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and took bribes, and perverted judg- roughly, and said, He would add to ment.-1 Sam.viij. 1.3. Prov. xvii. 23. their burdens, and not ease them:
Samuel said, Whose ox have I whereupon many of the tribes revolttaken? Whom have I oppressed? &c. ed, and chose them a king.–2 Chron. -1 Sam. xii. 3, 4.
x. xiv. 7, &c. 1 Kings xii. 1, &c. And David executed judgment and He was going to fight against Isjustice unto all his people.-2 Sam. rael, but God forbade him.-2 Chron. viii. 15.
xi. 1. 4. There was a famine in the days of Jehoshaphat, &c. sent to his prinDavid, three years, year after year; ces, even to Ben-hail, and to Obadiah, and David inquired of the Lord (or &c. to teach in the cities of Judah : sought his face). And the Lord an- and with them he sent Levites, even swered, It is for Saul, and his bloody Shemaiah, &c. and they taught in house, because he slew the Gibeonites, Judah, and had the book of the law &c. Now the children of Israel had of the Lord with them: and went sworn unto them, and Saul sought to about throughout all the cities of slay them in his zeal to the children Judah, and taught the people. of Israel and Judah, &c. David en- 2 Chron. xvii. 7-9. deavoured to make the atonement, Jehoshaphat said to the judges, and effected it.--2 Sam. xxi. 1, &c. Take heed what you do; for ye judge
He that ruleth over men, must be not for man, but for the Lord, who is (or be thou the ruler over men) just, with you in the judgment; wherefore ruling in the fear of God.-2 Sam. now let the fear of the Lord be upon xxi. 3.
you; take heed and do it, for there is When the plague was upon Israel no iniquity with the Lord our God, for David's sins, he said, Lo, I have nor respect of persons, nor taking of sinned, and I have done wickedly: gifts.--2 Chron. xix. 6, 7. but these sheep what have they done? Jehoshaphat, in a time of danger, Let thine hand, I pray thee, be against stood in the congregation in the house me, and against my father's house, &c. of the Lord, and prayed himself with -2 Sam. xxiv. 17.
them, and for them there.-2 Chron. Solomon said, Give therefore thy xx. 2-13. 1 Sam. xii. 23. 2 Chron. servant an understanding heart to xxx. 18—20. Ezra ix. x. judge thy people, that I may discern Hezekiah sent letters throughout between good and bad, &c. And the all Israel and Judah, to invite them to speech pleased the Lord.--1 Kings turn to the Lord.--- 2 Chron.xxx.6-9. iii. 7-10.
Nehemiah saith, From the time They set up false witnesses against that I was appointed to be their goNaboth, against Stephen, and sought vernor,&c.Iand my brethren have not for such against Christ.- Kings eaten the bread of the governor: but xxi. 10. 13. Matt. xxvi. 59. Acts vi. the former governors, &c. were charge11. 13.
able unto the people, &c. yea, even Amaziah, &c. as soon as the king- their servants bare rule over the peodom was confirmed in his hand, slew ple; but so did not I, because of the his servants which had slain the king fear of God, &c.--Neh.v.14-16.18. his father: but the children of the I gave my brother Hanani and Hamurderers he slew not, according to naniah, &c. charge over Jerusalem; that which was written, &c. Every for he was a faithful man, and feared man shall be put to death for his own God above many.- Neh. vii. 2. sin.—2 Kings xiv. 5, 6.
Ahasuerus the king forbade any to Rehoboam took the counsel of the compel another to drink, but accordyoung men, and rejected the old men's ing to his pleasure.--Esth. i. 8. advice: and answered the people I was a father to the poor; and the cause which I knew not, I searched with his eyes, &c. A wise king scatout; and I brake the jaws of the tereth the wicked, and bringeth the wicked, and plucked the spoil out of wheel over them, &c. Mercy and his teeth.—Job xxix. 16, 17. Deut. truth preserve the king, and his throne xix. 18.
is upholden by mercy.—Prov. xx. 8. Neither will the Almighty pervert 26. 28. judgment.-Job xxxiv. 12.
To do justice and judgment is more Be wise now therefore, O ye kings; acceptable to the Lord than sacrifice. be instructed, ye judges of the earth: -Prov. xxi. 3. Isa. i. 17, 18. serve the Lord with fear, and rejoice It is the honour of kings to search with trembling.-Ps. ii. 10, 11. out a matter, &c. Take away the
The wicked walk on every side, wicked from before the king, and his when the vilest men (or the vilest of throne shall be established in rightethe sons of men) are exalted.-Ps. ousness.-Prov. xxv. 2. 5. xii. 8.
