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Even delicacy requires that the pity shownį me with less repining allow that of my to distressed indigent wickedness, first chamber-fellow." I know very well that I betrayed into and then expelled the har-have Jack Cleveland* and Bond's Horace bours of the brothel, should be changed to on my side; but then he has such a band of detestation, when we consider pampered rhymers and romance-writers, with which vice in the habitations of the wealthy. The he opposes me, and is so continually chiming most free person of quality, in Mr. Court- to the tune of golden tresses, yellow locks, ly's phrase, that is, to speak properly, a milk, marble, ivory, silver, swans, snow, woman of figure who has forgot her birth daisies, doves, and the Lord knows what, and breeding, dishonoured her relations which he is always sounding with so much and herself, abandoned her virtue and repu- vehemence in my ears, that he often puts tation, together with the natural modesty me into a brown study how to answer him; of her sex, and risked her very soul, is so and I find that I am in a fair way to be quite far from deserving to be treated with no confounded, without your timely assistance worse character than that of a kind woman, afforded to, sir, your humble scrvant, which is, doubtless, Mr. Courtly's mean

PHILOBRUNE.' ing, (if he has any,) that one can scarce be too severe on her, inasmuch as she sins against greater restraints, is less exposed, No. 287.1 Tuesday, January 29, 1711-12. and liable to fewer temptations, than beauty in poverty and distress. It is hoped, there parlatna un TED, WE DEJVov roodger fore, sir, that you will not lay aside your

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Menand. generous design of exposing that monstrous

Dear native land, how do the good and wise wickedness of the town, whereby a multi

and countless blessings prize! tude of innocents are sacrificed in a more I LOOK upon it as a peculiar happiness, barbarous manner than those who were of- that were I to choose of what religion I fered to Moloch. The unchaste are pro- would be, and under what government I voked to see their vice exposed, and the would live, I should most certainly give the chaste cannot rake into such filth without preference to that form of religion and godanger of defilement; but a mere spectator vernment which is established in my own may look into the bottom, and come off country. In this point I think I am deterwithout partaking in the guilt. The doing mined by reason and conviction; but if I so will convince us you pursue public good, shall be told that I am actuated by prejuand not merely your own advantage; but if dice, I am sure it is an honest prejudice, it your zeal slackens, how can one help think- is a prejudice that arises from the love of ing that Mr. Courtly's letter is but a feint my country, and therefore such a one as I to get off from a subject, in which either will always indulge. I have in several payour own, or the private and base ends of pers endeavoured to express my duty and others to whom you are partial, or those esteem for the church of England, and deof whom you are afraid, would not endure sign this as an essay upon the civil part of a reformation?-Iam, sir, your humble ser- our constitution, having often entertained vant and admirer, so long as you tread in myself with reflections on this subject, the paths of truth, virtue, and honour' which I have not met with in other writers.

That form of government appears to me Trin. Coll. Cantab. Jan. 12, 1711-12. the most reasonable which is most conMR. SPECTATOR,It is my fortune to formable to the equality that we find in have a chamber-fellow, with whom, though human nature, provided it be consistent I agree very well in many sentiments, yet with public peace and tranquillity. This there is one in which we are as contrary as is what may properly be called liberty, light and darkness. We are both in love. which exempts one man from subjection to His mistress is a lovely fair, and mine a another, so far as the order and economy lovely brown. Now as the praise of our of government will permit. mistresses' beauty employs much of our Liberty should reach every individual of time, we have frequent quarrels in enter- a people, as they all share one common ing upon that subject, while each says all nature; if it only spreads among particular he can to defend his choice. For my own branches, there had better be none at all, part, I have racked my fancy to the ut- since such a liberty only aggravates the most; and sometimes with the greatest misfortune of those who are deprived of it, warmth of imagination have told him, that by setting before them a disagreeable subnight was made before day, and many morel ject of comparison. fine things, though without any effect; nay, This liberty is best preserved where the last night I could not forbear saying, with legislative power is lodged in several permore heat than judgment, that the devil sons, especially if those persons are of difought to be painted white. Now my desire ferent ranks and interests; for where they is, sir, that you would be pleased to give us are of the same rank, and consequently in black and white your opinion in the mat- have an interest to manage peculiar to that ter of dispute between us: which will either rank, it differs but little from a despotical furnish me with fresh and prevailing argu- 1 * See Cleveland's Poems, 1653, 24mo. “The Senses ments to maintain my own taste, or make | Festival,” p. 1.


