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The diversions of the fallen angels, with this quotation. He will likewise observe the particular account of their place of how naturally the three persons concerned habitation, are described with great preg- in this allegory are tempted by one comnancy of thought, and copiousness of in- mon interest to enter into a confederacy tovention. The diversions are every way gether, and how properly Sin is made the suitable to beings who had nothing left portress of hell, and the only being that can them but strength and knowledge misap- open the gates to that world of tortures. plied. Such are their contentions at the The descriptive part of this allegory is race and in feats of arms, with their enter- likewise very strong, and full of sublime tainment in the following lines:

ideas. The figure of Death, the regal

crown upon his head, his menace of Satan, Others with vast Typhæan rage more fell

his advancing to the combat, the outcry at Rend up both rocks and hills, and ride the air In whirlwind, hell scarce holds the wild uproar.

his birth, are circumstances too noble to be Their music is employed in celebrating

past over in silence, and extremely suitable their own criminal exploits, and their dis

to this king of terrors. I need not mention course in sounding the unfathomable depths

the justness of thought which is observed

in the generation of these several symboof fate, free-will, and foreknowledge. The several circumstances in the de

lical persons; that Sin was produced upon scription of hell are finely imagined; as the

the first revolt of Satan, that Death apfour rivers which disgorge themselves into

peared soon after he was cast into hell, the sea of fire, the extremes of cold and

and that the terrors of conscience were con heat, and the river of oblivion. The mon

ceived at the gate of this place of torments. strous animals produced in that infernal

T|The description of the gates is very world are represented by a single line,

poetical, as the opening of them is full of | Milton's spirit:

in which gives us a more horrid idea of them than a much longer description would have

On a sudden open fly done:

With impetuous recoil and jarring sound

Th’infernal doors, and on their hinges grate
Nature breeds,

Flarsh thunder, that the lowest bottom shook
Perverse, all monstrous, all prodigious things,

Of Erebus. She open'd, but to shut Abominable, inutterable, and worse

Excell'd her pow'r; the gates wide open stood, Than fables yet have feign'd, or fear conceiv'd,

That with extended wings a banner'd host Gorgons and hydras, and chimeras dire.

Under spread ensigns marching might pass through

With horse and chariots rank'd in loose array; This episode of the fallen spirits and their So wide they stood, and like a furnace mouth place of habitation, comes in very happily

Cast forth redounding smoke and ruddy flame. to unbend the mind of the reader from its In Satan's voyage through the chaos there attention to the debate. An ordinary poet are several imaginary persons described, would indeed have spun out so many cir- as residing in that immense waste of matcumstances to a great length, and by that ter. This may perhaps be conformable to means have weakened, instead of illustrated the taste of those critics who are pleased the principal fable.

with nothing in a poet which has not life The flight of Satan to the gates of hell is and manners ascribed to it; but for my own finely imaged.

part, I am pleased most with those passaI have already declared my opinion of ges in this description which carry in them a the allegory concerning Sin and Death, greater measure of probability, and are such which is, however, a very finished piece as might possibly have happened. Of this in its kind, when it is not considered as kind is his first mounting in the smoke that a part of an epic poem. The genealogy rises from the infernal pit, his falling into a of the several persons is contrived with cloud of nitre, and the like combustible great delicacy. Sin is the daughter of Satan, materials, that by their explosion still hurand Death the offspring of Sin. The in- ried him forward in his voyage; his springcestuous mixture between Sin and Death ing upward like a pyramid of fire, with his produces those monsters and hell-hounds laborious passage through that confusion of which from time to time enter into their elements which the poet calls mother, and tear the bowels of her who The womb of nature, and perhaps her grave. gave them birth. These are the terrors of an evil con- .

The glimmering light which shot into the science, and the proper fruits of Sin, which

chaos from the utmost verge of the creanaturally rise from the apprehensions of

tion, with the distant discovery of the earth Death. This last beautiful moral is, I think, for

that hung close by the moon, are wonder

"fully beautiful and poetical. clearly intimated in the speech of Sin, where, complaining of this her dreadful issue, she adds: Before mine eyes in opposition sits

No. 310.] Monday, February 25, 1711-12. Grim Death, my son and foe, who sets them on,

Connubio jungam stabili--And me his parent would full soon devour,

Virg. Æn. i. 77. For want of other prey, but that he knows His end with mine involv'd.

