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As a secret which I have communicated to No. 192.] Wednesday, October 10, 1711, some friends, who rally me incessantly upon that account. You must know I have but

-Uno ore omnes omnia

Bona dicere, et laudare fortunas meas, one ticket, for which reason, and a certain Qui gnatum haberem tali ingenio præditum. dream I have lately had more than once, I

Ter. Andr. Act i. sc. 1. was resolved it should be the number I most

- All the world approved. I am so positive I have pitched

With one accord said all good things, and preiz'd

My happy fortunes, who possess a son upon the great lot, that I could almost lay

So good, so liberally disposed.

Colman. all I am worth of it. My visions are so frequent and strong upon this occasion, that I I STOOD the other day, and beheld a fahave not only possessed the lot, but disposed ther. sitting in the middle of a room with a of the money which in all probability it will large family of children about him; and mesell for. This morning in particular, I set thought I could observe in his countenance up an equipage, which I look upon to be different motions of delight, as he turned the gayest in the town: the liveries are very his eye towards the one and the other of rich, but not gaudy. I should be very glad

hut not gaudy I should be very glad | them. The man is a person moderate in to see a speculation or two upon lottery his designs for their preferment and wel subjects, in which you would oblige all peo- fare: and as he has an easy fortune, he is ple concerned, and in particular, your most not solicitous to make a great one. His humble servant,

| eldest son is a child of a very towardly disGEORGE GOSLING. position, and as much as the father loves

him, I dare say he will never be a knave to P. S. Dear Spec, if I get the 12,000 improve his fortune. I do not know any pound, I'll make thee a handsome present.' man who has a juster relish of life than the

| person I am speaking of, or keeps a better After having wished my correspondent guard against the terrors of want, or the good luck, and thanked him for his intended hopes of gain. It is usual in a crowd of chilkindness, I shall for this time dismiss the dren, for the parent to name out of his own subject of the lottery, and only observe, that flock all the great officers of the kingdom. he greatest part of mankind are in some There is something so very surprising in degree guilty of my friend Gosling's ex- the parts of a child of a man's own, that travagance. We are apt to rely upon future there is nothing too great to be expected prospects, and become really expensive from his endowments. I know a good wowhile we are only rich in possibility. We man who has but three sons, and there is, live up to our expectations, not to our pos- she says, nothing she expects with more sessions, and make a figure proportionable certainty, than that she shall see one of to what we may be, not what we are. We them a bishop, the other a judge, and the outrun our present incme, as not doubting third a court-physician, The humour is, to disburse* ourselves out of the profits of that any thing which can happen to any some future place, project, or reversion that man's child, is expected by every man for we have in view. It is through this temper his own. But my friend, whom I was going of mind, which is so common among us, to speak of, does not flattet himself with that we see tradesmen break, who have such vain expectations, but has his eye met with no misfortunes in their business; more upon the virtue and disposition of his and men of estates reduced to poverty, who children, than their advancement or wealth. have never suffered from losses or repairs, Good habits are what will certainly imtenants, taxes, or law-suits. In short, it is prove a man's fortune and reputation; but, this foolish, sanguine temper, this depend on the other side, affluence of fortune will ing upon contingent futurities, that occa- not as probably produce good affections of sions romantic generosity, chimerical gran- | the mind. deur, senseless ostentation, and generally It is very natural for a man of a kind disends in beggary and ruin. 'The man who position, to amuse himself with the prowill live above his present circumstances, mises his imagination makes to him of the is in great danger of living in a little time future condition of his children, and to remuch beneath them;' or, as the Italian pro- present to himself the figure they shall bear verb runs, “The man who lives by hope, in the world after he has left it. When his will die by hunger.'

prospects of this kind are agreeable, his It should be an indispensable rule in life, fondness gives as it were a longer date to to contract our desires to our present con- his own life; and the survivorship of a wordition, and, whatever may be our expecta- thy man in his son, is a pleasure scarce intions, to live within the compass of what ferior to the hopes of the continuance of his we actually possess. It will be time enough own life. That man is happy who can beto enjoy an estate when it comes into our | lieve of his own son, that he will escape the hands; but if we anticipate our good fortune follies and indiscretions of which he himself we shall lose the pleasure of it when it ar- was guilty, and pursue and improve every rives, and may possibly never possess what thing that was valuable in him. The conwe have so foolishly counted upon. L. tinuance of his virtue is much more to be .

regarded than that of his life; but it is the * i. e. reimburse.

