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choose rather to have a letter of no news; for | to take tobacco, and to speak neither Scottish nor news imports alteration; but letters of kindness and respect bring that which, though it be no news amongst friends, is more welcome.

I am exceedingly glad to hear, that this journey of his majesty, which I never esteemed more than a long progress, save that it had reason of state joined with pleasure, doth sort to be so joyful and so comfortable.

For your Parliament, God speed it well: and for ours, you know the sea would be calm, if it were not for the winds: and I hope the king, whensoever that shall be, will find those winds reasonably well laid. Now that the sun is got up a little higher, God ordains all things to the happiness of his majesty and his monarchy.

My health, I thank God, is good; and I hope this supposed gout was but an incomer. I ever

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English. Many such diseases of the times his majesty was pleased to enumerate, not fit for my pen to remember, and graciously to recognise how much he was beholden to the English nation for their love and conformity to his desires. The king did personally and infallibly sit amongst them of the Parliament every day; so that there fell not a word amongst them but his majesty was of council with it.

The whole assembly, after the wonted manner, was abstracted into eight bishops, eight lords, eight gentlemen, knights of the shires, and eight lay burgesses for towns. And this epitome of the whole Parliament did meet every day in one room to treat and debate of the great affairs of the kingdom. There was exception taken against some of the Lower House, which were returned by the country, being pointed at as men averse in their appetites and humours to the business of the Parliament, who were deposed of their attendance by the king's power, and others, better affected, by the king's election, placed in their room.

The greatest and weightiest articles, agitated in this Parliament, were specially touching the

TO THE LORD KEEPER, WRITTEN FROM SCOT- government of the kirk and kirkmen, and for the

LAND, JUNE 28, 1618.*

I WILL begin to speak of the business of this day; opus hujus diei in die suo, which is of the Parliament. It began on the 7th of this month, and ended this day, being the 28th of June. His majesty, as I perceived by relation, rode thither in great state the first day. These eyes are witnesses that he rode in an honourable fashion, as I have seen him in England, this day. All the lords rode in English robes; not an English lord on horseback, though all the Parliament House at his majesty's elbow, but my Lord of Buckingham, who waited upon the king's stirrup in his collar, but not in his robes. His majesty, the first day, by way of preparation to the subject of the Parliament, made a declaratory speech, wherein he expressed himself what he would not do, but what he would do. The relation is too prolix for a sheet of paper; and I am promised a copy of it, which I will bring myself unto your lordship with all the speed I may. But I may not be so reserved as not to tell your lordship, that in that speech his majesty was pleased to do England and Englishmen much honour and grace; and that he studied nothing so much, sleeping and waking, as to reduce the barbarity (I have warrant to use the king's own word) of this country unto the sweet civility of ours; adding, farther, that if the Scottish nation would be as docible to learn the goodness of England, as they are teachable to limp after their ill, he might with facility prevail in his desire for they had learned of the English to drink healths, to wear coaches and gay clothes,

* From a copy in the paper-office. VOL. III.-14

abolishing of hereditary sheriffs to an annual charge; and to enable justices of the peace to have as well the real execution as the title of their places. For now the sheriff doth hold jura regalia in his circuit, without check or controlment; and the justices of the peace do want the staff of their authority. For the church and commonwealth, his majesty doth strive to shape the frame of this kingdom to the method and degrees of the government of England, as by reading of the several acts it may appear. The king's desire and travail herein, though he did suffer a momentary opposition, (for his countrymen will speak boldly to him,) hath in part been profitable. For, though he hath not fully and complementally prevailed in all things, yet, he hath won ground in most things, and hath gained acts of parliament to authorize particular commissioners, to set down orders for the church and churchmen, and to treat with sheriffs for their offices, by way of pecuniary composition. But all these proceedings are to have an inseparable reference to his majesty. If any prove unreasonably and undutifully refractory, his majesty hath declared himself, that he will proceed against him by the warrant of the law, and by the strength of his royal power.

His majesty's speech this day had a necessary connexion with his former discourse. He was pleased to declare what was done and determined in the progress of this Parliament; his reasons for it; and that nothing was gotten by shouldering or wrestling, but by debate, judgment, and reason, without any interposition of his royal power in any thing. He commanded the lords in state of judicature to give life, by a careful

execution unto the law, which otherwise was but mortuum cadaver et bona peritura.

Thus much touching the legal part of my advertisement unto you. I will give your lordship an account in two lines of the complement of the country, time, and place.

