia, and sometimes in fide et homagio in quibus nobis tenemini, and after consilium nobis impensuri circa ardua regni. Whereby it should seem that princes came to Parliament, not only in the days of solemnity, when they came without writ, but also on the days of sitting. And, if it should be so, then the prince may vote, and likewise may be of a committee of the Upper House, and, consequently, may be of a conference with the Lower House, and the like.

This we have despatched the sooner, because the writs of summons must have forty days distance from the first days of the Parliament. And for the other parts of our accounts, his majesty shall hear from us, by the grace of God, within few days. Evermore praying for his majesty's prosperity, and wishing your lordship much happiness,

Your lordship's to be commanded,

York House, Nov. 21st, 1620.




We have, these two days past, made report to the board of our Parliament committee, upon relation whereof, for some things we provide, for some things we arm.

The king, by my lord treasurer's signification, did wisely put it upon a consult, whether the patents which we mentioned in our joint letters, were at this time to be removed, by act of counci! before Parliament. I opined, (but yet somewhat like Ovid's mistress that strove, but yet as one that would be overcome) that yes. My reasons: That men would go better and faster to the main errand.

That these things should not be staged, nor talked of, and so the less fuel to the fire.

That in things of this nature, wherein the council had done the like in former particulars (which I enumerated) before Parliament, near Parliament, during Parliament, the council were to keep their wonted sentinel, as if they thought not of a Parliament, to destroy in other patents, as concealments.

The reasons on the other side were,

That it would be thought but a humouring of the Parliament, (being now in the calends of a Q

come up again.

Parliament,) and that after Parliament they would majesty thinketh it fit that some extract be made out of it, which needeth to be but very short, as That offered graces, by reason and experience, he will show you at his return. lose their thanks.

They that are to be suffered to play upon something, since they can do nothing of themselves.

That the choosing out of some things, when perhaps their minds might be more upon other things, would do no great effect.

Yours, &c.


Theobalds, Jan. 19, 1620.

That former patents, taken away by act of TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE HIS VERY GOOD council, were upon the complaints of particular persons; whereas now it should seem to be done tanquam ex officio.


To this I yielded, though I confess I am yet a little doubtful to the point of suavibus modis. But it is true that the speech of these, though in the Lower House, may be contemned; and if way be given to them (as I writ to your lordship of some of them in my last) it will sort to your honour. For other things, the lords have put them in very good way, of which I will give express account when I see his majesty, as also of other observations concerning Parliament. For if his majesty said well that when he knew the men and the elections, he would guess at the success; the prognostics are not so good as I expected, occasioned by the late occurrents abroad, and the general licentious speaking of state matters, of which I wrote in my last. God ever keep you. Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful servant, FR. VERULAM, Canc.

Dec. 16, 1620



As soon as his majesty's convenience would permit, I have acquainted him with the draught of the proclamation your lordship sent me by his majesty's direction. His majesty liketh it in every point so well, both in matter and form, that he findeth no cause to alter a word in it, and would have your lordship acquaint the lords of the council with it, (though he assureth himself, no man can find any thing in it to be changed,) and to take order for the speedy setting it forth. And so I rest

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I humbly pray your lordships all to make a favourable and true construction of my absence. It is no feigning or fainting, but sickness both of my heart and of my back, though joined with that comfort of mind that persuadeth me that I am not far from Heaven, whereof I feel the first-fruits.

And because, whether I live or die I would be glad to preserve my honour and fame, so far as I am worthy; hearing that some complaints of base bribery are coming before your lordships, my requests unto your lordships are:

First, That you will maintain me in your good opinion, without prejudice, until my cause be


Secondly, That in regard I have sequestered my mind at this time in great part from worldly matters, thinking of my account and answers in a higher court, your lordships will give me convenient time, according to the course of other courts, to advise with my counsel, and to make my answer; wherein, nevertheless, my counsel's part will be the least: for I shall not, by the grace of God, trick up an innocency with cavillations, but plainly and ingenuously (as your lordships know my manner is) declare what I know or remember.

