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those inward applications which are so I the second for my friends, the third foi much in practice among us, are for the good humour, and the fourth for mine enemost part nothing else but expedients to mies.' But because it is impossible for one make luxury consistent with health. The who lives in the world to diet himself apothecary is perpetually employed in always in so philosophical a manner, I countermining the cook and the vintner. think every man should have his days of It is said of Diogenes, that meeting a young abstinence, according as his constitution man who was going to a feast, he took him will permit. These are great reliefs to naup in the street and carried him home to ture, as they qualify her for struggling with his friends, as one who was running into hunger and thirst, whenever any distemper imminent danger, had not he prevented or duty of life may put her upon such diffihim.* What would that philosopher have culties; and at the same time give her an said, had he been present at the gluttony opportunity of extricating herself from her of a modern meal? Would not he have oppressions, and recovering the several tones thought the master of a family mad, and and springs of her distended vessels. Behave begged his servants to tie down his sides that abstinence, well-timed, often kills hands, had he seen him devour foul, fish, a sickness in embryo, and destroys the first and flesh; swallow oil and vinegar, wines seeds of an indisposition. It is observed and spices; throw down sallads of twenty by two or three ancient authors, t that Sodifferent herbs, sauces of an hundred in- crates, notwithstanding he lived in Athens gredients, confections and fruits of number- during that great plague, which has made less sweets and flavours? What unnatural so much noise through all ages, and has motions and counter-ferments must such a been celebrated at different times by such medley of intemperance produce in the eminent hands; I say, notwithstanding that body? For my part, when I behold a he lived in the time of this devouring pesfashionable table set out in all its magnifi-tilence, he never caught the least infection, cence, I fancy that I see gouts and dropsies, which those writers unanimously ascribe to fevers and lethargies, with other innume- that uninterrupted temperance which he rable distempers lying in ambuscade among always observed. the dishes.
And here I cannot but mentioni an ob Nature delights in the most plain and servation which I have often made, upon simple diet. Every animal, but man, keeps reading the lives of the philosophers, and to one dish. Herbs are the food of this comparing them with any series of kings or species, fish of that, and flesh of a third. great men of the same number. If we conMan falls upon every thing that comes in sider these ancient sages, a great part of his way; not the smallest fruit or excres- whose philosophy consisted in a temperate cence of the earth, scarce a berry or a and abstemious course of life, one would mushroom, can escape him.
think the life of a philosopher and the life It is impossible to lay down any deter- of a man were of two different dates. For minate rule for temperance, because what we find that the generality of these wise is luxury in one may be temperance in an- .men were nearer an hundred than sixty other; but there are few that have lived any years of age, at the time of their respective time in the world, who are not judges of deaths. But the most remarkable instance their own constitutions, so far as to know of the efficacy of temperance towards the what kinds and what proportions of food do procuring of long life, is what we ineet best agree with them. Were I to consider with in a little book published by Lewis my readers as my patients, and to prescribe Cornaro, the Venetian; which I the rather such a kind of temperance as is accommo- mention, because it is of undoubted credit, dated to all persons, and such as is particu- as the late Venetian ambassador, who was larly suitable to our climate and way of of the same family, attested more than once living, I would copy the following rules of in conversation, when he resided in Enga very eminent physician. Make your land. Cornaro, who was the author of the whole repast out of one dish. If you indulge little treatise I am mentioning, was of an in a second, avoid drinking any thing strong infirm constitution, until about forty, when until you have finished your meal; at the by obstinately persisting in an exact course same time abstain from all sauces, or at of temperance, he recovered a perfect state least such as are not the most plain and of health;£ insomuch that at fourscore he simple.' A man could not be well guilty of published his book, which has been transgluttony, if he stuck to these few obvious lated into English under the title of Sure and and easy rules. In the first case there Certain Methods of Attaining a Long and would be no variety of tastes to solicit his Healthy Life. He lived to give a third or palate, and occasion excess; nor in the second any artificial provocatives to relieve † Diogenes Laertius in Vit. Socratis.-Elian in Var. fourth edition of it; and after having passed of refinement are talking of tranquillity, he his hundredth year, died without pain or possesses it. agony, and like one who falls asleep. The What I would, by these broken extreatise I mention has been taken notice of pressions, recommend to you, Mr. Spectaby several eminent authors, and is written tor, is, that you would speak of the way of with such a spirit of cheerfulness, religion life which plain men may pursue, to fill up and good sense, as are the natural concomi- the spaces of time with satisfaction. It is a tants of temperance and sobriety. The lamentable circumstance, that wisdom, or, mixture of the old man in it is rather a re- as you call it, philosophy, should furr, ish commendation than a discredit to it. ideas only for the learned; and that a man
His. Lib. 13. cap. 27, &c. satiety, and create a false appetite. Were
I Lewis Cornaro was born in 1467. In his youth he
lived very freely; which brought him into a bad state be formed upon a saying quoted by Sir Wil- of health, upon which he formed the resolution of con. liam Temple: “The first glass for myself,
fining himself to twelve ounces of food and fourteen cf wine daily; by which means, and exercise, he not only
recovered his health, bur.acquired a vigorous constitu * Diog. Laert. Vitæ Philosoph. lib. vi. cap. 2. n. 6. I tion. He died at Padua in 1565.
