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dispose of his estate. The renegado, after women, I do not remember that you liave having represented to him that his Algerine directly considered the mercenary practice master would never consent to his release of men in the choice of wives. If you would upon such a pretence, at length contrived please to employ your thoughts upon that a method for the Castilian to make his subject, you would easily conceive the miseescape in the habit of a seaman. The Cas- rable condition many of us are in, who not tilian succeeded in his attempt; and having only from the laws of custom and modesty sold his estate, being afraid lest the money are restrained from making any advances should miscarry by the way, and determin- towards our wishes, but are also, from the ing to perish with it rather than lose one circumstance of fortune, out of all hopes of who was much dearer to him than his life, being'addressed to by those whom we love, he returned himself in a little vessel that Under all these disadvantages I am obliged was going to Algiers. It is impossible to to apply myself to you, and hope I shall describe the joy he felt upon this occasion, prevail with you to print in your very next when he considered that he should soon see paper the following letter, which is a declathe wife whom he so much loved, and en- ration of passion to one who has made some dear himself more to her, by this uncom- faint addresses to me for some time. I inon piece of generosity.
believe he ardently loves me, but the inThe renegado, during the husband's ab- equality of my fortune makes him think he sence, so insinuated himself into the good cannot answer it to the world, if he pursues graces of his young wife, and so turned her his designs by way of marriage; and I behead with stories of gallantry, that she lieve, as he does not want discernment, he quickly thought him the finest gentleman discovered me looking at him the other day she had ever conversed with. To be brief, unawares, in such a manner as has raised his her mind was quite alienated from the hopes of gaining me on terms the men call honest Castilian, whom she was taught to easier. But my heart was very full on this look upon as a formal old fellow, unworthy occasion, and if you know what love and the possession of so charming a creature. honour are, you will pardon me that I use She had been instructed by the renegado no farther arguments with you, but hasten how to manage herself upon his arrival; so to my letter to him, whom I call Oroonthat she received him with an appearance dates;* because if I do not succeed, it shall of the utmost love and gratitude, and at look like romance; and if I am regarded, length persuaded him to trust their com- you shall receive a pair of gloves at my mon friend the renegado with the money he wedding, sent to you under the name of had brought over for their ransom; as not | Statira.' questioning but he would beat down the
- To Oroondates. terms of it, and negociate the affair more to 1 “SIR, -After very much perplexity in their advantage than they themselves could myself, and revolving how to acquaint you do. The good man admired her prudence,
ce; with my own sentiments, and expostulate and followed her advice. I wish I could with
could with you concerning yours, I have chosen conceal the sequel of this story, but since I this w
e, this way, by which means I can be at once cannot, I shall despatch it in as few words revealed to you, or if you please, lie conas possible. The Castilian having slept cealed. If I do not within a few days find longer than ordinary the next morning, the effect which I hope from this, the whole upon his awaking found his wife had left
affair shall be buried in oblivion. But alas! him. He immediately arose and inquired
what am I going to do, when I am about to after her, but was told that she was seen tell you that I love vou? But after I have with the renégado about break of day. In
done so, I am to assure you, that with all a word, her lover having got all things the passion which ever entered a tender ready for their departure, they soon made heart, I know I can banish you from my their escape out of the territories of Algiers, sight for ever, when I am convinced that carried away the money, and left the Cas- you have no inclination towards me but to tilian in captivity: who partly through the my dishonour. But alas! sir, why should cruel treatment of the incensed Algerine you sacrifice the real and essential happihis master, and partly through the unkindness of life to the opinion of a world, that usage of his unfaithful wife, died some few moves upon no other foundation but promonths after.
fessed error and prejudice? You all can observe that riches alone do not make you
happy, and yet give up every thing else No. 199.] Thursday, October 18, 1711. when it stands in competition with riches.