Thirdly, That according to the course of justice, I may be allowed to except to the witnesses brought against me; and to move questions to your lordships for their cross-examinations; and likewise to produce my own witnesses for the discovery of the truth.

And lastly, That if there be any more petitions of like nature, that your lordships would be pleased not to take any prejudice or apprehension of any number or muster of them, especially against a judge, that makes two thousand orders and decrees in a year, (not to speak of the courses that have been taken for hunting out complaints against me,) but that I may answer them according to the rules of justice, severally and respectively.

These requests, I hope, appear to your lordships no other than just. And so thinking myself happy to have so noble peers and reverend prelates to discern of my cause; and desiring no privilege of greatness for subterfuge of guiltiness;

but meaning, as I said, to deal fairly and plainly with your lordships, and to put myself upon your honours and favours; I pray God to bless your counsels and persons. And rest Your lordships' humble servant, FR. ST. ALBAN, Canc.

March 19th, 1620.


IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY, I think myself infinitely bounden to your majesty, for vouchsafing me access to your royal person, and to touch the hem of your garment. I see your majesty imitateth him that would not break the broken reed, nor quench the smoking flax; and as your majesty imitateth Christ, so I hope assuredly my lords of the Upper House will imitate you, and unto your majesty's grace and mercy, and next to my lords, I recommend myself. It is not possible, nor it were not safe, for me to answer particulars till I have my charge; which, when I shall receive, I shall, without fig-leaves or disguise, excuse what I can excuse, extenuate what I can extenuate, and ingenuously confess what I can neither clear nor extenuate. And if there be any thing which I might conceive to be no offence, and yet is, I desire to be informed, that I may be twice penitent, once for my fault, and the second time for my error, and so submitting all that I am to your majesty's grace, I rest.

April 20, 1621.



It hath pleased God for these three days past, to visit me with such extremity of headach upon the hinder part of my head, fixed in one place, that I thought verily it had been some imposthumation; and then the little physic that I have told me that either it must grow to a congelation, and so to a lethargy, or to break, and so to a mortal fever or sudden death; which apprehension, and chiefly the anguish of the pain, made me unable to think of any business. But now that the pain itself is assuaged to be tolerable, I resume the care of my business, and therein prostrate myself again, by my letter, at your majesty's feet.

Your majesty can bear me witness, that at my last so comfortable access, I did not so much as move your majesty by your absolute power of pardon, or otherwise, to take my cause into your hands, and to interpose between the sentence of the House. And according to my desire, your majesty left it to the sentence of the House by my lord treasurer's report.

But now, if not per omnipotentiam, as the divines say, but per potestatem suaviter disponentem, your majesty will graciously save me from a sentence,

with the good liking of the House, and that cup may pass from me, it is the utmost of my desires. This I move with the more belief, because I assure myself, that if it be reformation that is sought, the very taking away of the seal, upon my general submission, will be as much in example, for these four hundred years, as any further severity.

The means of this I most humbly leave unto your majesty, but surely I should conceive, that your majesty opening yourself in this kind to the lords, counsellors, and a motion of the prince, after my submission, and my lord marquis using his interest with his friends in the House, may affect the sparing of the sentence; I making my humble suit to the House for that purpose, joined with the delivery up of the seal into your majesty's hands. This is my last suit that I shall make to your majesty in this business, prostrating myself at your mercy-seat, after fifteen years' service, wherein I have served your majesty in my poor endeavours, with an entire heart. And, as I presume to say unto your majesty, am still a virgin, for matters that concern your person or crown, and now only craving that after eight steps of honour, I be not precipitated altogether.

But, because he that hath taken bribes is apt to give bribes, I will go further, and present your majesty with bribe; for if your majesty give me peace and leisure, and God give me life, I will present you with a good history of England, and a better digest of your laws. And so concluding with my prayers, I rest

Clay in your majesty's hands,

May 2, 1621.