Having designed this paper as the sequel must be a philosopher to know how to pass to that upon exercise, I have not here con-away his time agreeably. It would, there sidered temperance as it is a moral virtue, fore, be worth your pains to place in a hand which I shall make the subject of a future some light the relations and affinities among speculation, but only as it is the means of men, which render their conversation with health.
| each other so grateful, that the highest ta| lents give but an impotent pleasure in com
parison with them. You may find descripNo 196.] Monday, October 15, 1711. tions and discourses which will render the
fire-side of an honest artificer as entertainEst Ulubris, animus si te non deficit æquus. ing as your own club is to you. Good-nature Hor. Lib. 1. Ep. xi. 30. has an endless source of pleasures in it: and
the representation of domestic life filled True happiness is to no place confin'd, But still is found in a contented mind.
with its natural gratifications, instead of the
necessary vexations which are generally . MR. SPECTATOR, --There is a particu- insisted upon in the writings of the witty, lar fault which I have observed in most will be a very good office to society. of the moralists in all ages, and that is, that “The vicissitudes of labour and rest in they are always professing themselves, and the lower part of mankind, make their beteaching others, to be happy. This state ing pass away with that sort of relish which is not to be arrived at in this life, therefore we express by the word comfort; and should I would recommend to you to talk in an be treated of by you, who are a Spectator, humbler strain than your predecessors have as well as such subjects which appear indone, and instead of presuming to be happy, deed more speculative, but are less instrucinstruct us only to be easy. The thoughts tive. In a word, sir, I would have you turn of him who would be discreet, and aim at your thoughts to the advantage of such as practicable things, should turn upon allay- want you most; and show that simplicity, ing our pain, rather than promoting our innocence, industry, and temperance, are joy. Great inquietude is to be avoided, arts which lead to tranquillity, as much as but great felicity is not to be attained. The learning, wisdom, knowledge, and contemgreat lesson is equanimity, a regularity of plation. -I am, sir, your most humble serspirit, which is a little above cheerfulness vant,
T. B.' and below mirth. Cheerfulness is always to be supported if a man is out of pain, but
• Hackney, Oct. 12. mirth to a prudent man should always be "MR. SPECTATOR,--I am the young woaccidental. It should naturally arise out of man whom you did so much justice to some the occasion, and the occasion seldom be time ago, in acknowledging that I am perlaid for it; for those tempers who want fect mistress of the fan, and use it with the mirth to be pleased, are like the constitu- utmost knowledge and dexterity. Indeed tions which flag without the use of brandy. the world, as malicious as it is, will allow Therefore, I say, let your precept be, “Be that from a hurry of laughter I recollect easy.' That mind is dissolute and ungo- myself the most suddenly, make a curtsey, verned, which must be hurried out of itself and let fall my hands before me, closing my by loud laughter or sensual pleasure, or fan at the same instant, the best of any else be wholly unactive.
