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incompetent for sciences of nature; and thereby | lordship, whereof the prince hath demanded of me

to make philosophy and sciences both more true and more active.

This tending to enlarge the bounds of reason, and to endow man's estate with new value, was no improper oblation to your majesty, who of men is the greatest master of reason and author of beneficence.


what account is given. And because I cannot
inform his highness of any proceeding therein, I
desire your lordship to use all expedition that
may be, in making your answer to me, that I may
give his highness some satisfaction, who is very
desirous thereof. And so I rest

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant,

Touching the Register of Wills.

There be two of your council, and one other bishop of this land, that know I have been about Royston, 14th, of October, 1620. some such work near thirty years; so as I made no haste. And the reason why I have published it now, specially being unperfect, is, to speak plainly, because I number my days, and would have it saved. There is another reason of my so doing, which is to try whether I can get help in one intended part of this work, namely, the compiling of a natural and experimental nistory, which must be the main foundation of a true and active philosophy.



I desire your lordship to continue your favour to Sir Thomas Gerrard in the business concerning him, wherein I signified his majesty's pleasure to your lordship. And one favour more I am to entreat of your lordship in his behalf, that you will be pleased to speak to one of the assistants of the Chancellor of the Duchy, in whose court he hath a cause depending, as he will more fully inform your lordship himself, to see that he may have a fair proceeding according to justice: for which I will ever rest

This work is but a new body of clay, whereunto
your majesty, by your countenance and protection,
may breathe life. And to tell your majesty truly
what I think, I account your favour may be to this
work as much as a hundred years' time: for I am
persuaded the work will gain upon men's minds
in ages, but your gracing it may make it take
hold more swiftly; which I would be very glad
of, it being a work meant, not for praise or glory,
but for practice and the good of men. One thing,
I confess, I am ambitious of, with hope, which is, Royston, 15th of October, 1620.
that after these beginnings, and the wheel once
set on going, men shall seek more truth out of
Christian pens than hitherto they have done out
of heathen. I say with hope, because I hear my
former book of the Advancement of Learning, is
well tasted in the universities here, and the Eng-
lish colleges abroad: and this is the same argu-
ment sunk deeper.

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant,

And so I ever humbly rest in prayers, and all other duties,

Your majesty's most bounden

and devoted servant,

York House, this 12th of October, 1620.


There is a business in your lordship's hands,
with which Sir Robert Lloyd did acquaint your

* Dr. Lancelot Andrews, Bishop of Winchester.

+ Mr. Chamberlain, in a letter to Sir Dudley Carleton, ambassador at Holland, dated at London, October 28th, 1620, mentions, that Mr. Henry Cuffe, who had been secretary to

Robert, Earl of Essex, and executed for being concerned in his treasons, having long since perused this work, gave this censure, that "a fool could not have written such a work, and a wise man would not." And, in another letter, dated February 3, 1620-1, Mr. Chamberlain takes notice, that the king could not forbear, sometimes, in reading that book, to say, that "it was like the peace of God, that passeth all understanding."

Harl. MSS. vol. 7000.



Your lordship desiring to understand what cometh of the business, after which the prince hearkeneth, I was in doubt which of the two businesses you meant; that of the Duchy, or that of the Prerogative Court for wills; for both are recommended from the prince. But be it one, or be it the other, no time hath been lost in either; for Mr. Secretary Naunton and I have entered into both. For the duchy, we have already stayed all proceedings to the king's disservice for those manors, which are not already passed under seal. For that which is passed, we have heard the attorney with none or little satisfaction hitherto. The chancellort is not yet come, though sent for. For the other, we have heard Sir John Bennet,‡ and given him leave to acquaint my Lord of Canterbury; and have required the solicitors to come well prepared for the king. So that in neither we can certify yet, and to trouble your

*Sir Henry Yelverton.

Sir Humphrey May, made Chancellor of the Duchy, March 9, 1617.

Judge of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. In 1621, he was fined £20,000 for bribery, corruption, and exaction in that office. He died in 1627.

Sir Thomas Coventry.

lordship, while business is but in passage, were the singular comfort which I received by his matime lost. I ever rest

Your lordship's most obliged

friend and faithful servant,

October 16, 1620.


jesty's letter of his own hand, touching my book. And I must also give your lordship of my best thanks for your letter so kindly and affectionately written.

I did even now receive your lordship's letter touching the proclamation, and do approve his majesty's judgment and foresight about mine own.

TO THE KING, THanking his MajesTY FOR HIS Neither would I have thought of inserting matter




I cannot express how much comfort I received by your last letter of your own royal hand. see your majesty is a star that hath benevolent aspect and gracious influence upon all things that tend to a general good.