When I called to mind how infinitely I am bound to your highness, that stretched forth your arm to save me from a sentence, that took hold of me to keep me from being plunged deep in a sentence, that hath kept me alive in your gracious memory and mention since the sentence, pitying me, as I hope I deserve, and valuing me far above that I can deserve, I find my words almost as barren as my fortunes, to express unto your highness the thankfulness I owe. Therefore, I can but resort to prayers to Almighty God to clothe you with his most rich and precious blessings, and likewise joyfully to meditate upon those he hath conferred upon you already; in that he hath made you to the king your father a principal part of his safety, contentment, and continuance; in yourself so judicious, accomplished. and graceful in all your doings, with more virtues in the buds, which are the sweetest that have been known in a young prince of long time; with


IT MAY PLEASE YOUR most excellent Majesty,
I perceive, by my noble and constant friend,
the marquis, that your majesty hath a gracious
inclination towards me, and taketh care of me,
for fifteen years the subject of your favour, now
of your compassion, for which I most humbly
thank your majesty. This same nova creatura
is the work of God's pardon and the king's, and
since I have the inward seal of the one, I hope
well of the other.

the realm so well beloved, so much honoured, as it is men's daily observation how nearly you approach to his majesty's perfections; how every day you exceed yourself; how, compared with other princes, which God hath ordained to be young at this time, you shine amongst them; they rather setting off your religious, moral, and natural excellences, than matching them, though you be but a second person. These and such like meditations I feed upon, since I can yield your highness no other retribution. And for myself, I hope by the assistance of God above, of whose grace and favour I have had extraordinary Utar, saith Seneca to his master, magnis exsigns and effects during my afflictions, to lead | emplis; nec meæ fortunæ, sed tuæ. Demosthenes such a life in the last acts thereof, as, whether his was banished for bribery of the highest nature, majesty employ me, or whether I live to myself, I shall make the world say that I was not unworthy such a patron.

I am much beholden to your highness's worthy servant, Sir John Vaughan, the sweet air and loving usage of whose house hath already much revived my languishing spirits: I beseech your highness, thank him for me. God ever preserve and prosper your highness.

Your highness's most humble and

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I humbly thank your majesty for my liberty,
without which timely grant, any farther grace
would have come too late. But your majesty,
that did shed tears in the beginning of my trouble,
will, I hope, shed the dew of your grace and
goodness upon me in the end. Let me live to
serve you, else life is but the shadow of death to
Your majesty's most devoted servant,

June 4, 1621.



yet was recalled with honour; Marcus Livius
was condemned for exactions, yet afterwards
made consul and censor. Seneca banished for
divers corruptions, yet was afterwards restored,
and an instrument of that memorable Quinquen-
nium Neronis. Many more. This, if it please
your majesty, I do not say for appetite of employ-
ment, but for hope that if I do by myself as is fit,
your majesty will never suffer me to die in want
or dishonour. I do now feed myself upon remem-
brance, how, when your majesty used to go a pro-
gress, what loving and confident charges you
were wont to give me touching your business.
For, as Aristotle saith, young men may be happy
by hope, so why should not old men, and seques-
tered men, by remembrance. God ever prosper
and preserve your majesty.

Your majesty's most bounden
and devoted servant,

July 16, 1621.


I have delivered your lordship's letter of thanks to his majesty, who accepted it very graciously, and will be glad to see your book, which you promised to send very shortly, as soon as it cometh. I send your lordship his majesty's warrant for your pardon, as you desired it; but am sorry, that in the current of my service to your lordship there should be the least stop of any thing; yet having moved his majesty, upon your servant's I heartily thank your lordship for getting me intimation, for your stay in London till Christmas, out of prison; and now my body is out, my I found his majesty, who hath in all other occaind, nevertheless, will be still in prison, till I sions, and even in that particular already, to the may be on my feet to do his majesty and your dislike of many of your own friends, showed with fordship faithful service. Wherein your lordship, great forwardness his gracious favour towards by the grace of God, shall find that my adversity you, very unwilling to grant you any longer liberty hath neither spent, nor pent my spirits. God to abide there; which, being but a small advantage to you, would be a great and general distaste, as you cannot but easily conceive, to the whole And I am the more sorry for this refusal of his majesty's falling in a time when I was a suitor to your lordship in a particular concerning

prosper you.

Your lordship's most obliged friend
and faithful servant,

June 4, 1621.


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