government in a single person. But the have its public happiness or misery depend greatest security a people can have for on the virtue or vices of a single person. their liberty, is when the legislative power Look into the history I have mentioned, or is in the hands of persons so happily dis-into any series of absolute princes, how tinguished, that by providing for the par-many tyrants must you read through, be ticular interests of their several ranks, they fore you come to an emperor that is supare providing for the whole body of the portable. But this is not all; an honest people; or in other words, when there is private man often grows cruel and abanno part of the people that has not a com- doned, when converted into an absolute mon interest with at least one part of the prince.. Give a man power of doing what segislators.

he pleases with impunity, you extinguish If there be but one body of legislators, it his fear, and consequently overturn in him is no better than a tyranny; if there are one of the great pillars of morality. This only two, there will want a casting voice, too we find confirmed by matter of fact. and one of them must at length be swal- | How many hopeful heirs apparent to grand lowed up by disputes and contentions that empires, when in the possession of them, will necessarily arise between them. Four have become such monsters of lust and would have the same inconvenience as two, cruelty as are a reproach to human nature! and a greater number would cause too much! Some tell us we ought to make our goconfusion. I could never read a passage vernments on earth like that in heaven, in Polybius, and another in Cicero, to this which, they say, is altogether monarchical purpose, without a secret pleasure in ap- and unlimited. Was man like his Creator plying it to the English constitution, which in goodness and justice, I should be for folit suits much better than the Roman. Both lowing this great model; but where goodthese great authors give the pre-eminence ness and justice are not essential to the to a mixed government, consisting of three ruler, I would by no means put myself into branches, the regal, the noble, and the po- his hands to be disposed of according to his pular. They had doubtless in their thoughts particular will and pleasure. the constitution of the Roman common- It is odd to consider the connexion bewealth, in which the consul represented tween despotic government and barbarity, the king, the senate the nobles, and the and how the making of one person more tribunes the people. This division of the than man makes the rest less. Above nine three powers in the Roman constitution, parts of the world in ten are in the lowest was by no means so distinct and natural as state of slavery, and consequently sunk in it is in the English form of government. į the most gross and brutal ignorance. EuAmong several objections that might be ropean slavery is, indeed, a state of liberty, made to it, I think the chief are those that if compared with that which prevails in affect the consular power, which had only the other three divisions of the world; and the ornaments without the force of the regal | therefore it is no wonder that those who authority. Their number had not a cast-grovel under it have many tracks of light ing voice in it; for which reason, if one did among them, of which the others are wholly not chance to be employed abroad, while destitute. the other sat at home, the public business Riches and plenty are the natural fruits was sometimes at a stand, while the consuls of liberty, and where these abound, learnpulled two different ways in it. Besides, I ing and all the liberal arts will immediately do not find that the consuls had ever a lift up their heads and flourish. As a man negative voice in the passing of a law, or must have no slavish fears and apprehen decree of the senate: so that indeed they sions hanging upon his mind, who will inwere rather the chief body of the nobility, dulge the flights of fancy or speculation, or the first ministers of state, than a dis- and push his researches into all the abtinct branch of the sovereignty, in which struse corners of truth, so it is necessary none can be looked upon as a part, who are for him to have about him a competency of not a part of the legislature. Had the con- all the conveniences of life. . suls been invested with the regal authority | The first thing every one looks after, is to as great a degree aş our monarchs, there to provide himself with necessaries. This would never have been any occasion for a point will engross our thoughts until it be dictatorship, which had in it the power of satisfied. If this is taken care of to our all the three orders, and ended in the sub- hands, we look out for pleasures and amuseversion of the whole constitution.

ments; and among a great number of idle Such a history as that of Suetonius, which people, there will be many whose pleagives us a succession of absolute princes, is sures will lie in reading and contemplation. to me an unanswerable argument against These are the two great sources of knowdespotic power. Where the prince is a ledge, and as men grow wise they naturally man of wisdom and virtue, it is indeed love to communicate their discoveries; and happy for his people that he is absolute; others seeing the happiness of such alearned but since in the common run of mankind, life, and improving by their conversation, for olie that is wise and good you find ten emulate, imitate, and surpass one another, of a contrary character, it is very dangerous until a nation is filled with races of wise and for a ration to stand to its chance, or to understanding persons. Ease and plenty