As a roaring lion, &c. so is a wicked Man that is in honour, and under- ruler over the poor people: a prince standeth not, is like the beasts that that wanteth understanding, &c.perish.-Ps. xlix. 20.
Prov. xxviii. 15, 16. God standeth in the congregation When the righteous are in authoof the mighty; he judgeth among the rity, the people rejoice : but when gods. How long will ye judge un- the wicked beareth rule, the people justly, and accept the persons of the mourn, &c. The king by judgment wicked? Selah. Defend the poor and establisheth the land: but he that fatherless : do justice to the afflicted receiveth gifts overthroweth it, &c. and needy: deliver the poor and If a ruler hearken to lies, all his serneedy; rid them out of the hand of vants are wicked. The king that the wicked.-Ps. lxxxii. 1—4. faithfully judgeth the poor, his throne
David said, I will not know a shall be established for ever, &c. wicked person: whoso privily slan- Many seek the ruler's favour, but dereth his neighbour, him will I cut every man's judgment cometh from off : bim that hath an high look and the Lord. -- Prov. xxix. 2-4. 12. a proud heart, him will I not suffer: 14. 26. mine eyes shall be upon the faithful It is not for kings to drink wine; of the land, that they may dwell with nor for princes strong drink; lest me: he that walketh in a perfect they drink and forget the law, and way, he shall serve me, &c. I will pervert the judgment of any of the early destroy all the wicked of the afflicted.-Prov. xxxi. 4, 5. land, &c.-Ps. ci. 4, &c.
I saw under the sun the place of Where no counsel is, the people judgment, that wickedness was there, fall: but in the multitude of coun- &c. God shall judge the righteous. sellors there is safety.-Prov. xi. 14. —Eccles. iii. 16, 17. xxiv. 6.
Better is a poor and a wise child, · It is an abomination to kings to than an old and foolish king, who commit wickedness: for the throne will no more be admonished.- Eccles. is established by righteousness: righ- iv. 13. teous lips are the delight of kings, If thou seest the oppression of the and they love him that speaketh right. poor, and violent perverting of judg-Prov. xvi. 12, 13. xxix. 12. ment and justice, &c. he that is higher
It is not good to accept the person than the highest regardeth.—Eccles. of the wicked, to overthrow the righ- v. 8. teous in judgment.—Prov. xviii. 5. Oppression maketh a wise man • A king that sitteth in the throne mad, and a gift destroyeth the heart. of judgment, scattereth away all evil - Eccles. vii. 7.
Woe to thee, O land, when thy king no wrong, do no violence to the stranis a child, and thy princes eat in the ger, &c. neither shed innocent blood morning; blessed art thou, O land, in this place, &c. Shalt thou reign, when thy king is the son of nobles, because thou closest thyself in cedar? and thy princes eat in due season, for Did not thy father eat, and drink, and strength, and not for drunkenness.- do judgment and justice, and then it Eccles. x. 16, 17.
was well with him ? he judged the Thy princes are rebellious, and cause of the poor and needy, then it companions of thieves : every one was well with him, &c. but thine eyes, loveth gifts, and followeth after re- and thine heart are not but for thy wards; they judge not the fatherless, covetousness, and for to shed innoneither doth the cause of the widow cent blood, and for oppression, and come unto them, &c. Ah! I will for violence to do it.—Jer. xxii. 1-3. ease me of mine adversaries, &c. - 15—17. Ezek. xxii. 27. Isa. i. 23, 24. Jer, v. 28.
Oprinces of Israel, remove violence I will give children to be, their and spoil, and execute judgment and princes, and babes shall rule over justice: take away your exactions them; and the people shall be op- from the people, saith the Lord God. pressed every one by another. What —Ezek. xlv. 9. Zech. viii. 16. mean ye, that ye beat my people to King Nebuchadnezzar, for his great pieces, and grind the faces of the pride, was driven from men, to eat poor? &c.—Isa. iii. 4, 5. 15. grass as oxen.-Dan. iv. 30--34.
Woe unto them that decree unrigh- When the princes had procured a teous decrees, &c. to turn aside the wicked law, and Daniel was taken needy from judgment, &c. what will upon it, the king, Darius,was troubled, ye do in the day of visitation? &c.-- and would have delivered him.Ísa. x. 1-3.
