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seem attentive to nothing but the Post-is reasonable; but as for these three partiman, overhear the conversation of every culars, though I am sensible they might table in the room. I appear on Sunday tend very much to the embellishment of nights at St. James's coffee-house, and my paper, I cannot yet come to a resolusometimes join the little committee of po- tion of communicating them to the public, litics in the inner-room, as one who comes They would indeed draw me out of that obthere to hear and improve. My face is scurity which I have enjoyed for many likewise very well known at the Grecian, years, and expose me in public places to the Cocoa-tree, and in the theatres both of several salutes and civilities, which have Drury-lane and the Hay-market. I have been always very disagreeable to me; for been taken for a merchant upon the Ex- the greatest pain I can suffer, is the being change for above these ten years, and talked to, and being stared at. It is for sometimes pass for a Jew in the assembly this reason likewise, that I keep my comof stock-jobbers at Jonathan's. In short, plexion and dress as very great secrets; wherever I see a cluster of people, I al- though it is not impossible but I may make ways mix with them, though I never open discoveries of both in the progress of the my lips but in my own club.

work I have undertaken. Thus I live in the world rather as al After having been thus particular upon Spectator of mankind, than as one of the myself, I shall in to-morrow's paper give species, by which means I have made my- an account of those gentlemen who are conself a speculative statesman, soldier, mer- cerned with me in this work; for, as I have chant, and artisan, without ever meddling before intimated, a plan of it is laid and with any practical part in life. I am very concerted (as all other matters of importwell versed in the theory of a husband, or ance are) in a club. However, as my a father, and can discern the errors in the friends have engaged me to stand in the economy, business, and diversion of others, front, those who have a mind to correbetter than those who are engaged in them; spond with me, may direct their letters to as standers-by discover blots, which are the Spectator, at Mr. Buckley's, in Little apt to escape those who are in the game. Britain. For I must further acquaint the I never espoused any party with violence, reader, that though our club meet only on and am resolved to observe an exact neu- Tuesdays and Thursdays, we have aptrality between the Whigs and Tories, un- pointed a committee to sit every night for less I shall be forced to declare myself by the inspection of all such papers as may the hostilities of either side. In short, I contribute to the advancement of the pub have acted in all the parts of my life as a lic weal. looker-on, which is the character I intend to preserve in this paper.

I have given the reader just so much of my history and character, as to let him see No. 2.] Friday, March 2, 1710-11. I am not altogether unqualified for the busi

Ast alii sex ness I have undertaken. As for other par

Et plures, uno conclamant ore.- Juv. Sat. vii. 167. ticulars in my life and adventures, I shall insert them in following papers, as I shall Six more at least join their consenting voice. see occasion. In the mean time, when I

The first of our society is a gentleman of consider how much I have seen, read, and Worcestershire of an ancient descent, a heard, I begin to blame my own tacitur

baronet, his name is sir Roger de Coverly. nity; and since I have neither time nor in- | His great.grandfather was inventor of that clination, to communicate the fulness of my famous country-dance which is called after heart in speech, I am resolved to do it in him. All who know that shire are very writing, and to print myself out, if possi- well acquainted with the parts and the ble, before I die. I have been often told merits of sir Roger. He is a gentleman by my friends, that it is a pity so many that is very singular in his behaviour, but useful discoveries which I have made

his singularities proceed from his good should be in the possession of a silent man.

sense, and are contradictions to the manFor this reason, therefore, I shall publish

ners of the world, only as he thinks the a sheet full of thoughts every morning, for

world is in the wrong. However, this huthe benefit of my contemporaries; and if I

es; and tumour creates him no enemies, for he does can any way contribute to the diversion, or nothing with sourness or obstinacy; and his improvement of the country in which is being unconfined to modes and forms, live, I shall leave it when I am summoned

a makes him but the readier and more capaout of it, with the secret satisfaction of ble to please and oblige all who know him thinking that I have not lived in vain.

When he is in town, he lives in Soho There are three very material points square * It is said. he keeps himself a which I have not spoken to in this paper; and which, for several important reasons, I must keep to myself, at least for some * Soho-square was at that time the genteelest part time: I mean an account of my name, my of the town. The handsome house,

tunate Duke of Monmouth, occupied, until the year age, and my lodgings. I must confess, I

1773, the whole of the ground on which Bateman's would gratify my reader in any thing that I buildings now stand.