woman in England. I am not a little deThere are a couple of old fellows of lighted that I have had your notice and apmy acquaintance who meet every day and probation; and however other young women smoke a pipe, and by their mutual love to may rally me out of envy, I triumph in it, each other, though they have been men of and demand a place in your friendship. business and bustle in the world, enjoy a You must, therefore, permit me to lay bea greater tranquillity than either could have fore you the present state of my mind. I worked himself into by any chapter of Se-was reading your Spectator of the 9th inneca. Indolence of body and mind, when stant, and thought the circumstance of the we aim at no more, is very frequently en-ass divided between the two bundles of hay joyed; but the very inquiry after happiness which equally affected his senses, was a has something restless in it, which a man lively representation of my present condiwho lives in a series of temperate meals, tion, for you are to know that I am exfriendly conversations, and easy slumbers, tremely enamoured with two young gentlegives himself no trouble about. While men men who at this time pretend to me. One must hide nothing when one is asking ad- | observer fancies he can scarce be inistaken
very amorous, and very covetous. My lover | tailor. Will is very rich, and my lover Tom very The liberal arts, though they may possihandsome. I can have either of them when bly have less effect on our external mien I please; but when I debate the question in and behaviour, make so deep an impression iny own mind, I cannot take Tom for fear on the mind, as is very apt to bend it wholly of losing Will's estate, nor enter upon Will's one way. estate, and bid adieu to Tom's person. Il The mathematician will take little less am very young, and yet no one in the world, than demonstration in the most common dear sir, has the main chance more in her discourse, and the schoolman is as great a head than myself, Tom is the gayest, the friend to definition and syllogisms. The blithest creature! He dances well, is very physician and divine are often heard to diccivil and diverting at all hours and seasons. tate in private companies with the same Oh! he is the joy of my eyes! But then authority which they exercise over their again Will is so very rich and careful of the patients and disciples; while the lawyer is main. How many pretty dresses does Tom putting cases and raising matter for dispu. appear in to charm me! But then it imme-| tation, out of every thing that occurs. diately occurs to me that a man of his cir II may possibly some time or other anicumstances is so much the poorer. Upon madvert more at large on the particular the whole, I have at last examined both fault each profession is most infected with; these desires of love and avarice, and upon but shall at present wholly apply myself to strictly weighing the matter, Í begin to the cure of what I last mentioned, namely, think I shall be covetous longer than fond; that spirit of strife and contention in the therefore, if you have nothing to say to the conversations of gentlemen of the long robe. contrary, I shall take Will. Alas, poor. This is the more ordinary, because these Tom!--Your humble servant,
gentlemen regarding argument as their own BIDDY LOVELESS.' proper province, and very often making
ready money of it, think it unsafe to yield
| before company. They are showing in No. 197.] Tuesday, October 16, 1711.
common talk how zealously they could de.
fend a cause in court, and therefore freAlter rixatur de lana sæpe caprina,
quently forget to keep that temper which Propugnat nugis armatus: scilicet, ut non Sic mihi prima fides; et, vere quod placet, ut
is absolutely requisite to render conversa
tion pleasant and instructive. Ambigitur quid enim! Castor sciat, an Docilis plus, Captain Sentry pushes this matter so far Brundusium Numici melius, via ducat, an Appi. Hor. Lib. 1. En. xviii. 15.
that I have heard him say, he has known On trifles some are earnestly absurd:
but few pleaders that were tolerable comYou'll think the world depends on every word. What! is not every mortal free to speak!
The captain, who is a man of good sense, I'll give my reasons, though I break my neck! And what's the question? If it shines or rains ;
but dry conversation, was last night giving Whether 'tis twelve or fifteen miles to Stain:a. me an account of a discourse, in which he
Pitt. had lately been engaged with a young EVERY age a man passes through, and wrangler in the law. I was giving my way of life he engages in, has some parti- opinion,' says the captain, without apprecular vice or imperfection naturally cleav- hending any debate that might arise from ing to it, which it will require his nicest it, of a general's behaviour in a battle that care to avoid. The several weaknesses to was fought some years before either the which youth, old age, and manhood are ex-Templar or myself were born. The young posed, have long since been set down by lawyer immediately took me up, and by many both of the poets and philosophers; reasoning above a quarter of an hour upon but I do not remember to have met with a subject which I saw he understood nothing any author who has treated of those ill- of, endeavoured to show me that my opihabits men are subject to, not so much by nions were ill-grounded. Upon which,' reason of their different ages and tempers, says the captain, 'to avoid any further conas the particular professions or business in tests, I told him, that truly I had not conwhich they were educated and brought up. sidered those several arguments which he
I am the more surprised to find this sub- had brought against me, and that there ject so little touched on, since what I am might be a great deal in them.' Ay, but,' here speaking of is so apparent, as not to says my antagonist, who would not let me escape the most vulgar observation. The escape so, there are several things to be business men are chiefly conversant in, does urged in favour of your opinion, which you not only give a certain cast or turn to their have omitted;' and thereupon begun to mitids, but is very often apparent in their shine on the other side of the question. outward behaviour, and some of the most Upon this,' says the captain, 'I came over indifferent actions of their lives. It is this to my first sentiments, and entirely acair diffusing itself over the whole man, quiesced in his reasons for my so doing. which helps us to find out a person at his Upon which the Templar again recovered first appearance; so that the most careless his former posture, and confuted both nim
self and me a third time. In short,' says absurdity: and though possibly you are enmy friend, 'I found he was resolved to keep deavouring to bring over another to your me at sword's length, and never let me opinion, which is firmly fixed, you seem close with him; so that I had nothing left only to desire information from him. but to hold my tongue, and give my antago- In order to keep that temper which is sc nist free leave to smile at his victory, who difficult, and yet so necessary to preserve, I found, like Hudibras, could still change you may please to consider, that nothing sides, and still confute."*
can be more unjust or ridiculous, than to be For my own part, I have ever regarded angry with another because he is not of our inns of court as nurseries of statesmen your opinion. The interests, education, and lawgivers, which makes me often fre-land means by which men attain their knowquent that part of the town with great plea-ledge, are so very different, that it is imsure.