Since the world is so bad, that religion is ----Scribere jussit amor.-Ovid. Ep. iv. 10.
left to us silly women, and you men act Love bade me write.
generally upon principles of profit and pleaTHE following letters are written with sure, I will talk to you without arguing from such an air of sincerity that I cannot deny any thing but what may be most to your the inserting of them.
| advantage, as a man of the world. And I MR. SPECTATOR, -Though you are *A celebrated name in Mademoiselle Scudery's every where in your writings a friend to French romance of The Grand Cyrus, &c.
will lay before you the state of the case, / whom of the two will you choose? You, supposing that you had it in your power to perhaps, will think fit to spend a day abroad make me your mistress or your wife, and in the common entertainments of men of hope to convince you that the latter is more sense and fortune; she will think herself illfor your interest, and will contribute more used in that absence, and contrive at home to your pleasure.
an expense proportioned to the appearance We will suppose, then, the scene was which you make in the world. She is in all laid, and you were now in expectation of things to have a regard to the fortune which the approaching evening wherein I was to she brought you; I to the fortune to which meet you, and be carried to what conve- you introduce me. The commerce between nient corner of the town you thought 'fit, to you two will eternally have the air of a barconsummate all which your wanton imagi-gain, between us of a friendship: joy will nation has promised to you in the possession ever enter into the room with you, and kind of one who is in the bloom of youth, and in wishes attend my benefactor when he leaves the reputation of innocence.' You would it. Ask yourself, how would you be pleased soon have enough of me, as I am sprightly, to enjoy for ever the pleasure of having laid young, gay, and airy. When fancy is sated, an immediate obligation on a grateful mind? and finds all the promises it made itself Such will be your case with me. In the false, where is now the innocence which other marriage you will live in a constant charmed you. The first hour you are alone, comparison of benefits, and never know the you will find that the pleasure of a de- happiness of conferring or receiving any. bauchee is only that of a destroyer. He It may be you will, after all, act rather blasts all the fruit he tastes; and where the (in the prudential way, according to the sense brute has been devouring, there is nothing of the ordinary world. I know not what I left worthy the relish of the man. Reason think or say, when that melancholy reflecresumes her place after imagination is cloy- tion comes upon me; but shall only add ed; and I am with the utmost distress and more, that it is in your power to make me confusion to behold myself the cause of un- your grateful wife, but never your abaneasy reflections to you, to be visited by doned mistress.'
- T. stealth, and dwell for the future with two companions (the most unfit for each other in the world) solitude and guilt. I will not
No. 200.] Friday, October 19, 1711. insist upon the shameful obscurity we should Vincit amor patriæ Virg. Æn. vi. 828. pass our time in, nor run over the little short The noblest motive is the public good. snatches of fresh air, and free commerce, THE ambition of princes is many times which all people must be satisfied with, as hurtful to themselves as to their people. whose actions will not bear examination, This cannot be doubted of such as prove but leave them to your reflections, who unfortunate in their wars, but it is often have seen enough of that life, of which I true too of those who are celebrated for have but a mere idea.
their successes. If a severe view were to On the other hand, if you can be so good be taken of their conduct, if the profit and and generous as to make me your wife, you loss by their wars could be justly balanced, may promise yourself all the obedience and it would be rarely found that the conquest tenderness with which gratitude can inspire is sufficient to repay the cost. a virtuous woman. Whatever gratifications As I was the other day looking over the you may promise yourself from an agreea- letters of my correspondents, I took this ble person, whatever compliances from an hint from that of Philarithmus; which has easy temper, whatever consolation from a turned my present thoughts upon political sincere friendship, you may expect as the arithmetic, an art of greater use than enterdue of your generosity. What at present in tainment. My friend has offered an Essay your ill view you promise yourself from me, towards proving that Louis XIV. with all will be followed with distaste and satiety; his acquisitions is not master of more peobut the transports of a virtuous love are the ple than at the beginning of his wars, nay, least part of its happiness. The raptures that for every subject he had acquired, he of innocent passion are but like lightning to had lost three that were his inheritance. the day, they rather interrupt than advance If Philarithmus is not mistaken in his calthe pleasure of it. How happy then is that culations, Louis must have been impovelife to be, where the highest pleasures of rished by his ambition. sense are but the lowest parts of its felicity? The prince for the public good has a
Now I am to repeat to you the unnatural sovereign property in every private perrequest of taking me in direct terms. I son's estate; and consequently his riches know there stands between me and that must increase or decrease in proportion to happiness, the haughty daughter of a man the number and riches of his subjects. For who can give you suitably to your fortune. example; if sword or pestilence should deBut if you weigh the attendance and beha- stroy all the people of this metropolis, (God viour of her who comes to you in partner- forbid there should be room for such a supship of your fortune, and expects an equiva-position! but if this should be the case) the lent, with that of her who enters your house queen must needs lose a great part of her as honoured and obliged by that permission, revenue, or, at least, what is charged upon
the city, must increase the burden upon the / much then the queen loses with every one rest of her subjects. Perhaps the inhabit of her old, and gains with every one of her ants here are not above a tenth part of the new subjects. whole; yet as they are better fed, and When I was got into this way of thinking, clothed, and lodged, than her other sub- I presently grew conceited of the argument, jects, the customs and excises upon their and was just preparing to write a letter of consumption, the imposts upon their houses, advice to a member of parliament, for opens and other taxes, do very probably make a ing the freedom of our towns and trades, fifth part of the whole revenue of the crown. for taking away all manner of distinctions But this is not all; the consumption of the between the natives and foreigners, for recity takes off a great part of the fruits of pealing our laws of parish settlements, and the whole island; and as it pays such a pro- removing every other obstacle to the inportion of the rent or yearly value of the crease of the people. But as soon as I had lands in the country, so it is the cause of recollected with what inimitable eloquence paying such a proportion of taxes upon my fellow-labourers had exaggerated the those lands. The loss then of such a peo- mischiefs of selling the birthright of Briple must needs be sensible to the prince, tons for a shilling, * of spoiling the pure and visible to the whole kingdom.