Imost lamentable of all reflections, to think


that the heir of a man's fortune is such a tune, so that no one ever obliged one of one as will be a stranger to his friends, them, who had not the obligation multiplied alienated from the same interests, and a in returns from them all. . promoter of every thing which he himself It is the most beautiful object the eyes of disapproved. An estate in possession of man can behold, to see a man of worth and 'such a successor to a good man, is worse his son live in an entire unreserved correthan laid waste; and the family of which he spondence. The mutual kindness and afis the head, is in a more deplorable condi- fection between them, give an inexpressible tion than that of being extinct.

satisfaction to all who know them. It is a When I visit the agreeable seat of my sublime pleasure which increases by the honoured friend Ruricola, and walk from participation. It is as sacred as friendship, room to room revolving many pleasing oc- as pleasurable as love, and as joyful as recurrences, and the expressions of many just | ligion. This state of mind does not only sentiments I have heard him utter, and see dissipate sorrow, which would be extreme the booby his heir in pain while he is doing without it, but enlarges pleasures which the honours of his house to the friend of his would otherwise be contemptible. The father, the heaviness it gives one is not to most indifferent thing has its force and be expressed. Want of genius is not to be beauty when it is spoke by a kind father, imputed to any man, but want of humanity and an insignificant trifle has its weight is a man's own fault. The son of Ruricola when offered by a dutiful child. I know (whose life was one continued series of wor- not how to express it, but I think I may thy actions, and gentleman-like inclinations) call it a “transplanted self-love.' All the is the companion of drunken clowns, and enjoyments and sufferings which a man knows no sense of praise but in the flattery meets with are regarded only as they conhe receives from his own servants; his cern him in the relation he has to another. pleasures are mean and inordinate, his lan- A man's very honour receives a new value guage base and filthy, his behaviour rough to him, when he thinks that when he is in and absurd. Is this creature to be account- his grave, it will be had in remembrance ed the successor of a man of virtue, wit, that such an action was done by such an and breeding? At the same time that I one's father. Such considerations sweeten have this melancholy prospect at the house the old man's evening, and his soliloquy dewhere I miss my old friend, I can go to a lights him when he can say to himself, No gentleman's not far off it, where he has a man can tell my child, his father was either daughter who is the picture, both of his unmerciful, or unjust. My son shall meet body and mind, but both improved with the many a man who shall say to him, I was beauty and modesty peculiar to her sex. obliged to thy father; and be my child a It is she who supplies the loss of her father friend to his child for ever.' to the world; she, without his name or for- It is not in the power of all men to leave tune, is a truer memorial of him, than her illustrious names or great fortunes to their brother who succeeds him in both. Such an posterity, but they can very much conduce offspring as the eldest son of my friend, per- to their having industry, probity, valour, petuates his father in the same manner as the and justice. It is in every man's power to appearance of his ghost would: it is indeed leave his son the honour of descending from Ruricola, but it is Ruricola grown frightful. a virtuous man, and add the blessings of

I know not to what to attribute the brutal heaven to whatever he leaves him. I shall turn which this young man has taken, ex- end this rhapsody with a letter to an excelcept it may be to a certain severity and dis- lent young man of my acquaintance, who tance which his father used towards him, and has lately lost a worthy father. might, perhaps, have occasioned a dislike to those modes of life, which were not made "DEAR SIR, I know no part of life more amiable to him by freedom and affability. impertinent than the office of administering

We may promise ourselves that no such consolation: I will not enter into it, for I excrescence will appear in the family of the cannot but applaud your grief. The virCornelii, where the father lives with his tuous principles you had from that excelsons like their eldest brother, and the sons lent man, whom you have lost, have wrought converse with him as if they did it for no in you as they ought, to make a youth of other reason but that he is the wisest man three and twenty incapable of comfort upon of their acquaintance. As the Cornelii* coming into possession of a great fortune. I are eminent traders, their good correspond-doubt not but you will honour his memory .ence with each other is useful to all that by à modest enjoyment of his estate; and know them as well as to themselves: and scorn to triumph over his grave, by emtheir friendship, good-will, and kind offices ploying in riot, excess, and debauchery, are disposed of jointly as well as their for- what he purchased with so much industry,

prudence, and wisdom. This is the true * The allusion is supposed to be to the family of the Eyles's, who were merchants of distinction. Francis ,

die way to show the sense you have of your Eyles, the father, created baronet by George I. was a director of the East-India Company, and an alderman of London. His eldest son, Sir John Eyles, bart. was lord niayor in 1727; and another of his sons, Sir Joseph Eyles, knis at, sheriff of London in 1725.