I'll tie the indissoluble marriage-knot. I need not mention to the reader the "MR. SPECTATOR, -I am a certain young beautiful circumstance in the last part of woman that love a certain young man very

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heartily; and my father and mother were able regard to you, but as it is, I beg we for it a great while, but now they say I can may be strangers for the future. Adieu. do better; but I think I cannot. They bid ine not love him, and I cannot unlove him. What must I do? Speak quickly.

This great indifference on this subject, * BIDDY DOW-BAKE.'

P, and the mercenary motives for making al

liances, is what I think lies naturally before

Feb. 19, 1712. you, and I beg of you to give me your •DEAR SPEC.--I have loved a lady en- thoughts upon it. My answer to Lydia was tirely for this year and a half, though for a as follows, which I hope you will approve; great part of the time (which has contri- for you are to know the woman's family buted not a little to my pain) I have been affect a wonderful ease on these occasions, debarred the liberty of conversing with though they expect it should be painfully her. The grounds of our difference was received on the man's side. chis; that when we had enquired into each

| “MADAM, -I have received yours, and other's circumstances, we found that at our first setting out into the world, we should

knew the prudence of your house so well, owe five hundred pounds more than her

that I always took care to be ready to obey fortune would pay off. My estate is seven

your commands, though they should be to hundred pounds a-year, besides the benefit

see you no more. Pray give my service to of tin mines. Now, dear Spec, upon this

all the good family, Adieu.. state of the case, and the lady's positive

•CLITOPHON. declaration that there is still no other ob

• The opera subscription is full.' jection, I beg you will not fail to insert

MEMORANDUM. this, with your opinion, as soon as possible, The censor of marriage to consider this whether this ought to be esteemed a just letter and report the common usages on cause or impediment why we should not be such treaties, with how many pounds or joined; and you will for ever oblige yours

| acres are generally esteemed sufficient reasincerely, "DICK LOVEŠICK.'

son for preferring a new to an old pretenPOSTSCRIPT.

der; with his opinion what is proper to be Sir, if I marry this lady by che assist-determined in such cases for the future. ance of your opinion, you may expect a fa- | See No. 308, let. 1. vour for it.'

MR. SPECTATOR,—There is an elderly MR. SPECTATOR ---I have the misfor- person lately left off business and settled in tune to be one of those unhappy men win! nwn, in order, as he thinks, to retire are distinguished by the name of discarded from the world; but he has brought with lovers; but I am the less mortified at my him such an inclination to tale-bearing, disgrace, because the young lady is one of that he disturbs both himself and all our those creatures who set up for negligence neighbourhood. Notwithstanding this frailof men, are forsooth the most rigidly virtu- ty, the honest gentleman is so happy as to ous in the world, and yet their nicety will have no enemy: at the same time he has permit them at the command of parents to not one friend who will venture to acquaint go to bed to the most utter stranger that him with his weakness. It is not to be can be proposed to them. As to me myself, doubted, but if this failing were set in a proI was introduced by the father of my mis- per light, he would quickly perceive the tress; but find I owe my being at first re indecency and evil consequences of it. ceived to a comparison of my estate with Now, sir, this being an infirmity which I that of a former lover, and that I am now hope may be corrected, and knowing that in like manner turned off to give way to an he pays much deference to you, I beg that humble servant still richer than I am. when you are at leisure to give us a specuWhat makes this treatment the more ex- lation on gossiping, you would think of my travagant is, that the young lady is in the neighbour. You will hereby oblige several management of this way of fraud, and who will be glad to find a reformation in obeys her father's orders on those occasions their grey-haired friend: and how becomwithout any manner of reluctance, but does ing will it be for him, instead of pouring it with the same air that one of your men forth words at all adventures, to set a of the world would signify the necessity of watch before the door of his mouth, to reaffairs for turning another out of office. frain his tongue, to check its impetuosity, When I came home last night, I found this and guard against the sallies of that little letter from my mistress:

pert, forward, busy person; which, under SIR, I hope you will not think it is any

a sober conduct, might prove a useful

member of society! In compliance with manner of disrespect to your person or

those intimations, I have taken the liberty merit, that the intended nuptials between

to make this address to you. I am, sir, your us are interrupted. My father says he has

most obscure servant, a much better offer for me than you can

PHILANTHROPOS.' make, and has ordered me to break off the treaty between us. If it had proceeded, I MR. SPECTATOR,- This is to petition should have behaved myself with all suit- you in behalf of myself, and many more of

your gentle readers, that at any time when / fore my house more than once this winter. you may have private reasons against let. My kinswoman likewise informs me that ting us know what you think yourself, you the girl has talked to her twice or thrice of would be pleased to pardon us such letters a gentleman in a fair wig, and that she of your correspondents as seem to be of no loves to go to church more than ever she use but to the printer.