British blood with foreign mixtures, of inOn the other hand, if it should please troducing a confusion of languages and reliGod to drop from heaven a new people gions, and of letting in strangers to eat the equal in number and riches to the city, I bread out of the mouths of our own people, should be ready to think their excises, cus- I became so humble as to let my project toms, and house-rent would raise as great fall to the ground, and leave my country to a revenue to the crown as would be lost in increase by the ordinary way of generation. the former case. And as the consumption. As I have always at heart the public of this new body would be a new market good, so I am ever contriving schemes to for the fruits of the country, all the lands, promote it: and I think I may without especially those most adjacent, would rise in vanity pretend to have contrived some as their yearly value, and pay greater yearly wise as any of the castle-builders. I had no taxes to the public. The gain in this case sooner given up my former project, but my would be as sensible as the former loss. head was presently full of draining fens and
Whatsoever is assessed upon the general, marshes, banking out the sea, and joining is levied upon individuals. It were worth new lands to my country; for since it is the while then to consider what is paid by, thought impracticable to increase the peoor by means of, the meanest subjects, in ple to the land, I fell immediately to conorder to compute the value of every subject sider how much would be gained to the to the prince.
prince by increasing the land to the people. For my own part, I should believe that If the same omnipotent Power which seven-eighths of the people are without made the world, should at this time raise property in themselves, or the heads of out of the ocean, and join to Great Britain, Their families, and forced to work for their an equal extent of land, with equal builddaily bread; and that of this sort there are ing's, corn, cattle, and other conveniences seven millions in the whole island of Great and necessaries of life, but no men, women, Britain: and yet one would imagine that nor children, I should hardly believe this seven-eighths of the whole people should would add either to the riches of the people, consume at least three-fourths of the whole or revenue of the prince; for since the prefruits of the country. If this is the case, sent buildings are sufficient for all the inthe subjects without property pay three- habitants, if any of them should forsake the fourths of the rents, and consequently enable old to inhabit the new part of the island, the landed men to pay three-fourths of their the increase of house-rent in this would be taxes. Now, if so great a part of the land-tax attended with at least an equal decrease of were to be divided by seven millions, it would it in the other. Besides, we have such a amount to more than three shillings to every sufficiency of corn and cattle, that we give head. And thus, as the poor are the cause, bounties to our neighbours to take what without which the rich could not pay this exceeds of the former off our hands, and tax, even the poorest subject is, upon this we will not suffer any of the latter to be account, worth three shillings yearly to the imported upon us by our fellow-subjects;
and for the remaining product of the counAgain; one would imagine the consump-try, 'tis already equal to all our markets. tion of seven-eighths of the whole people But if all these things should be doubled to should pay two-thirds of all the customs the same buyers, the owners must be glad and excises. And if this sum too should be with half their present prices; the landlords divided by seven millions, viz. the number with half their present rents: and thus by of poor people, it would amount to more so great an enlargement of the country, the than seven shillings to every head: and rents in the whole would not increase, nor therefore with this and the former sum, the taxes to the public. every poor subject, without property, ex
* This is an ironical allusion to some of the popular cept of his limbs or labour, is worth at least
arguments which were urged in the year 1708, against ten shillings yearly to the sovereign. So a bill for the naturalization of foreign Protestants.