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bachelor by reason he was crossed in love but not one case in the reports of our own by a perverse beautiful widow of the next courts. No one ever took him for a fool; county to him. Before this disappoint- but none, except his intimate friends, know ment, sir Roger was what you call a fine he has a great deal of wit. This turn gentleman, had often supped with my Lord makes him at once both disinterested and Rochester and sir George Etherege, fought agreeable. As few of his thoughts are a duel upon his first coming to town, and drawn from business, they are most of them kicked bully Dawson* in a public coffee-fit for conversation. His taste for books house for calling him youngster. But be- is a little too just for the age he lives in; ing ill used by the abovementioned widow, he has read all, but approves of very few. he was very serious for a year and a half; His familiarity with the customs, manners, and though, his temper being naturally jo- actions and writings of the ancients, makes vial, he at last got over it, he grew careless him a very delicate observer of what ocof himself, and never dressed afterwards. curs to him in the present world. He is an He continues to wear a coat and doublet of excellent critic, and the time of the play the same cut that were in fashion at the is his hour of business; exactly at five he time of his repulse, which, in his merry passes through New-Inn, crosses through humours, he tells us, has been in and out Russel-court, and takes a turn at Will's twelve times since he first wore it. It is till the play begins; he has his shoes rubsaid Sir Roger grew humble in his desires bed and his periwig powdered at the barafter he had forgot his cruel beauty, inso- | ber's as you go into the Rose. It is for much that it is reported he has frequently the good of the audience when he is at offended in point of chastity with beggars a play, for the actors have an ambition to and gypsies: but this is looked upon, by his please him. friends, rather as a matter of raillery than The person of next consideration is Sir truth. He is now in his fifty-sixth year, Andrew Freeport, a merchant of great cheerful, gay, and hearty; keeps a good eminence in the city of London; a person house both in town and country; a great of indefatigable industry, strong reason, lover of mankind: but there is such a and great experience. His notions of trade mirthful cast in his behaviour, that he is are noble and generous, and (as every rich rather beloved than esteemed. His tenants | man has usually some sly way of jesting, grow rich, his servants look satisfied, all / which would make no great figure were he the young women profess love to him, and not a rich man) he calls the sea the British the young men are glad of his company. | Common. He is acquainted with comWhen he comes into a house, he calls the merce in all its parts, and will tell you that servants by their names, and talks all the it is a stupid and barbarous way to extend way up stairs to a visit. I must not omit, dominion by arms; for true power is to be that Sir Roger is a justice of the quorum; got by arts and industry. He will often that he fills the chair at a quarter-sessions argue, that if this part of our trade were with great abilities, and three months ago well cultivated, we should gain from one gained universal applause, by explaining nation; and if another, from another. I à passage in the game-act.