Daphni, quid antiquos signorum suspicis artus?
Ecce Dionæi processit Cæsaris astrum;
Astrum, quo segetes gauderent frugibus, et quo
Duceret apricis in collibus uva colorem. †

This work, which is for the bettering of men's bread and wine, which are the characters of temporal blessings and sacraments of eternal, I hope, by God's holy providence, will be ripened by Cæsar's star.

Your majesty shall not only do to myself a singular favour, but to your business a material help, if you will be graciously pleased to open yourself to me in those things wherein you may be unsatisfied. For, though this work, as by position and principal, doth disclaim to be tried by any thing but by experience, and the results of experience in a true way, yet the sharpness and profoundness of your majesty's judgment ought to be an exception to this general rule; and your questions, observations, and admonishments may do infinite good.

This comfortable beginning makes me hope farther that your majesty will be aiding to me in setting men on work for the collecting of a natural and experimental history, which is basis totius negotii, a thing which I assure myself will be from time to time an excellent recreation unto you; I say to that admirable spirit of yours that delighteth in light: and I hope well, that, even in your times, many noble inventions may be discovered for man's use. For who can tell, now this mine of truth is opened, how the veins go; and what lieth higher, and what lieth lower? But let me trouble your majesty no farther at this time. God ever preserve and prosper your majesty.

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of state for the vulgar, but that nowadays there is no vulgar, but all statesmen. But, as his majesty doth excellently consider, the time of it is not yet proper. I ever rest

Your lordship's most obliged friend
and faithful servant,

October 19, 1620.


In answer to his majesty's directions touching the proclamation for a Parliament.


AFTER my very hearty commendations I have acquainted his majesty with your letter, who commanded me to tell you that he had been thinking upon the same point whereof you write three or four days ago, being so far from making any question of it that he every day expected when a writ should come down. For at the creation of Prince Henry, the lords of the council and judges assured his majesty of as much as the precedents mentioned in your letter speak of. And so I rest your lordship's

Very loving friend at command,
Newmarket, the 24th of November, 1620

Showing his majesty is satisfied with precedents, touching the prince's summons to Parliament.


Your lordship may find, that in the number of patents which we have represented to his majesty, as like to be stirred in the Lower House of Parliament, we have set down three, which may concern some of your lordship's special friends, which I account as my own friends; and so showed myself when they were in suit. The one, that to Sir Giles Mompesson, touching the inns; the second, to Mr. Christopher Villiers and Mr. Maule, touching the recognisances for ale-houses; the third, to Mr. Lieutenant of the Tower, touching the cask These in duty could not be omitted, for that, spe

Harl. MSS. vol. 7000.

cially the two first of them, are more rumoured, both by the vulgar and by the gentlemen, yea, and by the judges themselves, than any other patents at this day. Therefore, I thought it appertained to the singular love and affection which I bear you upon so many obligations, to wish and advise that your lordship, whom God hath made in all things so fit to be beloved, would put off the envy of these things, which, I think, in themselves, bear no great fruit, and rather take the thanks for ceasing them, than the note for maintaining them. But, howsoever, let me know your mind, and your lordship shall find I will go your way. I cannot express how much comfort I take in the choice which his majesty hath made of my lord chief justice to be lord treasurer; not for his sake, nor for my sake, but for the king's sake, hoping that now a number of counsels, which I have given for the establishment of his majesty's estate, and have lain dead and buried deeper than this snow, may now spring up, and bear fruit; the rather, for that I persuade myself he and I shall run one way. And yet I know well, that in this doubling world cor una et via una is rare in one man, but more rare between two. And, therefore, if it please his majesty, according to his prudent custom in such cases, to cast out, now at his coming down, some words, which may the better knit us in conjunction to do him service, I suppose it will be to no idle purpose.


And as an old truant in the commission of the treasury, let me put his majesty in remembrance of three things now upon his entrance, which he is presently to go in hand with: the first, to make Ireland to bear the charge thereof: the second, to bring all accounts to one purse in the exchequer the third, by all possible means to endeavour the taking off the anticipations. There be a thousand things more, but these being his majesty's last commands to the commissioners of the treasury, with such as in his majesty's princely judgment shall occur, will do well to season his place. Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful servant, FR. VERULAM, Canc.

November 29, 1620.

As soon as I had written this letter I received your lordship's letter, touching my lord chief justice, which redoubled my comfort, to see how his majesty's thoughts and mine, his poor servant's, and your lordship's, meet.

I send enclosed names for the speaker; and if his majesty, or your lordship, demand our opinion, which of them, my lord chief justice will tell you. It were well it were despatched; for else I will not dine with the speaker; for his drink will not he laid in time enough.