On the contrary, I should believe they | No. 201.] Suturday, October 20, 1711. would be very much diminished: for as the
Religentem esse oportet, religiosum nefas. land is only valuable for its fruits, and these
Incerii Autoris apud Aul. Gell. are all perishable, and for the most part
A man should be religious, not superstitious. must either be used within the year, or perish without use, the owners will get rid It is of the last importance to season the of them at any rate, rather than that they passions of a child with devotion, which should waste in their possession: so that it seldom dies in a mind that has received an is probable the annual production of those early tincture of it. Though it may seem perishable things, even of the tenth part of extinguished for a while by the cares of them, beyond all possibility of use, will re- the world, the heats of youth, or the alduce one half of their value. It seems to be lurements of vice, it generally breaks out for this reason that our neighbour merchants and discovers itself again as soon as diswho engross all the spices, and know how cretion, consideration, age, or misfortunes great a quantity is equal to the demand, de- have brought the man to himself. The fire stroy all that exceeds it. It were natural may be covered and overlaid, but cannot then to think that the annual production of be entirely quenched and smothered. twice as much as can be used, must reduce A state of temperance, sobriety, and all to an eighth part of their present prices; justice, without devotion, is a cold, lifeless, and thus this extended island would not insipid condition of virtue; and is rather to exceed one-fourth part of its present value, be styled philosophy than religion. Devoor pay more than one-fourth part of the tion opens the mind to great conceptions, present tax.
and fills it with more sublime ideas than any It is generally observed, that in countries that are to be met with in the most exalted of the greatest plenty there is the poorest science; and at the same time warms and living; like the schoolman's ass in one of agitates the soul more than sensual pleasure. my speculations, the people almost starve. It has been observed by some writers, between two meals. The truth is, the poor, that man is more distinguished from the which are the bulk of a nation, work only animal world by devotion than by reason, that they may live; and if with two days' as several brute creatures discover in their labour they can get a wretched subsistence, actions something like a faint glimmering they will hardly be brought to work the of reason, though they betray in no single other four. But then with the wages of two circumstance of their behaviour any thing days they can neither pay such prices for that bears the least affinity to devotion. It their provisions, nor such excises to the is certain, the propensity of the mind to regovernment.
ligious worship, the natural tendency of the That paradox, therefore. in old Hesiod, soul to fly to some superior being for sucwasov musou WaVTOS, or, 'half is more than the cour in dangers and distresses, the gratiwhole,' is very applicable to the present stude to an invisible superintendent which case; since nothing is more true in political arises in us upon receiving any extraordiarithmetic, than that the same people with nary and unexpected good fortune, the acts half the country is more valuable than with of love and admiration with which the the whole. I begin to think there was thoughts of men are so wonderfully transnothing absurd in Sir W. Petty, when he ported in meditating upon the divine perfancied if all the highlands of Scotland and fections, and the universal concurrence of the whole kingdom of Ireland were sunk all the nations under heaven in the great in the ocean, so that the people were all article of adoration, plainly show that desaved and brought into the lowlands of votion or religious 'worship must be the Great Britain; nay, though they were to effect of tradition from some first founder be reimbursed the value of their estates by of mankind, or that it is conformable to the the body of the people, yet both the sove- | natural light of reason, or that it proceeds reign and the subjects in general would be from an instinct implanted in the soul itenriched by the very loss.
self. For my part, Í look upon all these to If the people only make the riches, the be the concurrent causes; but whichever father of ten children is a greater benefac- of them shall be assigned as the principle tor to the country than he who has added of divine worship, it manifestly points to a to it 10,000 acres of land, and no people. Supreme Being as the first author of it. It is certain Lewis has joined vast tracts of I may take some other opportunity of land to his dominions: but if Philarithmus considering those particular forms and mesays true, that he is not now master of so thods of devotion which are taught us by many subjects as before; we may then ac- Christianity; but shall here observe into count for his not being able to bring such what errors even this divine principle may mighty armies into the field, and for their sometimes lead us, when it is not moderated being neither so well fed, nor clothed, nor by that right reason which was given us as paid as formerly. The reason is plain— the guide of all our actions. Lewis must needs have been impoverished. The two great errors into which a misnot only by his loss of subjects, but hy his taken devotion may betray us, are enthu acquisition of lands.
T siasm and superstition.