have heard him prove, that diligence The gentleman next in esteem and au- makes more lasting acquisitions than vathority among us is another bachelor, who lour, and that sloth has ruined more nais a member of the Inner Temple, a man tions than the sword. He abounds in seof great probity, wit and understanding; veral frugal maxims, amongst which the but he has chosen his place of residence greatest favourite is, 'A penny saved is a rather to obey the direction of an old hu- penny got.' A general trader of good sense moursome father, than in pursuit of his is pleasanter company than a general schoown inclinations. He was placed there to lar; and Sir Andrew having a natural unstudy the laws of the land, and is the most affected eloquence, the perspicuity of his learned of any of the house in those of the discourse gives the same pleasure that wit stage. Aristotle and Longinus are much would in another man. He has made his better understood by him than Littleton or fortune himself; and says that England Coke. The father sends up every post may be richer than other kingdoms, by as questions relating to marriage-articles, plain methods as he himself is richer than leases and tenures, in the neighbourhood; other men; though at the same time I can all which questions he agrees with an at- say this of him, that there is not a point in torney to answer and take care of in the the compass, but blows home a ship in lump. He is studying the passions them- which he is an owner. selves when he should be inquiring into the Next to Sir Andrew in the club-room debates among men which arise from sits Captain Sentry, a gentleman of great them. He knows the argument of each of courage, good understanding, but invincithe orations of Demosthenes and Tully, ble modesty. He is one of those that dehimself with great gallantry in several en-| a word, all his conversation and knowledge gagements and at several sieges; but hav-has been in the female world. As other ing a small estate of his own, and being men of his age will take notice to you what next heir to Sir Roger, he has quitted a way such a minister said upon such and such an of life in which no man can rise suitably to occasion, he will tell you, when the duke nis merit, who is not something of a cour- of Monmouth danced at court, such a wo tier as well as a soldier. I have heard him man was then smitten, another was taken often lament, that in a profession where with him at the head of his troop in the merit is placed in so conspicuous a view, Park. In all these important relations, he impudence should get the better of modes- has ever about the same time received a ty. When he has talked to this purpose, kind glance, or a blow of a fan from some I never heard him make a sour expression, celebrated beauty, mother of the present but frankly confess that he left the world, | lord Such-a-one. If you speak of a young because he was not fit for it. A strict ho- commoner, that said a lively thing in the nesty and an even regular behaviour, are house, he starts up, He has good blood in in themselves obstacles to him that must his vein; Tom Mirable begot him; the press through crowds who endeavour at rogue cheated me in that affair; that young the same end with himself, the favour of a fellow's mother used me more like a dog commander. He will however in his way than any woman I ever made advances of talk excuse generals, for not disposing to.' This way of talking of his, very much according to men's desert, or inquiring into enlivens the conversation amongst us of a it; for, says he, that great man who has more sedate turn; and I find there is not a mind to help me, has as many to break one of the company, but myself, who rarethrough to come at me, as I have to come ly speak at all, but speaks of him as of that at him: therefore he will conclude, that the sort of man, who is usually called a wellman who would make a figure, especially bred fine gentleman. To conclude his chain a military way, must get over all false racter, where women are not concerned, modesty, and assist his patron against the he is an honest worthy man. importunity of other pretenders, by a pro- ! I cannot tell whether I am to account per assurance in his own vindication. He him, whom I am next to speak of, as one says it is a civil cowardice to be backward in of our company; for he visits us but seldom, asserting what you ought to expect, as it is but when he does, it adds to every man a military fear to be slow in attacking else a new enjoyment of himself. He is a when it is your duty. With this candour clergyman, a very philosophic man, of gea does the gentleman speak of himself and neral learning, great sanctity of life, and others. The same frankness runs through the most exact good breeding. He has the all his conversation. The military part misfortune to be of a very weak constituof his life has furnished him with many |tion, and consequently cannot accept of such adventures, in the relation of which he is cares and business as preferments in his very agreeable to the company; for he is function would oblige him to; he is therefore never overbearing, though accustomed to among divines what a chamber-counsellor command men in the utmost degree below is among lawyers. The probity of his mind, him; nor ever too obsequious, from a habit and the integrity of his life, create him of obeying men highly above him.

serve very well but are very awkward at * This fellow was a noted sharper, swaggerer, and putting their talents within the observation debauchee about town, at the time here pointed out;

of such as should take notice of them. He he was well known in Blackfriars and its then infamous purlieus.

was some years a captain, and behaved

followers, as being eloquent or loud adBut that our society' may not appear a set vances others. He seldom introduces the of humourists, unacquainted with the gal- subject he speaks upon; but we are so far lantries and pleasures of the age, we have gone in years, that he observes when he is amongst us the gallant Will Honeycomb; among us, an earnestness to have him fall a gentleman who, according to his years, on some divine topic, which he always should be in the decline of his life; but treats with much authority, as one who javing ever been very careful of his per- has no interest in this world, as one who son, and always had a very easy fortune, is hastening to the object of all his wishes, cime has made but a very little impression, and conceives hope from his decays and ineither by wrinkles on his forehead, or firmities. These are my ordinary comtraces on his brain. His person is well panions.

R. turned, and of a good height. He is very ready at that sort of discourse with which men usually cntertain women. He has all No. 3,7 Saiurday, March 3, 1710-11. his life dressed very well, and remembers habits as others do men. He can smile Et quoi quisque fere studio devinctus adhæret,

Aut quibus in rebus multum sumus ånte morati, when one speaks to him, and laughs easily. | Atque in qua ratione fuit contenta magis mens, He knows the history of every mode, and In somnis eadem plerumque videmur obire. can inform you from which of the French

Lucr. l. iv. 959. king's wenches, our wives and daughters

What studies please, what most delight, nad this manner of curling their hair, that | And fill men's thoughts, they dream them o'er at night way of placing their hoods; whose frailty