I beseech your lordship, care may be taken that our general letter may be kept secret, whereof my lord chief justice will tell you the reason.



I was so full of cold, as I could not attend his majesty to-day. Yesterday I despatched the proclamation with the council. There was a motion to have sharpened it; but better none, than over sharp at first. I moved the council also for supplying the committee for drawing of bills and some other matters, in regard of my Lord Hobart's sickness, who I think will hardly escape: which, though it be happiness for him, yet it is loss for us.

Meanwhile, as I propounded to the king, which he allowed well, I have broken the main of the Parliament into questions and parts, which I send. It may be, it is an over diligence; but still methinks there is a middle thing between art and chance: I think they call it providence, or some such thing, which good servants owe to their sovereign, specially in cases of importance and straits of occasions. And those huffing elections, and general license of speech ought to make us the better provided. The way will be, if his majesty be pleased, to peruse these questions advisedly, and give me leave to wait on him; and then refer it to some few of the council, a little to advise upon it. I ever rest Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful servant, FR. VERULAM, Canc

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I have been entreated to recommend unto your lordship the distressed case of the Lady Martin, widow of Sir Richard Martin, deceased, who hath a cause to be heard before your lordship in the Chancery, at your first sitting in the next term, between her and one Archer, and others, upon an ancient statute, due long since unto her husband; which cause, I am informed, hath received three verdicts for her in the common law, a decree in

*Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas.
+ Harl. MSS. vol. 7000.

the Exchequer Chamber, and a dismission before your lordship: which I was the more willing to do, because I have seen a letter of his majesty to the said Sir Richard Martin, acknowledging the good service that he did him in this kingdom, at the time of his majesty's being in Scotland. And therefore I desire your lordship, that you would give her a full and fair hearing of her cause, and a speedy despatch thereof, her poverty being such, that having nothing to live on but her husband's debts, if her suit long depend, she shall be enforced to lose her cause for want of means to follow it: wherein I will acknowledge your lordship's favour, and rest

Your lordship's faithful

friend and servant,

Whitehall, the 13th of January, 1620.



His majesty hath commanded me to signify his pleasure unto you, that you give present order to the clerk of the crown to draw a bill to be signed by his majesty for Robert Heath, late recorder of London, to be his majesty's solicitorgeneral. So I rest your lordship's

friend and servant,

Theobalds, 20th of January, 1620.



I thank God I number days, both in thankfulness to him, and in warning to myself. I should likewise number your majesty's benefits, which, as to take them in all kinds, they are without number; so even in this kind of steps and degrees of advancement, they are in greater number than scarcely any other of your subjects can say. For this is now the eighth time that your majesty hath raised me.

jesty could raise me no higher, it was your grace
to illustrate me with beams of honour, first mak-
ing me Baron Verulam, and now Viscount St.
Alban. So, this is the eighth rise or reach, a
diapason in music, even a good number, and an
accord for a close.
And so I may without super-

stition be buried in St. Alban's habit or vest-

Besides the number, the obligation is increased by three notes or marks: first, that they proceed from such a king; for honours from some kings are but great chancels, or counters, set high; but from your majesty, they are indeed dignities by the co-operation of your grace. Secondly, in respect of the continuance of your majesty's favour, which proceedeth as the divine favour, from grace to grace. And, thirdly, these splendours of honour are like your freest patents, absque aliquid inde reddendo. Offices have burdens of cares and labours; but honours have no burden but thankfulness, which doth rather raise men's spirits than accable them, or press them down.

Then I must say, quid retribuam? I have nothing of mine own. That that God hath given me I shall present unto your majesty; which is care and diligence, and assiduous endeavour, and that which is the chief, cor unum et viam unam; hoping that your majesty will do, as your superior doth; that is, finding my heart upright, you will bear with my other imperfections. lastly, your majesty shall have the best of my time, which I assure myself I shall conclude in your favour, and survive in your remembrance. And that is my prayer for myself; the rest shall be in prayers for your majesty.



I have showed your letter of thanks to his mafor so small a favour; which he holdeth too little jesty, who saith there are too many thanks in it to encourage so well a deserving servant. For You formed me of the learned council extraor-myself, I shall ever rejoice at the manifestation dinary, without patent or fee, a kind of indivi- tribute all that is in me, to the increasing of his of his majesty's favour toward you, and will con. duum vagum. You established me, and brought me into ordinary; soon after you placed me soli- good opinion; ever resting citor, where I served seven years: then your majesty made me your attorney, or procurator general; then privy counsellor, while I was attorney; a kind of miracle of your favour, that had not been in many ages: thence keeper of your seal; and because that was a kind of planet, and not fixed, chancellor: and when your ma

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Your lordship's faithful friend and servant,


MY VERY good Lord,

With due thanks for your last visit, this day is a play-day for me. But I will wait on your lord ship, if it be necessary.