"him to his friends by your conduct.' T.

No. 193.] Thursday, October 11, 1711. I kept in respect to all other passions and - Ingentem foribus domus alta superbis

concerns, and the skilful waiter below sifted Mane salutantum totis vomit ædibus undam.

the inquirer, and gave the doctor notice aca

Virg. Georg. ii. 461. cordingly. The levee of a great man is laid His lordship's palace view, whose portals proud, after the same manner, and twenty whisEach morning vomit forth a cringing crowd.

pers, false alarms, and private intimations, Warton, &

pass backward and forward from the porWHEN we look round us and behold the ter, the valet, and the patron himself, be strange variety of faces and persons which fore the gaping crew, who are to pay their fill the streets with business and hurry, it is court, are gathered together. When the no unpleasant amusement to make guesses scene is ready, the doors fly open and disat their different pursuits, and judge by their cover his lordship countenances what it is that so anxiously! There are several ways of making this engages their present attention. Of all this first appearance. You may be either halfbusy crowd, there are none who would give dressed, and washing yourself, which is a man inclined to such inquiries better di- indeed the most stately; but this way of version for his thoughts, than those whom opening is peculiar to military men, in we call good courtiers, and such as are as- whom there is something graceful in exsiduous at the levees of great men. These posing themselves naked; but the politiworthies are got into a habit of being servile cians, or civil officers, have usually affected with an air, and enjoy a certain vanity in to be more reserved, and preserve a certain being known for understanding how the chastity of deportment. Whether it be world passes. In the pleasure of this they hieroglyphical or not, this difference in the can rise early, go abroad sleek and well- military and civil list, I will not say; but dressed, with no other hope or purpose, have ever understood the fact to be, that but to make a bow to a man in court favour, the close minister is buttoned up, and the and be thought, by some insignificant smile brave officer open-breasted on these occaof his, not a little engaged in his interests sions. and fortunes. It is wondrous, that a man However that is, I humbly conceive the can get over the natural existence and pos- | business of a levee is to receive the acknowsession of his own mind so far as to take ledgments of a multitude, that a man is delight either in paying or receiving such wise, bounteous, valiant and powerful. cold and repeated civilities. But what main- When the first shot of eyes is made, it is tains the humour is, that outward show is wonderful to observe how much submission what most men pursue, rather than real the patron's modesty can bear, and how happiness. Thus both the idol, and idola- much servitude the client's spirit can deter, equally impose upon themselves in scend to. In the vast multiplicity of busipleasing their imaginations this way. But ness, and the crowd about him, my lord's as there are very many of her majesty's parts are usually so great, that to the good subjects who are extremely uneasy at astonishment of the whole assembly, he has their own seats in the country, where all something to say to every man there, and from the skies to the centre of the earth is that so suitable to his capacity, as any man their own, and have a mighty longing to may judge that it is not without talents that shine in courts, or to be partners in the men can arrive at great employments. I power of the world; I say, for the benefit have known a great man ask a flag-officer of these, and others who hanker after being which way was the wind; a commander of in the whisper with great men, and vexing horse the present price of oats, and a stocktheir neighbours with the changes they jobber, at what discount such a fund was, would be capable of making in the appear- with as much ease as if he had been bred ance at a country sessions, it would not to each of those several ways of life. Now methinks be amiss to give an account of this is extremely obliging, for at the same that market for preferment, a great man's time that the patron informs himself of levee.

matters, he gives the person of whom he For aught I know, this commerce be- inquires an opportunity to exert himself. tween the mighty and their slaves, very What adds to the pomp of those interviews justly represented, might do so much good, I is, that it is performed with the greatest as to incline the great to regard business silence and order imaginable. The patron rather than ostentation; and make the little is usually in the midst of the room, and know the use of their time, too well to some humble person gives him a whisper, spend it in vain applications and addresses which his lordship answers aloud, “It is The famous doctor in Moorfields, who gain-well: Yes, I am of your opinion. Pray ined so much reputation for his horary pre-form yourself further, you may be sure of dictions, is said to have had in his parlour my part in it.' This happy man is dismissdifferent ropes to little bells which hung in ed, and my lord can turn himself to a busithe room above stairs, where the doctor ness of a quite different nature, and off-hand thought fit to be oraculous. If a girl had gives as good an answer as any great man been deceived by her lover, one bell was is obliged to. For the chief point is to keep pulled: and if a peasant had lost a cow, the in generals, and if there be any thing offer servant rung another. This method was ed that is particular, to be in haste.