Creech was covered by such a sort of petticoat, and In one of my rambles, or rather specue whose vanity to show her foot made that lations, I looked into the great hall, where part of the dress so short in such a year. In the bank is kept, and was not a little pleased

i

to see the directors, secretaries, and clerks, I letters from all parts of the world, which with all the other members of that weal- the one or the other of them was perpetuthy corporation, ranged in their several ally reading to her; and, according to the stations, according to the parts they act news she heard, to which she was exceedin that just and regular economy. This ingly attentive, she changed colour, and revived in my memory the many discourses discovered many symptoms of health or which I had both read and heard, concern-sickness. ing the decay of public credit, with the Behind the throne was a prodigious heap methods of restoring it, and which in my of bags of money, which were piled upon opinion, have always been defective, be- one another so high that they touched the cause they have always been made with ceiling. The floor on her right hand, and an eye to separate interests, and party on her left, was covered with vast sums of principles.

gold that rose up in pyramids on either T'he thoughts of the day gave my mind side of her. But this I did not so much employment for the whole night, so that wonder at, when I heard upon inquiry, that I fell insensibly into a kind of methodical she had the same virtue in her touch, which dream, which disposed all my contempla- the poets tell us a Lydian king was formerly tions into a vision or allegory, or what else possessed of: and that she could convert the reader shall please to call it.

whatever she pleased into that precious Methought I returned to the great hall, metal. where I had been the morning before, but After a little dizziness, and confused to my surprise, instead of the company that hurry of thought, which a man often meets I left there, I saw, towards the upper end with in a dream, methought the hall was of the hall, a beautiful virgin seated on a alarmed, the doors flew open and there enthrone of gold. Her name (as they told tered half a dozen of the most hideous me) was Public Credit. The walls, in- phantoms that I had ever seen (even in a stead of being adorned with pictures and dream) before that time. . They came in maps, were hung with many acts of par-two by two, though matched in the most liament written in golden letters. At the up- dissociable manner, and mingled together per end of the hall was the Magna Charta, in a kind of dance. It would be tedious to with the Act of Uniformity on the right describe their habits and persons, for which hand, and the Act of Toleration on the left. reason I shall only inform my reader, that At the lower end of the hall was the Act the first couple were Tyranny and Anarof Settlement, which was placed full in the chy, the second were Bigotry and Atheism, eye of the virgin that sat upon the throne and the third the genius of a commonwealth, Both the sides of the hall were covered and a young man of about twenty-two years with such acts of parliament as had been of age, * whose name I could not learn. He made for the establishment of public funds. had a sword in his right hand, which in the

The lady seemed to set an unspeakable dance he often branaished at the Act of value upon these several pieces of furni Settlement; and a citizen, who stood by me, ture, insomuch that she often refreshed her whispered in my ear, that he saw a sponge eye with them, and often smiled with a se- in his left hand.† The dance of so many cret pleasure, as she looked upon them; jarring natures put me in mind of the sun, but, at the same time, showed a very par- moon, and earth, in the Rehearsal, that ticular uneasiness, if she saw any thing danced together for no other end but to approaching that might hurt them. She eclipse one another. appeared, indeed, infinitely timorous in all | . The reader will easily suppose, by what her behaviour: and whether it was from has been before said, that the lady on the the delicacy of her constitution, or that she throne would have been almost frighted to was troubled with vapours as I was after- distraction, had she seen but any one of wards told by one, who I found was none these spectres; what then must have been of her well-wishers, she changed colour, her condition when she saw them all in a and startled at every thing she heard. Shé body? She fainted and died away at the was likewise (as I afterwards found) a sight, greater valetudinarian than any I had ever

Et neque jam color est misto candore rubori; met with, even in her own sex, and subject

Nec vigor, et vires, et quæ modò visa placebant; momentary consumptions, that in Nec corpus remanet

Nec corpus remanet-

Ovid, Met. iii. 49. the twinkling of an eye, she would fall away

Her spirits faint, from the florid complexion, and most Her blooming cheeks assume a pallid teint, healthful state of body, and wither into a And scarce her form remains.' skeleton. Her recoveries were often as sudden as her decays, insomuch that she There was as great a change in the hill would revive in a moment out of a wasting of money-bags, and the heaps of money, distemper, into a habit of the highest health the former shrinking and falling into so and vigour.

many empty bags, that I now found not I had very soon an opportunity of obserying these quick turns and changes in her

* James Stuart, the pretended Prince of Wales horn

June 10, 1688. See Tat. No. 197. of secretaries, who received every hour + To wipe out the national debt.