The country affords more profit and better contentment than I could ever promise myself by my reading of it.

The king was never more cheerful in body and mind, never so well pleased: and so are the English of all conditions.

The entertainment very honourable, very general, and very full: every day feasts and invitations. I know not who paid for it. They strive, by direction, to give us all fair contentment, that we may know that the country is not so contemptible, but that it is worth the cherishing.

The lord provost of this town, who in English is the mayor, did feast the king and all the lords this week; and another day all the gentlemen. And, I confess, it was performed with state, with abundance, and with a general content.

There is a general and a bold expectation, that Mr. John Murray shall be created a baron of this country, and some do chat, that my Lord of Buckingham's Mr. Wray shall be a groom of the bed-chamber in his place.

There hath been yet no creation of lords since his majesty did touch Scotland; but of knights many, yet not so many as we heard in England; but it is thought all the pensioners will be knights to-morrow. Neither are there any more English lords sworn of the privy council here, save my Lord of Buckingham.

The Earl of Southampton, Montgomery, and Hay, are already gone for England.

I have made good profit of my journey hither; for I have gotten a transcript of the speech which your lordship did deliver at your first and happy sitting in Chancery, which I could not gain in England. It hath been showed to the king, and received due approbation. The God of heaven, all-wise and all-sufficient, guard and assist your lordship in all your actions: for I can read here whatsoever your lordship doth act there; and your courses be such as you need not to fear to give copies of them. But the king's ears be wide and long, and he seeth with many eyes. All this works for your honour and comfort. I pray God nothing be soiled, heated, or cooled in the carriage. Envy sometimes attends virtues, and not for good; and these bore certain proprieties and circumstances inherent to your lordship's mind; which men may admire, I cannot express. But I will wade no farther time herein, lest I should seem eloquent. I have been too saucy with your lordship, and held you too long with my idleness. He that takes time from your lordship robs the public. God give your body health, and your soul heaven.

My Lord of Pembroke, my Lord of Arundel, my Lord Zouch, and Mr. Secretary Lake, were new sworn of the council here.



I have sent enclosed a letter to his majesty concerning the strangers; in which business I had formerly written to your lordship a joint letter with my Lord of Canterbury, and my lord privy seal,* and Mr. Secretary Winwood.

I am, I thank God, much relieved with my being in the country air, and the order I keep; so that, of late years, I have not found my health better.

Your lordship writeth seldomer than you were wont; but when you are once gotten into England you will be more at leisure. God bless and prosper you.

Your lordship's true and devoted
friend and servant,

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little book you sent me to present unto him; but, His majesty hath not yet had leisure to read the it to him again. as soon as I see the fittest opportunity, I will offer

His majesty, God be thanked, is very well; that you are of so good term proof, which is the and I am exceeding glad to hear of your health, best of it, being you are in those businesses put most to the trial, which I wish may long continue in that strength, that you may still do his majesty and your country that good service, whereof we

Edward, Earl of Worcester.

+ Harl. MSS. vol. 7006.

Of Godstow, in Oxfordshire, who was sent to Brussels to the archduke, to expostulate with him concerning a libel on the king, imputed to Erycius Puteanus, and entitled, Isaaci Casauboni Corona Regia.

He had been solicitor to the queen, but finding her dislike to him, he was willing to part with his place for that of one of the barons of the exchequer in Ireland; for which he was recommended by the lord keeper to the Earl of Bucking ham, in a letter dated at Whitehall, May 25, 1617

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His majesty hath spent some time with Sir Lionel Cranfield, about his own business, wherewith he acquainted his majesty. He hath had some conference with your lordship, upon whose report to his majesty of your zeal and care of his service, which his majesty accepteth very well at your hands, he hath commanded Sir L. Cranfield to attend your lordship, to signify his farther pleasure for the furtherance of his service; unto whose relation I refer you. His majesty's farther pleasure is, you acquaint no creature living with it, he having resolved to rely upon your care and trust only.

Thus, wishing you all happiness, I rest
Your lordship's faithful friend
and servant,

October 26, 1617.