did in her life. She gave me the slip about It is further our humble request, that a week ago, upon which my whole house you would substitute advertisements in the was in alarm. * I immediately despatched place of such epistles; and that in order a hue and cry after her to the 'Change hereunto Mr. Buckley may be authorized to her mantua-maker, and to the young la to take up of your zealous friend Mr. dies that visit her; but after above an hour's Charles Lillie, any quantity of words he search she returned of herself, having beer shall from time to time have occasion for taking a walk, as she told me, by Rosa

The many useful parts of knowledge mond's pond. I have hereupon turned off which may be communicated to the public her woman, doubled her guards, and given this way, will, we hope, be a consideration new instructions to my relation, who, to in favour of your petitioners. And your give her her due, keeps a watchful eye petitioners, &c.'

over all her motions. This, sir, keeps me

in perpetual anxiety, and makes me very Note.That particular regard be had to

often watch when my daughter sleeps, as I this petition; and the papers marked letter

am afraid she is even with me in her turn. R may be carefully examined for the fu

Now, sir, what I would desire of you is, to ture.

represent to this fluttering tribe of young fellows, who are for making their fortunes

by these indirect means, that stealing a No. 311.] Tuesday, February 26, 1711-12. man's daughter for the sake of her portion,

is but a kind of a tolerated robbery; and Nec Veneris pharetris macer est, aut lampade fervet : Inde faces ardent, veniunt a dote sagittæ.

that they make but a poor amends to the

Juv. Sat. vi. 137. father, whom they plunder after this manHe sighs, adores, and courts her ev'ry hour;

ner, by going to bed with his child. Dear Who would not do as much for such a dower? sir, be speedy in your thoughts on this sub

Dryden. Tject, that, if possible, they may appear beMr. SPECTATOR, -I am amazed that, fore the disbanding of the army. I am, among all the variety of characters with sir, your most humble servant, which you have enriched your speculations,

TIM WATCHWELL,' you have never given us a picture of those audacious young fellows among us who Themistocles, the great Athenian genecommonly go by the name of the fortune- ral, being asked whether he would rather stealers. You must know, sir, I am one who choose to marry his daughter to an indigent live in a continual apprehension of this sort man of merit, or to a worthless man of an of people, that lie in wait, day and night estate, replied, that he should prefer a man for our children, and may be considered as without an estate to an estate without a a kind of kidnappers within the law. I am man. The worst of it is, our modern forthe father of a young heiress, whom I be- tune-hunters are those who turn their heads gin to look upon as marriageable, and who that way, because they are good for nothing has looked upon herself as such for above else. If a young fellow finds he can make these six years. She is now in the eighteenth nothing of Coke and Littleton he provides year of her age. The fortune-hunters have himself with a ladder of ropes, and by that already cast their eyes upon her, and take means very often enters upon the precare to plant themselves in her view when- mises. ever she appears in any public assembly. The same art of scaling has likewise I have myself caught a young jackanapes, been practised with good success by many with a pair of silver-fringed gloves, in the military engineers. Stratagems of this navery fact. You must know, Sir, I have kept ture make parts and industry super fluous, her as a prisoner of state, ever since she and cut short the way to riches. was in her teens. Her chamber windows Nor is vanity a less motive than idleness are cross-barred; she is not permitted to go to this kind of mercenary pursuit. A fop, out of the house but with her keeper, who is who admires his person in a glass, soon a staid relation of my own; I have likewise enters into a resolution of making his forforbid her the use of pen and ink, for this tune by it, not questioning but every wotwelvemonth last past, and do not suffer a man that falls in his way will do him as band-box to be carried into her room before much justice as he does himself. When an it has been searched. Notwithstanding heiress sees a man throwing particular these precautions, I am at my wit's end, graces into his ogle, or talking loud within for fear of any sudden surprise. There her hearing, she ought to look to herself; were, two or three nights ago, some fiddles but if withal she observes a pair of red heard in the street, which I am afraid heels, a patch, or any other particularity portend me no good: not to mention a tall in his dress, she cannot take too much care Irishman, that has been seen walking be- l of her person. These are baits not to be

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cifled with, charms that have done a world | No. 312.] Wednesday, Feb. 27, 1711-12. d'execution, and made their way into hearts

Quod huic officium, quæ laus, quod decus erit tanti, which have been thought impregnable.