Dan. vi.. In that day shall the Lord of hosts, I hate, I despise your feast days, &c. for a spirit of judgment to him &c. Letjudgment run down as waters, that sitteth in judgment. Hear the &c.—Amos v. 21. 24. Zech. vü. 9. word of the Lord, ye scornful men, O heads of Jacob, and ye princes! that rule this people, &c. because ye Is it not for you to know judgment, have said, &c.—Isa. xxviii. 5, 6. 14, who hate the good, and love the evil? 15.18.
&c. Hear this, ye princes, &c. that He that despiseth the gain of op- abhor judgment, &c. The heads pressions, who shaketh his hands from thereof judge for reward.Micah iïi. holding of bribes, &c. he shall dwell 1-3. 9. 11. vii. 3. on high.--Isa. xxxiii. 15, 16.
The law is slacked, and judgment Is not this the fast that I have doth never go forth : the wicked doth chosen? to loose the bands of wicked- compass about the righteous, thereness, to undo the heavy burdens, and fore wrong judgment proceedeth. to let the oppressed go free, and that Hab. i. 4. ye break every yoke? Isa. lviii, 6-8. Judge not according to the appearZech. vii. 5, &c.
ance; but judge righteous judgment. . Judgmentis turned away backward, - John vii. 24. and justice standeth afar off; for truth Refrain yourselves from these men, is fallen in the street, and equity can- and let them alone : for if this counnot enter.- Isa. lix. 14.
sel, or this work be of men, it will Hear the word of the Lord, O king come to nought: but if it be of God, of Judah, &c. Thus saith the Lord, ye cannot overthrow it.-Acts v. Execute ye judgment, and righteous- 38, 39.. ness, and deliver the spoiled out of Yeought to be quiet, and do nothing the hand of the oppressor; and do rashly, &c. the law is open, let them
implead one another.-Acts xix. 36. surely die. And the people said, &c. 38–40.
As the Lord liveth, there shall not Paul said, For sittest thou to judge one hair of his head fall, &c. So the me after the law; and commandest people rescued Jonathan, that he died me to be smitten, contrary to law?- not,- 1 Sam. xiv. 43–45. Acts xxiii. 3.
Hezekiah, the Lord was with him, It is not the manner of the Romans &c. and he rebelled against the king to deliver any man to die, before that of Assyria.—2 Kings xvii. 7. he which is accused have the accusers Mordecai bowed not to Haman, face to face, and have license to an- notwithstanding the king's commandswer for himself, &c. It seemeth to ment.--Esth. iii. 1-3. v. 9. me unreasonable to send a prisoner, When king Nebuchadnezzar had and withal not to signify the crimes commanded the 'worshipping of an laid against him.--Acts xxv. 16. 27. image, Shadrach,Meshach, and Abed.
Rulers are not a terror to good nego, refused to obey; and said, Be works, but to the evil, &c. for he is it known unto thee, o king, that we the minister of God to thee for good, will not serve thy gods, nor worship &c. a revenger, to execute wrath upon the golden image, &c.-Dan. iii. 15-18. him that doeth evil, &c. They are When Darius had established the God's ministers,attending continually decree, that none should ask any peupon this very thing.-Rom. xiji.3, 4.6. tition of any God or man for thirty
Governors, &c. for the punishment days; Daniel went into his house, of evildoers, and for the praise of after his wonted manner, and prayed them that do well.—1 Pet. ii. 14. three times a day.—Dan. vi. 7-10.
The great whore, with whom the When the apostles were forbidden kings of the earth have committed to preach in the name of Christ, they fornication. The ten horns shall hate answered, &c. Whether it be right the whore, and shall make her deso- in the sight of God, to hearken unto late, and naked, and shall eat her you more than unto God, judge ye.flesh, and burn her with fire; for Acts iv. 18-20. God hath put in their hearts to fulfil When the council charged them his will.--Rev. xvii. 1, 2. 16, 17. with preaching contrary to their com
mands, &c. Peter, &c. said, We ought Sect. iv. The Duties of Subjects to to obey God rather than man.-Acts
Magistrates, with respect both to v. 27-29. their Persons and Decrees.