But we are now in the height of the affair, | ing an agreeable friend is punished in the and my lord's creatures have all had their very transgression; for a good companior whispers round to keep up the farce of the is not found in every room we go into. But thing, and the dumb-show is become more the case of love is of a more delicate nature, general. He casts his eye to that corner, and the anxiety is inexpressible, if every and there to Mr. Such-a-one; to the other, little instance of kindness is not reciprocal. . And when did you come to town?' And There are things in this sort of commerce perhaps just before he nods to another; and which there are not words to express, and enters with him, But, sir, I am glad to see a man may not possibly know how to reyou, now I think of it.' Each of those are present what yet may tear his heart into happy for the next four-and-twenty hours; ten thousand tortures. To be grave to a and those who bow in ranks undistinguish-man's mirth, unattentive to his discourse, ed, and by dozens at a time, think they have or to interrupt either with something that very good prospects if they may hope to argues a disinclination to be entertained by arrive at such notices half a year hence. him, has in it something so disagreeable,

The satirist says, there is seldom com- that the utmost steps which may be made mon sense in high fortune;* and one would in farther enmity cannot give greater torthink, to behold a levee, that the great were ment. The gay Corinna, who sets up for not only infatuated with their station, but an indifference and becoming heedlessness, also that they believed all below were gives her husband all the torment imaginseized too; else how is it possible they could able out of mere insolence, with this pethink of imposing upon themselves and culiar vanity, that she is to look as gay as others in such a degree, as to set up a levee a maid in the character of a wife. It is no for any thing but a direct farce? But such matter what is the reason of a man's grief, is the weakness of our nature, that when if it be heavy as it is. Her unhappy man men are a little exalted in their condition, is convinced that she means him no dishothey immediately conceive they have addi- nour, but pines to death because she will tional senses, and their capacities enlarged not have so much deference to him as to not only above other men, but above hu- avoid the appearance of it. The author man comprehension itself. Thus it is ordi- of the following letter is perplexed with an nary to see a great man attend one listening, injury that is in a degree yet less criminal, bow to one at a distance, and to call to a and yet the source of the utmost unhappi third at the same instant. A girl in new ness. ribands is not more taken with herself, nor does she betray more apparent coquetries,

1 'MR. SPECTATOR, I have read your pathan even a wise man in such a circum- pers which relate to jealousy, and desire stance of courtship. I do not know any thing your advice in my case, which you will say that I ever thought so very distasteful as the is not common. I have a wife, of whose affectation which is recorded of Cæsar; to virtue I am not in the least doubtful; yet I wit, that he would dictate to three several cannot be satisfied she loves me, which writers at the same time. This was an gives me as great uneasiness as being faulty ambition below the greatness and candour the other way would do. I know not of his mind. He indeed (if any man had whether I am not yet more miserable than pretensions to greater faculties than any in that case, for she keeps possession of my other mortal) was the person; but such a heart, without the return of her's, I would way of acting is childish, and inconsistent desire your observations upon that temper with the manner of our being. It appears in some women, who will not condescend from the very nature of things, that there to convince their husbands of their innocannot be any thing effectually despatched cence or their love, but are wholly negligent in the distraction of a public levee; but the of what reflections the poor men make whole seems to be a conspiracy of a set of upon their conduct (so they cannot call it servile slaves, to give up their own liberty criminal,) when at the same time a little to take away their patron's understanding. tenderness of behaviour, or regard to show

T. an inclination to please them, would make

them entirely at ease. Do not such women

deserve all the misinterpretation which No. 194.] Friday, October 12, 1711. they neglect to avoid? Or are they not in

the *actual practice of guilt, who care not ------Difficili bile tumet jecur.

whether they are thought guilty or not? If Hor. Lib. 1. Od. xiii. 4.

my wife does the most ordinary thing, as With jealous pangs my bosom swells. visiting her sister, or taking the air with The present paper shall consist of two her mother, it is always carnie

her mother, it is always carried with the letters which observe upon faults that are air of a secret. Then she will sol

air of a secret. Then she will sometimes easily cured both in love and friendship. | tell a thing of no consequence, as if it was In the latter, as far as it merely regards only want of memory made her conceal it conversation, the person who neglects visit-before; and this only to dally with my

anxiety. I have complained to her of this * Rarus enim ferme sensus communis in illa