above a tenth part of them had been filled in the world to fame, to be too anxious with morey.

about it) that upon the whole I resolved for The rest, that took up the same space, the future to go on in my ordinary way; and und made the same figure, as the bags that without too much fear or hope about the were really filled with money, had been business of reputation, to be very careful of blown up with air, and called into my me- the design of my actions, but very neglimory the bags full of wind, which Homer gent of the consequences of them, tells us his hero received as a present. It is an endless and frivolous pursuit to act from Æolus. The great heaps of gold on by any other rule, than the care of satisfyeither side of the throne, now appeared to ing our own minds in what we do. One be only heaps of paper, or little piles of would think a silent man, who concerned notched sticks, bound up together in bun- himself with no one breathing, should be dles, like Bath faggots.

very little liable to misrepresentations; and Whilst I was lamenting this sudden deso- yet I remember I was once taken up for a lation that had been made before me, the jesuit, for no other reason but my profound whole scene vanished. In the room of the taciturnity. It is from this misfortune, that frightful spectres, there now entered a se- to be out of harm's way, I have ever since cond dance of apparitions, very agreeably affected crowds. He who comes into asmatched together, and made up of very semblies only to gratify his curiosity, and amiable phantoms. The first pair was Li- not to make a figure, enjoys the pleasures berty with Monarchy at her right hand; the of retirement in a more exquisite degree, second was Moderation, leading in Reli-than he possibly could in his closet; the gion; and the third a person whom I had lover, the ambitious, and the miser, are never seen,* with the Genius of Great followed thither by a worse crowd than any Britain. At the first entrance the lady re- they can withdraw from. To be exempt vived, the bags swelled to their former from the passions with which others are bulk, the pile of faggots and heaps of paper | tormented, is the only pleasing solitude. 1 changed into pyramids of guineas: and for can very justly say with the ancient sages my own part I was so transported with “I am never less alone than when alone." joy, that I awaked, though I must confess I As I am insignificant to the company in fain would have fallen asleep again to have public places, and as it is visible I do not closed my vision, if I could have done it come thither as most do, to show myself, I

gratify the vanity of all who pretend to make an appearance, and have often as

kind looks from well-dressed gentlemen No, 4.] Monday, March 5, 1710-11.

and ladies, as a poet would bestow upon -Egregii mortalem altique silenti?

one of his audience. There are so many Hor. L. 2. Sat. vi. 58. gratifications attend this public sort of obOne of uncommon silence and reserve.

scurity, that some little distastes I daily

receive have lost their anguish; and I did An author, when he first appears in the the other day, without the least displeaworld, is very apt to believe it has nothing sure, overhear one say of me, 'that strange to think of but his performances. With a fellow!' and another answer, 'I have known good share of this vanity in my heart, I the fellow's face these twelve years, and so made it my business these three days to must you; but I believe you are the first listen after my own fame; and as I have ever asked who he was. There are, I sometimes met with circumstances which must confess, many to whom my person is did not displease me, I have been encoun-| as well known as that of their nearest relatered by others, which gave me much mor- tions, who give themselves no farther troutification. It is incredible to think how ble about calling me by my name or quality, empty I have in this time observed some but speak of me very currently by the appart of the species to be, what mere blanks / pellation of Mr. What-d'ye-call-him. They are when they first come abroad in To make up for these trivial disadvanthe morning, how utterly they are at a tages, I have the highest satisfaction of stand, until they are set a-going by some beholding all nature with an unprejudiced paragraph in a newspaper,

eye; and having nothing to do with men's Such persons are very acceptable to a passions or interests, I can, with the greater young author, for they desire no more in sagacity, consider their talents, manners, any thing but to be new, to be agreeable. failings, and merits. If I found consolation among such, I was. It is remarkable, that those who want as much disquieted by the incapacity of any one sense, possess the others with others. These are mortals who have a greater force and vivacity. Thus my want certain curiosity without power of reflec- of, or rather resignation of speech, gives tion, and perused my papers like specta- me all the advantages of a dumb man. I tors rather than readers. But there is so have, methinks, a more than ordinary pelittle pleasure in inquiries that so nearly netration in seeing; and flatter myself that concern ourselves, (it being the worst way I have looked into the highest and lowest

of mankind, and made shrewd guesses, * The Elector of Hanover afterwards George I. without being admitted to their conversa

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