are therefore the great cherishers of know- allow; and if they are not deficient that ledge: and as most of the despotic govern- way, generally speak so as to admit of a ments of the world have neither of them, double interpretation; which the credulous they are naturally overrun with ignorance fair is too apt to turn to her own advantage, and barbarity. In Europe, indeed, notwith- since it frequently happens to be a raw, instanding several of its princes are absolute, nocent young creature, who thinks all the there are men famous for knowledge and world as sincere as herself, and so her unlearning; but the reason is, because the wary heart becomes an easy prey to those subjects are many of them rich and wealthy, deceitful monsters, who no sooner perceive the prince not thinking fit to exert himself it, but immediately they grow cool, and in his full tyranny, like the princes of the shun her whom they before seemed so eastern nations, lest his subjects should be much to admire, and proceed to act the invited to new-mould their constitution, same common-place villany towards anhaving so many prospects of liberty within other. A coxcomb, flushed with many of their view. But in all despotic govern these infamous victories, shall say he is ments, though a particular prince may fa- sorry for the poor fools, protest and vow vour arts and letters, there is a natural he never thought of matrimony, and wondegeneracy of mankind, as you may observe der talking civilly can be so strangely misfrom Augustus's reign, how the Romans interpreted. Now, Mr. Spectator, you that lost themselves by degrees until they fell are a professed friend to love, will, I hope, to an equality with the most barbarous na- observe upon those who abuse that noble tions that surrounded them. Look upon passion, and raise it in innocent minds by Greece under its free states, and you would a deceitful affectation of it, after which they think its inhabitants lived in different cli- desert the enamoured. Pray bestow a little mates, and under different heavens, from of your counsel on those fond believing fethose at present, so different are the ge- males who already have, or are in danger niusses which are formed under Turkish of having broken hearts; in which you will slavery, and Grecian liberty.

oblige a great part of this town, but in a Besides poverty and want, there are other particular manner, sir, your (yet heartreasons that debase the minds of men who whole) admirer, and devoted humble serlive under slavery, though I look on this as vant,

MELAINIA." the principal. The natural tendency of despotic power to ignorance and barbarity, Melainia's complaint is occasioned by so though not insisted upon by others, is, I gencral à folly, That it is wonderful one think, an unanswerable argument against could so long overlook it. But this false that form of government, as it shows how gallantry proceeds from an impotence of repugnant it is to the good of mankind, and mind, which makes those who are guilty the perfection of human nature, which of it incapable of pursuing what they them ought to be the great ends of all civil in- selves approve. Many a man wishes a stitutions.

L. woman his wife whom he dare not take for

such. Though no one has power over his

inclinations or fortunes, he is a slave to No. 288.] Wednesday, Jan. 30, 1711-12.

common fame. For this reason, I think

Melainia gives them too soft a name in thąt - Pavor est utrique molestus.

of male coquettes. I know not why irresoHor. Lib. 1. Ep. Vi

lution of mind should not be more conBoth fear alike.

temptible than impotence of body; and Mr. SPECTATOR,-_When you spoke of these frivolous admirers would be but tenthe jilts and coquettes, you then promisedderly used, in being only included in the to be very impartial, and not to spare even same term with the insufficient another

your own sex, should any of their secret or way. They whom my correspondent calls · open fáults come under your cognizance; male coquettes, should hereafter be called

which has given me encouragement to de- fribblers. A fribbler is one who professes scribe a certain species of mankind under rapture and admiration for the woman to the denomination of male jilts. They are whom he addresses, and dreads nothing gentlemen who do not design to marry, yet so much as her consent. His heart can that they may appear to have some sense flutter by the force of imagination, but canof gallantry, think they must pay their de- not fix from the force of judgment. It is voirs to one particular fair: in order to not uncommon for the parents of young which, they single out from amongst the women of moderate fortune to wink at the herd of females her to whom they design addresses of fribblers, and expose their to make their fruitless addresses. This children to the ambiguous behaviour which done, they first take every opportunity of Melainia complains of, until by their fondbeing in her company, and then never fail ness to one they are to lose, they become upon all occasions to be particular to her, incapable of love towards others, and by laying themselves at her feet, protesting consequence, in their future marriage lead the reality of their passion with a thousand a joyless or a miserable life. As, therefore, oaths, soliciting a return, and saying as I shall in the speculations which regard many fine things as their stock of wit will | love, be as severe as I ought on jilts and