quod adipisci cum dolore corporis velit, qui dolorem

summum malum sibi persuaserit ? Quam porro quis tions is so well known, that I am credibly ignominium, quam turpitudinem non pertulerit, ut effil

giat dolorem, si id summum malum esse decreverit. informed there are several female undertakers about the 'Change, who, upon the

What duty, what praise, or what honour will he arrival of a likely man out of a neigh-think wort)

think worth enduring bodily pain for, who has per. bouring kingdom, will furnish him with suaded himself that pain is the chief evil? Nay, to

what ignominy, to what baseness, will he not stoop, to a proper dress from head to foot, to be

avoid pain, if he has determined it to be the chief evil? paid for at a double price on the day of marriage.

It is a very melancholy reflection, that We must, however, distinguish between men are usually so weak, that it is absoforturie-hunters and fortune-stealers. The lutely secessary for them to know sorrow first are those assiduous gentlemen who and pain; to be in their right senses. Pros employ their whole lives in the chase, with-perous people (for happy there are none) out ever coming to the quarry. Suffenus are hurried away with a fond sense of their has combed and powdered at the ladies for present condition, and thoughtless of the thirty vears together; and taken his stand mutability of fortune. Fortune is a term in a side-box, until he has grown wrinkled which we must use, in such discourses as under their eyes. He is now laying the these, for what is wrought by the unseen same snares for the present generation hand of the Disposer of all things. But of beauties, which he practised on their methinks the disposition of a mind which is mothers. Cottilus, after having made his truly great, is that which makes misforapplication to more than you meet with in tunes and sorrows little when they befal Mr. Cowley's ballad of mistresses, was at ourselves, great and lamentable when they last smitten with a city lady of 20,0001. befal other men. The most unpardonable sterling; but died of old åge before he could malefactor in the world going to his death, bring matters to bear. Nor must I here and bearing it with composure, would win omit my worthy friend Mr. Honeycomb, the pity of those who should behold him; who has often told us in the club, that for and this not because his calamity is deplotwenty years successively upon the death rable, but because he seems himself not to of a childless rich man, he immediately deplore it. We suffer for him who is less drew on his boots, called for his horse, and sensible of his own misery, and are inclined made up to the widow. When he is rallied to despise him who sinks under the weight upon his ill success. Will, with his usual of his distresses. On the other hand, withgaiety, tells us, that he always found her out any touch of envy, a temperate and pre-engaged.

well-governed mind looks down on such as Widows are indeed the great game of

are exalted with success, with a certain your fortune-hunters. There is scarce a shame for the imbecility of human nature, young fellow in the town of six foot high that can so far forget how liable it is to cathat has not passed in review before one or lamity, as to grow giddy with only the susother of these wealthy relicts. Hudibras's

pense of sorrow, which is the portion of all Cupid, who

men. He therefore who turns his face from

the unhappy man, who will not look again Took his stand

when his eye is cast upon modest sorrow, Upon a widow's* jointure land,'

who shuns affliction like a contagion, does is daily employed in throwing darts and

but pamper himself up for a sacrifice, and kindling flames. But as for widows, they

contract in himself a greater aptitude to are such a subtle generation of people, that| mi

misery by attempting to escape it. A gen. they may be left to their own conduct; or

fltleman, where I happened to be last night, if they make a false step in it, they are an- Tel

fell into a discourse which I thought showed swerable for it to nobody but themselves. a good di

a good discerning in him. He took notice, The young innocent creatures who have no that

that whenever men have looked into their knowledge and experience of the world,

id heart for the idea of true excellence in huare those whose safety I would principally !

bally man nature, they have found it to consist consult in this speculation. The stealing in

inos in suffering after a right manner, and with of such an one should, in my opinion, be as

a good grace. Heroes are always drawn punishable as a rape. Where there is no

bearing sorrows, struggling with adversijudgment there is no choice: and why the ties, undergoing all kinds of hardships, and inveigling a woman before she comes to

having, in the service of mankind, a kind years of discretion should not be as criminal

nal of appetite to difficulties and dangers. The as the seducing of her before she is ten

gentleman went on to observe, that it is years old, I am at a loss to comprehend.

from this secret sense of the high merit

which there is in patience under calami

_ ties, that the writers of romances when * See Grey's edit. of Hudibras, vol. 1. pait i. canto iii.

they attempt to furnish out characters of V 212, 213.