possible they should all think alike; and he Upon my calling in lately at one of the has at least as much reason to be angry with most noted Temple coffee-houses, I found you, as you with him. Sometimes to keep the whole room which was full of young yourself cool, it may of service to ask yourstudents, divided into several parties, each self fairly, what might have been your opiof which was deeply engaged in some con- nion, had you all the biasses of education troversy. The management of the late and interest your adversary may possibly ministry was attacked and defended with have? But if you contend for the honour of great vigour; and several preliminaries to victory alone, you may lay down this as an the peace were proposed by some, and re- infallible maxim, that you cannot make a jected by others; the demolishing of Dunkirk more false step, or give your antagonists a was so eagerly insisted on, and so warmly greater advantage over you, than by falling. controverted, as had like to have produced into a passion. a challenge. In short, I observed that the When an argument is over, how many desire of victory, whetted with the little weighty reasons does a man recollect, which prejudices of party and interest, generally his heat and violence made him utterly forcarried the argument to.such a height, as get? made the disputants insensibly conceive an It is yet more absurd to be angry with a aversion towards each other, and part with man because he does not apprehend the the highest dissatisfaction on both sides. force of your reasons, or gives weak ones
The managing an argument handsomely of his own. If you argue for reputation, being so nice a point, and what I have seen this makes your victory the easier; he is so very few excel in, I shall here set down certainly in all respects an object of your a few rules on that head, which among pity, rather than anger; and if he cannot other things, I gave in writing to a young comprehend what you do, you ought to kinsman of mine, who had made so great a thank nature for her favours, who has given proficiency in the law that he began to plead you so much the clearest understanding. in company, upon every subject that was You may please to add this consideration, started.
that among your equals no one values your Having the entire manuscript by ine, I anger, which only preys upon its master; may perhaps, from time to time, publish and perhaps you may find it not very consuch parts of it as I shall think requisite for sistent either with prudence or your ease, the instruction of the British youth. What to punish yourself whenever you meet with regards my present purpose is as follows: a fool or a knave.
Avoid disputes as much as possible. In Lastly, If you propose to yourself the true order to appear easy and well-bred in con- end of argument, which is information, it versation, you may assure yourself that it may be a seasonable check to your passion; requires more wit, as well as more good for if you search purely after truth, it will humour, to improve than to contradict the be almost indifferent to you where you find notions of another: but if you are at any it. I cannot in this place omit an observatime obliged to enter on an argument, give tion which I have often made, namely, That your reasons with the utmost coolness and nothing procures a man more esteem and modesty, two things which scarce ever fail | less envy from the whole company, than if of making an impression on the hearers. he chooses the part of moderator, without Besides, if you are neither dogmatical, nor engaging directly on either side in a disshow either by your actions or words, that pute. This gives him the character of imyou are full of yourself, all will the more partial, furnishes him with an opportunity heartily rejoice at your victory. Nay, of sifting things to the bottom, showing his should you be pinched in your argument judgment, and of sometimes making handyou may make your retreat with a very some compliments to each of the contending good grace. You were never positive, and parties. are now glad to be better informed. This | I shall close this subject with giving you has made some approve the Socratical way one caution. When you have gained a vicof reasoning, where, while you scarce affirm tory, do not push it too far; it is sufficient to any thing, you can hardly be caught in an let the company and your adversary see it
is in your power, but that you are too gene* Part i. cant. 1. ver. 69, 70.
| rous to make use of it.
No. 198. ] Wednesday, October 17, 1711. which I lately heard from one of our SpanCervæ luporum præda rapacium,
ish officers, * and which may show the danSectamur ultro, quos opimus
ger a woman incurs by too great familiarities Fallere et effugere est triumphus.
with a male companion. Hor. Lib. 4. Od. iv. 50.