Give me leave, I beseech your lordship, for want of other means, by this paper to let your I have reformed the ordinance according to his lordship understand, that notwithstanding I rest majesty's corrections, which were very material. in no contempt, nor have to my knowledge broken And for the first of phrasis non placet, I underany order made by your lordship, concerning stand his majesty, nay, farther, I understand my- the trust, either for the payment of money, or self, the better for it. I send your lordship there-assignment of land; yet, by reason of my close fore six privy seals; for every court will look to have their several warrant. I send also, two bills for letters patents, to the two reporters: and for the persons, I send also four names, with my commendations of those two, for which I will answer upon my knowledge. The naines must be filled in the blanks; and so they are to be


For the business of the Court of Wards, your lordship's letter found me in the care of it. Therefore, according to his majesty's commandment, by you signified, I have sent a letter for his majesty's signature. And the directions themselves are also to be signed. These are not to be returned to me, lest the secret come out; but to be sent to my Lord of Wallingford, as the packets use to be sent.

I do much rejoice, to hear of his majesty's health and good disposition. For me, though I am incessantly in business, yet the reintegration of your love, maketh me find all things

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imprisonment, and the unusual carriage of this cause against me, I can get no counsel who will, in open court, deliver my case unto your lordship. I must, therefore, humbly leave unto your lordship's wisdom, how far your lordship will, upon my adversary's fraudulent bill, exhibited by the wife without her husband's privity, extend the most powerful arm of your authority against me, who desire nothing but the honest performance of a trust, which I know not how to leave if I would. So, nothing doubting but your lordship will do what appertaineth to justice, and the emi

This gentleman was very unfortunate in his behaviour, with regard to those who had the great seal; for in Hilary Term, of the year 1623-4, he was fined three thousand

pounds by the Star Chamber, for casting an imputation of bribery on the Lord Keeper Williams, Bishop of Lincoln. MS. letter of Mr. Chamberlain, to Sir Dudley Carleton, dated at London, 1623-4. Sir Francis had been committed to the Fleet for a contempt of a decree in Chancery; upon which he was charged, by Sir John Bennet, with having said before sufficient witness, "that he could prove this holy bishop judge had been bribed by some that fared well in their causes." A few days after the sentence in the Star Chamber, the lord keeper sent for Sir Francis, and told him he would refute his foul aspersions, and prove upon him that he scorned the pelf of the world, or to exact, or make lucre, of any man; and that, for his own part, he forgave him every penny of his fine, and would crave the same mercy towards him from the king.-Bishop Hacket's Life of Archbishop Williams, Part I., p. 83, 84.

nent place of equity your lordship holdeth, I must, since I cannot understand from your lordship the cause of my late close restraint, rest, during your lordship's pleasure, Your lordship's close prisoner in the Fleet, FR. ENGLEFYLD.

Oct. 28, 1617.



I have thought good to renew my motion to your lordship, in the behalf of my Lord of Huntingdon, my Lord Stanhope, and Sir Thomas Gerard; for that I am more particularly acquainted with their desires; they only seeking the true advancement of the charitable uses, unto which the land, given by their grandfather, was intended: which, as I am informed, was meant by way of a corporation, and by this means, that it might be settled upon the schoolmaster, usher, and poor, and the coheirs to be visitors. The tenants might be conscionably dealt withal; and so it will be out of the power of any feoffees to abuse the trust; which, it hath been lately proved, have been hitherto the hindrance of this good work. These coheirs desire only the honour of their ancestor's gift, and wish the money, misemployed and ordered to be paid into court by Sir John Harper, may rather be bestowed by your lordship's discretion for the augmentation of the foundation of their ancestors, than by the censure of any other. And so I rest Your lordship's servant, G. BUCKINGHAM.

Theobalds, November 12.




Though I had resolved to give your lordship no more trouble in matters of controversy depending before you, with what importance soever my letters had been, yet the respect I bear unto this gentleman hath so far forced my resolution, as to recommend unto your lordship the suit, which, I am informed by him, is to receive a hearing before you on Monday next, between Barneby Leigh and Sir Edward Dyer, plaintiffs, and Sir Thomas Thynne, defendant; wherein I desire your lordship's favour on the plaintiffs so far only as the justice of their cause shall require. And so I rest Your lordship's faithful servant, G. BUCKINGHAM.

Newmarket, the 15th of November.
Endorsed, 1617.

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I have acquainted his majesty with your lordship's letter, who liketh well of the judges' opinion you sent unto him, and hath pricked the sheriff of Buckinghamshire in the roll you sent, which I returned signed unto your lordship.

His majesty takes very well the pains you have taken in sending to Sir Lionel Cranfield; and desireth you to send to him again, and to quicken him in the business.

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant,

his household, wherewith he would have your His majesty liketh well the course taken about lordship, and the rest of his council, to go forward. Newmarket, the 17th November, 1617.