libertine women, so will I be as little mer- circumstances, humbles the poet to exalt ciful to insignificant and mischievous men. the citizen. Like a true tradesman, I hardly In order to this, all visitants who frequent ever look into any books but those of acfamilies wherein there are young females, counts. To say the truth, I cannot, I think, are forthwith required to declare them- give you a better idea of my being a downselves, or absent from places where their right man of traffic, than by acknowledgpresence banishes such as would pass their ing I oftener read the advertisements, than time more to the advantage of those whom the matter of even your paper. I am under they visit. It is a matter of too great mo- a great temptation to take this opportunity ment to be dallied with: and I shall expect of admonishing other writers to follow my from all my young people a satisfactory ac- example, and trouble the town no more; count of appearances, Strephon has, from but as it is my present business to increase the publication hereof, seven days to ex- the number of buyers rather than sellers, I plain the riddle he presented to Eudamia; hasten to tell you that I am, sir, your most and Chloris an hour after this comes to her humble, and most obedient servant, hand, to declare whether she will have

PETER MOTTEUX.' Philotas, whom a woman of no less merit than herself, and of superior fortune, languishes to call her own.

No. 289.] Thursday, January 31, 1711-12. . To the Spectator.

Vitæ summa brevis spem nos vetat inchoare longam. “SIR,--Since so many dealers turn au

Hor. Od. iv. Lib. 1. 15. thors, and write quaint advertisements in Life's span forbids us to extend our cares, praise of their wares, one who, from an au

And stretch our hopes beyond our years.--Creech. thor turned dealer, may be allowed for the UPON taking my seat in a coffee-house, advancement of trade to turn author again. I often draw the eyes of the whole room I will not, however, set up like some of them, upon me, when in the hottest season of for selling cheaper than the most able ho- news, and at a time, perhaps, that the nest tradesman can; nor do I send this to Dutch mail is just come in, they hear me be better known for choice and cheapness ask the coffee-man for his last week's bill of China and Japan wares, tea, fans, inus- of mortality. I find that I have been somelins, pictures, arrack, and other Indian times taken on this occasion for a parish goods. Placed as I am in Leadenhall-street, sexton, sometimes for an undertaker, and near the India company, and the centre of sometimes for a doctor of physic. In this, that trade, thanks to my fair customers, however, I am guided by the spirit of a my warehouse is graced as well as the be- philosopher, as I take occasion from thence nefit days of my plays and operas; and the to reflect upon the regular increase and foreign goods I sell, seem no less accept- diminution of mankind, and consider the able than the foreign books I translated, several various ways through which we Rabelais and Don Quixotte. This the cri- pass from life to eternity. I am very well tics allow me, and while they like my wares pleased with these weekly admonitions, they may dispraise my writings. But as that bring into my mind such thoughts as it is not so well known yet, that I fre- ought to be the daily entertainment of quently cross the seas of late, and speak in every reasonable creature; and can consiDutch and French, besides other languages, der with pleasure to myself, by which of I have the conveniency of buying and im- those deliverances, or, as we commonly porting rich brocades, Dutch atlasses, with call them, distempers, I may possibly make gold and silver, or without, and other fo- my escape out of this world of sorrows, into reign silks of the newest modes and best that condition of existence, wherein I hope fabrics, fine Flanders laces, linens, and pic- to be happier than it is possible for me at tures, at the best hand; this my new way of present to conceive. trade I have fallen into, I cannot better But this is not all the use I make of the publish than by an application to you. My above-mentioned weekly paper. A bill of wares are fit only for such as your readers; mortality is, in my opinion, an unanswerable and I would beg of you to print this ad- argument for a Providence. How can we, dress in your paper, that those whose minds without supposing ourselves under the con you adorn may take the ornaments for their stant care of a Supreme Being, give any persons and houses from me. This, sir, if possible account for that nice proportion, I may presume to beg it, will be the greater which we find in every great city between favour, as I have lately received rich silks the deaths and births of its inhabitants, and and fine lace to a considerable value, which between the number of males and that of will be sold cheap for a quick return, and females who are brought into the world? as I have also a large stock of other goods. What else could adjust in so exact a manIndian silks were formerly a great branch ner the recruits of every nation to its losses, of our trade; and since we must not sell and divide these new supplies of people them, we must seek amends by dealing in into such equal bodies of both sexes? others. This I hope will plead for one who Chance could never hold the balance with would lessen the number of teasers of the so steady a hand. Were we not counted Muses, and who, suiting his spirit to his out by an intelligent supervisor, we shoull.