behaviour in the gentlest terms imaginable, Fortuna

Juv. viii. 73. land beseeched her not to use him, who de

sired only to live with her like an indulgent | Tales of a king who had long languished friend, as the most morose and unsociable under an ill habit of body, and had taken husband in the world. It is no easy matter abundance of remedies to no purpose. At to describe our circumstance, but it is length, says the fable, a physician cured miserable with this aggravation, that it him by the following method: he took an might be easily mended, and yet no remedy hollow ball of wood, and filled it with seveendeavoured. She reads you, and there is ral drugs; after which he closed it up so a phrase or two in this letter which she will artificially that nothing appeared. He know came from me. If we enter into an likewise took a mall, and after having holexplanation which may tend to our future lowed the handle and that part which quiet by your means, you shall have our strikes the ball, he inclosed in them several joint thanks; in the mean time I am (as drugs after the same manner as in the ball much as I can in this ambiguous. condition itself. He then ordered the sultan, who be any thing,) sir, your humble servant.' was his patient, to exercise himself early MR. SPECTATOR,-Give me leave to

in the morning with these rightly prepared make you a present of a character not yet

sweat; when, as the story goes, the virtue described in your papers, which is that of a man who treats his friend with the same

of the medicaments perspiring through the odd variety which a fantastical female

wood, had so good an influence on the sul

tan's constitution, that they cured him of an tyrant practises towards her lover. I have

indisposition which all the compositions he for some time had a friendship with one of

had taken inwardly had not been able to those mercurial persons. The rogue I know

remove. This eastern allegory is finely loves me, yet takes advantage of my fond

contrived to show us how beneficial bodily ness for him to use me as he pleases. We

labour is to health, and that exercise is are by turns the best friends and the great

the most effectual physic. I have described est strangers imaginable. Sometimes you

in my hundred and fifteenth paper, from would think us inseparable; at other times

the general structure and mechanism of an he avoids me for a long time, yet neither

human body, how absolutely necessary exhe nor I know why. When we meet next

ercise is for its preservation: I shall in this by chance, he is amazed he has not seen

place recommend another great preservame, is impatient for an appointment the

tive of health, which in many cases prosame evening; and when I expect he would

duces the same effects as exercise, and may have kept it, I have known ħim slip away

in some measure supply its place, where to another place: where he has sat reading the news, when there is no post; smoking

opportunities of exercise are wanting. The his pipe which he seldom cares for; and

preservative I am speaking of is tempe staring about him in company with whom

rance, which has those particular advanhe has had nothing to do, as if he wondered

tages above all other means of health, that how he came there.

it may be practised by all ranks and con-. “That I may state my case to you the

ditions, at any season, or in any place. It more fully, I shall transcribe some short

is a kind of regimen into which every man minutes I have taken of him in my alma

may put himself, without interruption to nack since last spring; for you must know

business, expense of money, or loss of time. there are certain seasons of the year, ac

If exercise throws off all superfluities, temcording to which, I will not say our friend

perance prevents them; if exercise clears ship, but the enjoyment of it rises or falls.

the vessels, temperance neither satiates'

nor overstrains them; if exercise raises In March and April he was as various as

proper ferments in the humours, and prothe weather; in May and part of June I found him the sprightliest best-humoured

motes the circulation of the blood, tem- : fellow in the world; in the dog-days he was

perance gives nature her full play, and much' upon the indolent; in September

enables her to exert herself in all her very agreeable but very busy; and since

| force and vigour; if exercise dissipates a the glass fell last to changeable, he has

growing distemper, temperance starves it made three appointments with me, and

Physic, for the most part, is nothing els broke them every one. However, I have

but the substitute of exercise and tempegood hopes of him this winter, especially

rance. Medicines are indeed absolutely if you will lend me your assistance to re

necessary in acute distempers, that cannot

wait the slow operations of those two great form him, which will be a great ease and

instruments of health; but did men live in pleasure to sir, your most humble servant. October 9, 1711.'

an habitual course of exercise and temperance, there would be but little occasion for

them. Accordingly we find that those No. 195.] Saturday, October 13, 1711. parts of the world are the most healthy,

where they subsist by the chace; and that Νηπιοι, ουδ' ισασιν οσω πλεον ημισυ παντος. Ουδ' οσον εν μαλαχή τε δε ασφοδελω μεγ' ονειαρ.

men lived longest when their lives were Hes. Oper. & Dier. I. i. 40. employed in hunting, and when they had Fools, not to know that half exceeds the whole,

little food besides what they caught. Blis How blest the sparing meal and temperate bowl. tering, cupping, bleeding, are seldom of THERE is a story in the Arabian Nights / use but to the idle and intemperate; as al)

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