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In answer to his lordship's letter from Newmarket, No vember 19, 1617, printed in Lord Bacon's Works.

He was originally a merchant in the city of London, in troduced to the king's knowledge by the Earl of Northanipton, and into his service by the Earl of Buckingham, being the great projector for reforming the king's household, ad

Eldest son of Sir John Thynne, knight, who died, Novem-vancing the customs, and other services; for which he was ber 21, 1604. This Sir Thomas's younger son by his first wife, Mary, daughter of George, Lord Audley, was father of Thomas Thynne, Esq.; assassinated by the followers of Count Conigsmark, February 12, 1682-3,

made lord treasurer, Baron Cranfield, and Earl of Middlesex; but being accused by the House of Commons for misdemeanors in his office, he had a severe sentence passed upon him by the lords in 1624.

able to execute his part in the sub-commission, it sure your lordship, that should have been no will, in my opinion, not be so fit to direct it. He excuse to me, who shall ever assign both to the crept to me yesternight, but he is not well. I causes of the subject, yea, and to my health, but did his majesty's message to him touching the the leavings of times after his majesty's business tobacco; and he said he would give his majesty done. But the truth is, I could not speak with very real and solid satisfaction touching the Sir Lionel Cranfield, with whom of necessity I was to confer about the names, till this after


This is all for the present I shall trouble your noon. lordship withal, resting ever

Your lordship's true friend and devoted servant,

November 20, 1617.



His majesty liketh very well of the draught your lordship sent of the letter for the sub-commission, and hath signed it as it was, without any alteration, and sent it to the lords. Which is all I have to write at this time, but that I ever rest your lordship's faithful friend and servant, G. BUCKINGHAM.

Newmarket, the 2d of December, 1617.



His majesty hath been pleased to refer a petition of one Sir Thomas Blackstones to your lordship, who being brother-in-law to a gentleman whom I much respect, Sir Henry Constable, I have, at his request, yielded to recommend his business so far to your lordship's favour, as you shall find his case to deserve compassion, and may stand with the rules of equity. And so I rest Your lordship's faithful friend and servant, G. BUCKINGHAM.

Newmarket, the 4th of December.

Endorsed, 1617.



Your lordship may marvel, that together with the letter from the board, which you see passed so well, there came no particular letter from myself; wherein, though it be true, that now this very evening I have made even with the causes of Chancery, and comparing with the causes heard by my lord,‡ that dead is, of Michaelmas term was twelvemonth, I find them to be double so many and one more; besides that the causes that I despatch do seldom turn upon me again, as his any times did; yet, nevertheless, I do as+ Ibid.

Harl. MSS. vol. 7006.
Chancellor Ellesmere.

First, therefore, I send the names by his advice, and with mine own good allowance of those, which we wish his majesty should select; wherein I have had respect somewhat to form, more to the avoiding of opposition, but most to the service.

Two most important effects his majesty's letter hath wrought already: the one, that we perceive his majesty will go through stitch, which goeth to the root of our disease. The other, that it awaketh the particular officers, and will make their own endeavours and propositions less perfunctory, and more solid and true for the future. Somewhat is to be done presently, and somewhat by seasonable degrees. For the present my advice is, his majesty would be pleased to write back to the table, that he doth well approve that we did not put back or retard the good ways we were in of ourselves; and that we understood his majesty's right: that his late direction was to give help, and not hindrance to the former courses; and that he doth expect the propositions we have in hand, when they are finished: and that for the sub-commissions, he hath sent us the names he hath chosen out of those by us sent and propounded; and that he leaveth the particular directions from time to time, in the use of the subcommissioners, wholly to the table.

This I conceive to be the fairest way; first to seal the sub-commission without opening the nature of their employments, and without seeming that they should have any immediate dependence upon his majesty, but merely upon the table.

As for that which is to be kept in breast, and to come forth by parts, the degrees are these:

First, to employ the sub-commissioners in the reconsidering of those branches, which the several officers shall propound.

Next, in taking consideration of other branches of retrenchment, besides those which shall be propounded.

The third, to take into consideration the great and huge arrears and debts in every office; whether there be cause to abate them upon deceit or abuse; and at least how to settle them best, both for the king's honour, and avoiding of clamour, and for the taking away, as much as may be, that same ill influence and effect, whereby the arrear past destroys the good husbandry and reformation to come.

The fourth is to proceed from the consideration of the retrenchments and arrears to the improve



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