the highest excellence, ransack nature for

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SPECTATOR

thing's terrible; they raise a new creation | ticularly performing the public service with of monsters, dragons, and giants; where a due zeal and devotion; I am the more enthe danger ends the hero ceases: when he couraged to lay before them by your means, has won an empire or gained his mistress, several expressions used by some of them the rest of his story is not worth relating in their prayers before sermon, which I am My friend carried his discourse so far as to not well satisfied in. As their giving some say, that it was for higher beings than men titles and epithets to great men, which are to join happiness and greatness in the same indeed due to them in their several ranks idea; but that in our condition we have no and stations, but not properly used, I think, conception of superlative excellence, or he in our prayers. Is it not contradiction to roism, but as it is surrounded with a shade say, illustrious, right reverend, and right of distress.

honourable poor sinners? These distinc It is certainly the proper education we tions are suited only to our state here, and should give ourselves to be prepared for the have no place in heaven; we see they are ill events and accidents we are to meet with omitted in the Liturgy: which, I think, the in a life sentenced to be a scene of sorrow; clergy should take for their pattern in their but instead of this expectation, we soften own forms of devotion.* There is another ourselves with prospects of constant delight, expression which I would not mention, but and destroy in our minds the seeds of for- that I have heard it several times before a titude and virtue, which should support us learned congregation, to bring in the last in hours of anguish. The constant pursuit petition of the prayer in these words, 660 of pleasure has in it something insolent and let not the Lord be angry, and I will speak improper for our being. There is a pretty but this once;" as if there was no difference sober liveliness in the ode of Horace to between Abraham's interceding for Sodom, Delius, where he tells him, loud mirth, or for which he had no warrant, as we can immoderate sorrow, inequality of behavi- find, and our asking those things which we our, either in prosperity or adversity, are are required to pray for; they would therealike ungraceful in man, that is born to die. fore have much more reason to fear his Moderation in both circumstances is pecu- anger, if they did not make such petitions liar to generous minds. Men of that sort to him. There is another pretty fancy: ever taste the gratifications of health, and when a young man has a mind to let us all other advantages of life, as if they were know who gave him his scarf, he speaks a liable to part with them, and when bereft parenthesis to the Almighty. "Bless, as I of them, resign them with a greatness of am in duty bound to pray, the right homind which shows they know their value nourable the countess;" is not that as much and duration. The contempt of pleasure as to say, “Bless her, for thou knowest I is a certain preparatory for the contempt am her chaplain.” Your humble servant, of pain. Without this the mind is, as it T.

J. 0.' were, taken suddenly by an unforeseen event; but he that has always, during health and prosperity, been abstinent in No. 313.) Thursday, Feb, 28, 1711-12. his satisfactions, enjoys, in the worst of difficulties, the reflection, that his anguish Exigite ut mores teneros seu pollice ducat

Ut si quis cera vultum facitis not aggravated with the comparison of

Juv. Sat. vii. 237 past pleasures which upbraid his present

Bid him besides his daily pains employ, condition. Tully tells us a story after Pom

To form the tender manners of the boy, pey, which gives us a good taste of the And work him, like a waxen babe, with art, pleasant manner the men of wit and philo To perfect symmetry in ev'ry part.--Ch. Dryden. sophy had in old times, of alleviating the distresses of life by the force of reason and

I SHALL give the following letter no philosophy, Pompey, when he came to

to other recommendation than by telling my

. In the original folio edition of this paper, there was

the following passage, after the above sentence. in his sick bed, he bewailed the misfortune Another expression which I take to be improper, is

this, the whole race of mankind,' when they pray for that he should not hear a discourse from

all men , for race signifies lineage or descent; and if him: “But you may, answered Possidonius; | the race

the race of mankind may be used for the present gene. ration, though, I think, not very fitly) the whole race

takes in all from the beginning to the end of the world. stoical philosophy, which says, pain is not I do not remember to have met with

I do not remember to have met with that expression, in their sense, any where but in the old version of Psalm xiy, which those men, I suppose, have but little esteein

for. And some, when they have prayed for all schoolg smiled and cried out, Pain, pain, be as

and nurseries of good learning and true religion, espe. impertinent and troublesome as you please, cially the two universities, add these words, 'Grant that I shall never own that thou art an evil.' from them, and all other places dedicated to thy wor

ship and service, may come forth such persons,' &c. But what do they mean by all other places? It seems to me, that this is either a tautology, as being the same with all schools and nurseries before expressed, or else it

runs too far; for there are several places dedicated to honour of the clergy, and their doing every

the divine service, which cannot properly be intended thing as becomes their character, and par- 1 here.

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