sometimes be overcharged with multitudes, most ancient and most beaten inorals that and at others waste away into a desert: we has been recommended to mankind. But should be sometimes a populus virorum, its being so very common, and so universally as Florus elegantly expresses it, a genera- received, though it takes away from it the tion of males, and at others a species of grace of novelty, adds very much to the women. We may extend this considera- weight of it, as it shows that it falls in with tion to every species of living creatures, the general sense of mankind. In short, I and consider the whole animal world as a would have every one consider that he is in huge army made up of innumerable corps, this life nothing more than a passenger, if I may use that term, whose quotas have and that he is not to set up his rest heic, been kept entire near five thousand years, but to keep an attentive eye upon that state in so wonderful a manner, that there is not of being to which he approaches every probably a single species lost during this moment, and which will be for ever fixed long tract of time, Could we have general and permanent. This single consideration bills of mortality of every kind of animals, would be sufficient to extinguish the bitteror particular ones of every species in each ness of hatred, the thirst of avarice, and continent and island, I could almost say in the cruelty of ambition. every wood, marsh, or mountain, what I am very much pleased with the passage astonishing instances would they be of that of Antiphanes, a very ancient poet, who Providence which watches over all his lived near an hundred years before Soworks?

crates, which represents the life of a man I have heard of a great man in the Ro- under this view, as I have here translated mish church, who upon reading these it word for word. Be not grieved,' says words in the fifth chapter of Genesis, ' And he, above measure for thy deceased all the days that Adam lived were nine friends. They are not dead, but have only hundred and thirty years, and he died; and finished that journey which it is necessary all the days of Seth were nine hundred and for every one of us to take. We ourselves twelve years, and he died; and all the days of must go to that great place of reception in Methuselah, were nine hundred and sixty- which they are all of them assembled, and nine years, and he died;' immediately shut in this general rendezvous of mankind, live himself up in a convent, and retired from together in another state of being: the world, as not thinking any thing in this I think I have, in a former paper, taken life worth pursuing, which had not regard notice of those beautiful metaphors in to another.

scripture, where life is termed a pilgrimThe truth of it is, there is nothing in his- age, and those who pass through it are all tory which is so improving to the reader as called strangers and sojourners upon earth. those accounts which we meet with of the I shall conclude this with a story, which I deaths of eminent persons, and of their be- have somewhere read in the travels of Sir haviour in that dreadful season. I may also John Chardin. That gentleman, after add, that there are no parts in history having told us that the inns which receive which affect and please the reader in so the caravans in Persia, and the eastern sensible a manner. The reason I take to countries, are called by the name of cara. be this, because there is no other single vansaries, gives us a relation to the follow circumstance in the story of any person, ing purpose. which can possibly be the case of every | A dervise travelling through Tartary, one who reads it. A battle or a triumph being arrived at the town of Balk, went into are conjunctures in which not one man in a the king's palace by mistake, as thinking it million is likely to be engaged; but when to be a public inn, or caravansary. Having we see a person at the point of death, we looked about him for some time, he entered

thing he says or does, because we are sure wallet, and spread his carpet, in order to that some time or other we shall ourselves repose himself upon it, after the manner of Se in the same melancholy circumstances, the eastern nations. He had not been long The general, the statesman, or the philo- in this posture before he was discovered by sopher, are perhaps characters which we some of the guards, who asked him what may never act in; but the dying man is one was his business in that place? The dervise whom, sooner or later, we shall certainly told them he intended to take up his night's resemble.

lodging in that caravansary. The guards It is, perhaps, for the same kind of rea- let him know in a very angry manner, that son, that few books written in English have the house he was in was not a caravansary, been so much perused as Dr. Sherlock's but the king's palace. It happened that Discourse upon Death; though at the same the king himself passed through the gallery time I must own, that he who hath not pe- during this debate, and smiling at the misrused this excellent piece, has not perhaps take of the dervise, asked him how he could read one of the strongest persuasives to a possibly be so dull as not to distinguish a religious life that ever was written in any palace from a caravansary? “Sir,' says the language.

dervise, 'give me leave to ask your majesty The consideration with which I shall a question or two. Who were the persons close this essay upon death, is one of the that lodged in this house when it was first

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