An inhabitant of the kingdom of Castila We, like 'weak hinds,' the brinded wolf provoke, And when retreat is victory
being a man of more than ordinary pruRush on, though sure to die. Oldisworth. dence, and of a grave composed behaviour, THERE is a species of women, whom I
om i determined about the fiftieth year of his shall distinguish by the name of salaman
age to enter upon wedlock. In order to ders. Now a salamander is a kind of he
make himself easy in it, he cast his eye roine in chastity, that treads upon fire and
à upon a young woman who had nothing to lives in the midst of flames without being
recommend her but her beauty and her hurt. A salamander knows no distinction
education, her parents having been reduced of sex in those she converses with, grows com
porasto great poverty by the wars which for familiar with a stranger at first sight, and
w some years have laid that whole country is not so narrow-spirited as to observe whe
waste. The Castilian having made his adther the person she talks to be in breeches
dresses to her and married her, they lived or petticoats. She admits a male visitants
I together in perfect happiness for some time; to her bed-side, plays with him a whole af- 1:
when at length the husband's affairs made ternoon at picquet, walks with him two or
on it necessary for him to take a voyage to the three hours by moonlight, and is extremely
v kingdom of Naples, where a great part of scandalized at the unreasonableness of a
of his estate lay. The wife loved him too tenhusband, or the severity of a parent, that
that derly to be left behind him. They had not would debar the sex from such innocent
nt | been a shipboard above a day, when they liberties. Your salamander is therefore a
sunluckily fell into the hands of an Algerine perpetual declaimer against jealousy, an
nlpirate, who carried the whole company on admirer of the French good-breeding, and
a shore, and made them slaves. The Castilian a great stickler for freedom in conversation.
in and his wife had the comfort to be under In short, the salamander lives in an invinci
ovincii the same master; who seeing how dearly ble state of simplicity and innocence. Her
they loved one another and gasped after constitution is preserved in a kind of natu- |
their liberty, demanded a most exorbitant ral frost. She wonders what people mean?
price for their ransom. . The Castilian, by temptations, and defies mankind to do
though he would rather have died in slavery their worst. Her chastity is engaged in a
himself, than have paid such a sum as he constant ordeal, or fiery trial: like good
cood found would go near to ruin him, was so Queen Emma, the pretty innocent walks
Wolkemoved with compassion towards his wife, blindfolded among burnino ploughshares, that he sent repeated orders to his friend in without being scorched or singed by them. Spain, (who happened to be his next relaIt is not therefore for the use of the sala
tion) to sell his estate, and transmit the mander, whether in a married or a single
money to him. His friend hoping that the state of life, that I design the following
terms of his ransom might be made more paper; but for such females only as are
reasonable, and unwilling to sell an estate made of flesh and blood, and find them
which he himself had some prospect of inselves subject to human frailties.
heriting, formed so many delays, that three As for this part of the fair sex who are whole years passed
whole years passed away without any thing not of the salamander kind, I would most
| being done for the setting them at liberty. earnestly advise them to obscrve a quite
There happened to live a French renedifferent conduct in their behaviour; and to
gado, in the same place where the Castilian avoid as much as possible what religion
and his wife were kept prisoners. As this calls temptations, and the world opportuni
fellow had in him all the vivacity of his ties. Did they but know how many thou
nation, he often entertained the captives sands of their sex have been gradually be
with accounts of his own adventures; to trayed from innocent freedoms to ruin and
min and which he sometimes added a song or a infamy; and how many millions of ours have dance, or some other piece of mirth, to begun with flatteries, protestations, and en-1
rotestations and en divert them during their confinement. His dearments, but ended with reproaches, per acquaintance with the manners of the Al jury, and perfidiousness: they would shun gerines enabled him likewise to do them like death the very first approaches of one several good offices. The Castilian, as he that might lead them into inextricable la
was one day in conversation with this renebyrinths of guilt and misery. I must so far gado, discovered to him the negligence and give up the cause of the male world, as to
treachery of his correspondent in Castile, exhort the female sex in the language of
pe of and at the same time asked his arlvice how Chamont in the Orphan:
he should behave himself in that exigency;
he further told the renegado, that he found Trust not to man; we are by nature false, Dissembling, subtle, cruel, and unconstant;
it would be impossible for him to raise the When a man talks of love with caution trust him; But if he swears, he'll certainly deceive thee.
I might very much enlarge upon this sub-| * Viz, one of the English officers who had been em ject, but shall conclude it with a story / ployed in the war in Spain.