There is not a more melancholy object part of public devotions were performed than a nan who has his head turned with with a mitre on his head, and a crosier in a religious enthusiasm. A person that is his hand. To this a brother Vandal, as crazed, though with pride or malice, is a wise as the others, adds an antic dress, which sight very mortifying to human nature; but he conceived would allude very aptly to when the distemper arises from any indis- such and such mysteries, till by degrees the creet fervours of devotion, or too intense whole office was degenerated into an empty an application of the mind to its mistaken show. duties, it deserves our compassion in a more. Their successors see the vanity and inparticular manner. We may however learn convenience of these ceremonies; but inthis lesson from it, that since devotion it-stead of reforming, perhaps add others, self (which one would be apt to think could which they think more significant, and not be too warm) may disorder the mind, which take possession in the same manner, unless its heats are tempered with caution and are never to be driven out after they and prudence, we should be particularly have been once admitted. I have seen the careful to keep our reason as cool as possi- | pope officiate at St. Peter's, where, for two ble, and to guard ourselves in all parts of hours together, he was busied in putting on life against the influence of passion, imagi or off his different accoutrements, accordnation, and constitution.
ing to the different parts he was to act in Devotion, when it does not lie under the them. check of reason, is very apt to degenerate. Nothing is so glorious in the eyes of maninto enthusiasm, When the mind finds her- kind, and ornamental to human nature, setself very much inflamed with her devotions, ting aside the infinite advantages which she is too much inclined to think they are arise from it, as a strong, steady, masculine not of her own kindling, but blown up by piety; but enthusiasm and superstition are something divine within her. If she in- the weaknesses of human reason, that ex dulges this thought too far, and humours pose us to the scorn and derision of infidels, the growing passion, she at last Alings her- and sink us even below the beasts that self into imaginary raptures and ecstacies; | perish. and when once she fâncies herself under Idolatry may be looked upon as another the influence of a divine impulse, it is no error arising from mistaken devotion; but wonder if she slights human ordinances, because reflections on that subject would be and refuses to comply with any established of no use to an English reader, I shall not form of religion, as thinking herself direct- enlarge upon it.
. L. ed by a much superior guide.
As enthusiasm is a kind of excess in devotion, superstition is the excess, not only | No. 202.7 Monday, October 22, 1711. of devotion, but of religion in general, according to an old heathen saying, quoted
Sæpe decem vitiis instructior, odit et horret. by Aulus Gellius, * • Religentem esse opor
Hor. Lib. 1. Ep. xviii, 20. tet, religiosum nefas ; '. •Ă man should be Tho'ten times worse themselves, you'll frequent view, religious, not superstitious.' For as the au
Those who with keenest rage will censure you.--P thor tells us, Nigidius observed upon this THE other day as I passed along. the passage, that the Latin words which ter- street, I saw a sturdy 'prentice-boy disminate in osus generally imply vicious cha- puting with a hackney-coachman; and in racters, and the having of any quality to an an instant, upon some word of provocation, excess.
throw off his hat and periwig, clench his An enthusiast in religion is like an obsti- fist, and strike the fellow a slap on the face; nate clown, a superstitious man like an in- at the same time calling him a rascal, and sipid courtier. Enthusiasm has something | telling him he was a gentleman's son. The in it of madness, superstition of folly. Most young gentleman was, it seems, bound to a of the sects that fall short of the church of blacksmith; and the debate arose about England have in them strong tinctures of payment for some work done about a coach, enthusiasm, as the Roman Catholic reli- near which they fought. His master, durgion is one huge overgrown body of childish ing the combat, was full of his boy's praises; and idle superstitions.
and as he called to him to play with his The Roman Catholic church seems ir- hand and foot, and throw in his head, he recoverably lost in this particular. If an made all us who stood round him of his absurd dress or behaviour be introduced in party, by declaring the boy had very good the world, it will soon be found out and dis- friends, and he could trust him with uncarded. On the contrary, a habit or cere- told gold. As I am generally in the theory mony, though never so ridiculous, which of mankind, I could not but make my rehas taken sanctuary in the church, sticks flections upon the sudden popularity which in it for ever. A Gothic bishop, perhaps, was raised about the lad; and perhaps with thought it proper to repeat such a form in my friend Tacitus, fell into observations such particular shoes or slippers; another | upon it, which were too great for the occafancied it would be very decent if such a sion: or ascribed this general favour to
causes which had nothing to do towards it. * Noctes Atticæ, lib. iv. cap. 9.
| But the young blacksmith's being a gentle