Moses was hidden three months of
his parents, &c. and they were not First. What they may not do: when, free of the
nen, afraid of the king's commandment, and wherein they may not obey them. &c. He feared not the wrath of the ISRAEL sinned, &c. in walking in the king.—Heb. xi. 23. 27. statutes of the heathen, &c. and of the kings of Israel, which they had SecondLY. What they ought to do, made, &c.—2 Kings xvii. 7, 8. 19. or wherein they should acknowledge
Render to Cæsar the things which and obey them. are Cæsar's; and unto God, the
1. Submit to, and obey them in things that are God's.—Matt.xxii.21. The king of Egypt commanded the
all lawful things. midwives to kill the men children of Miriam and Aaron spake against the Hebrews. But they feared God, Moses, and God smote Miriam with and obeyed not the king: and God a leprosy.-Numb. xij. 1. 9–11. took it well of them.—Exod.i. 15–17. The Lord destroyed Korah and his 20, 21.
company, for their rebellion against Saul said, Jonathan, thou shalt Moses, &c.-Numb. xvi. 1, &c.
Keep the king's commandment; David said to Saul, My lord the and that in regard of the oath of king! and when Saul looked behind God.-Eccles. viii. 2-4.
him, David stooped with his face to If the spirit of the ruler rise up the earth, and bowed himself, &c. against thee, leave not thy place; for He said, I will not put forth my hand yielding pacifieth great offences.- against the Lord's anointed.-i Sam. Eccles. x. 4.
xxiv. 6. 8. 10. xxvi. 9. 11. God threatened the Jews for revolt- Nathan the prophet, when he was ing from the king of Babylon, and come in before the king, bowed himbreaking their oath and covenant with self before the king with his face to him.- Ezek. xvii. 12-20.
the ground, and said, My lord, o Though there was no tribute due king! &c.- 1 Kings i. 23, 24. from Christ, yet he said to Peter, Is it fit to say to a king, Thou art Lest we should offend them, go thou, wicked ? and to princes, Ye are un&c. give unto them for me and thee. godly ?-Job xxxiv. 18. -Matt. xvii. 24–27.
The king's wrath is as the roaring Render therefore unto Cæsar the of a lion, &c.—Prov. xix. 12. things which are Cæsar's.-Matt. The fear of a king is as the roaring xxii. 21.
of a lion: whoso provoketh him to Let every soul be subject unto the anger sinneth against his own soul. higher powers, &c. Whosoever there- -Prov. xx. 2. xvi. 14, 15. fore resisteth the power, resisteth the Put not forth thyself in the preordinance of God; and they that sence of the king, &c.- Prov. xxv. resist, shall receive to themselves 6, 7. damnation, &c. Wilt thou then not Where the word of a king is, there be afraid of the power? Do that is power: and who may say unto which is good, &c. Ye must needs be him, What doest thou ? ---Eccles. subject; not only for wrath, but also viii. 4. for conscience sake: for, for this Curse not the king; no not in thy cause pay you tribute, &c. Render thoughts.—Eccles. X. 20. therefore to all their dues; tribute to Daniel said to Darius the king, o whom tribute is due, custom to whom king, live for ever!-Dan. vi. 21. custom, fear to whom fear, honourW hen the apostle had spoken to whom honour.-Rom. xii. 1-7. sharply to the high priest, and some
Put them in mind to be subject to who stood by had said, Revilest thou principalities and powers, to obey God's high priest? Then said Paul, magistrates, &c.—Titus iii. 1. I wist not, brethren, that he was the
Submit yourselves to every ordi- high priest: for it is written, Thou nance of man, for the Lord's sake, shalt not speak evil of the ruler of whether it be to the king, as supreme, thy people.-Acts xxiii. 245. or unto governors, as unto them that Paul said, I think myself happy, are sent by him, for the punishment king Agrippa, because I shall answer of evildoers, &c. For so is the will for myself this day before thee, &c. of God, that with well doing ye may Festus said with a loud voice, Paul, put to silence the ignorance of foolish Thou art beside thyself; much learnmen.—1 Pet ii. 13–15.
ing doth make thee mad. But he
said, I am not mad, most noble FesII. To give them Honour and Respect : tus: but speak forth the words of
not contemn their persons, or speak truth and soberness, &c.-Acts xxvi. evil of them.
1-3. 24, 25. xxiv. 10. Thou shalt not revile the gods (or Render therefore to all their dues, judges), nor curse the ruler of thy &c. fear to whom fear, honour to people.--Exod. xxii. 28.
whom honour.-Rom. xii. 7.