Harl. MSS. vol. 7000.


I do hear from divers of judgment, that to-mortow's conference* is like to pass in a calm, as to the referees. Sir Lionel Cranfield, who hath been formerly the trumpet, said yesterday, that he did now incline to Sir John Walter's opinion and motion, not to have the referrees meddled with otherwise, than to discount it from the king; and so not to look back, but to the future. And I do hear almost all men of judgment in the House wish now that way. I woo nobody: I do but listen, and I have doubt only of Sir Edward Coke, who, I wish, had some round caveat given him from the king; for your lordship hath no great power with him: but I think a word from the king mates him.

If things be carried fair by the committees of the Lower House, I am in some doubt, whether there will be occasion for your lordship to speak to-morrow; though, I confess, I incline to wish you did, chiefly because you are fortunate in that kind; and, to be plain also, for our better countenance, when your lordship, according to your noble proposition, shall show more regard of the fraternity you have with great counsellors, than of the interest of your natural brother.

Always, good my lord, let us think of times out of Parliament, as well as the present time in Parliament; and let us not all be put es pourpoint. Fair and moderate courses are ever best in causes of estate; the rather, because I wish this Parliament, by the sweet and united passages thereof, may increase the king's reputation with foreigners, who may make a far other judgment than we mean, of a beginning to question great counsellors and officers of the crown, by courts or assemblies of estates. But the reflection upon my particular in this makes me more sparing than perhaps, as a counsellor, I ought to be.

God ever preserve and prosper you.
Your lordship's true servant all and ever,
FR. ST. ALBAN, Canc.
March 7, the day I received the seal, 1620.



I received your majesty's letter about midnight; and because it was stronger than the ancient

* On Monday the 5th of March, 1620-21, the House of Lords received a message from the Commons, desiring a conference touching certain grievances, principally concerning Sir Giles Mompesson.-See Journal of the House of Lords.

Those to whom the king referred the petitions, to consider whether they were fit to be granted or not. This explanation of the word referees, I owe to a note in a MS. letter, written to the celebrated Mr. Joseph Mead, of Christ's College, Cambridge.

The date of this letter is determined to be the 8th of March, 1620-1, from the circumstance of its being mentioned to have been written on that Thursday, on which the House of Lords adjourned to the Saturday following. It appears from the journal of that House, that, on the 8th of March,

summons of the exchequer, which is, sicut teipsum et omnia tua diligis; whereas this was sicut me diligis; I used all possible care to effect your majesty's good will and pleasure.

I sent early to the prince, and to my lord treasurer; and we attended his highness soon after seven of the clock, at Whitehall, to avoid farther note. We agreed, that if the message came, we would put the lords into this way, that the answer should be that we understood they came prepared both with examination and precedent; and we likewise desired to be alike prepared, that the conference might be with more fruit.

I did farther speak with my Lord of Canterbury, when I came to the House, not letting him know any part of the business, that he would go on with a motion which he had told me of the day before, that the Lords' House might not sit Wednesday and Friday, because they were convocation-days; and so was the former custom of Parliament.

As good luck was, the house read two bills, and had no other business at all; whereupon my Lord of Canterbury made his motion; and I adjourned the House till Saturday. It was no sooner done, but came the message from the Lower House. But the consummatum est was past, though I perceived a great willingness in many of the lords to have recalled it, if it might have been. So, with my best prayers for your majesty's preservation, I rest

Your majesty's most bounden,

and most devoted servant, FR. ST. ALBAN, Canc. Thursday, at eleven of our forenoon, March 8, 1620.


Your lordship spoke of purgatory. I am now in it; but my mind is in a calm; for my fortune is not my felicity. I know I have clean hands, and a clean heart; and I hope a clean house

1620, the said House, at which were present the Prince of Wales and Marquis of Buckingham, was adjourned to Saturday the 10th, on which day a conference of both Houses was

held relating to the complaint of that of the Commons against Sir Giles Mompesson. Of this conference the lord chancellor made report on Monday, March 12, to the House of Lords, remarking, that "the inducement to this conference was to clear the king's honour, touching grants to Sir Giles, and the passages in procuring the same." After this report of the conference, the lord chamberlain, William, Earl of Pembroke, complained to the House, that two great lords, meaning the lord chancellor and the lord treasurer, the Lord Viscount Mandeville, had, in that conference, spake in their own defence, not being allowed to do so when the committees mere named. Upon which both the lords acknowledged their error, and begged pardon of the House.

This letter seems to have been written soon after Lord St. Alban began to be accused of abuses in his office of chancellor.

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